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Topic: Generation (particle physics)

  Encyclopedia :: encyclopedia : Particle physics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
Particle physics is a branch of physics that studies the elementary constituents of matter and radiation, and the interactions between them.
All the particles observed to date have been catalogued in a quantum field theory called the Standard Model, which is often regarded as particle physics' best achievement to date.
Throughout the development of particle physics, there have been many objections to the extreme reductionist (or greedy reductionist) approach of attempting to explain everything in terms of elementary particles and their interaction.
www.hallencyclopedia.com /Particle_physics   (2022 words)

 Generation (particle physics) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In particle physics, a generation is a division of the elementary particles.
Between generations, particles differ only by their mass and flavor; all interactions and quantum numbers are identical.
The second generation consists of the muon, muon neutrino and the strange and charm quarks.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Generation_(particle_physics)   (376 words)

 Particle Accelerator Encyclopedia @ LaunchBase.com (Launch Base)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
DC accelerator types capable of accelerating particles to speeds sufficient to cause nuclear reactions are Cockcroft-Walton generators or voltage multipliers, which convert AC to high voltage DC, or Van de Graaff generators that use static electricity carried by belts.
The largest and most powerful particle accelerators, such as the RHIC, the LHC (scheduled to start operation in 2007) and the Tevatron, are used for experimental particle physics.
As a particle travelling in a circle is always accelerating towards the center of the circle, it continuously radiates towards the tangent of the circle.
www.launchbase.com /encyclopedia/Particle_accelerator   (1599 words)

 Particle Physics
One of the most significant branches of contemporary physics is the study of the fundamental subatomic constituents of matter, the elementary particles.
In addition to the particles in ordinary matter and their antiparticles, which are referred to as first-generation, there are probably two or more additional generations of quarks and leptons, more massive than the first.
Evidence exists at present for the second generation and all but one quark of the third, namely the t (or top) quark, which may be so massive that a new higher-energy accelerator may be needed to produce it.
abyss.uoregon.edu /~js/glossary/particle_physics.html   (634 words)

 Theoretical Elementary Particle Physics - Chicago
The Particle Theory Group at the University of Chicago, part of the Enrico Fermi Institute, carries out research on a wide range of theoretical topics in formal and phenomenological particle physics, including field theory, string theory, supersymmetry, the standard model, cosmology, and mathematical physics.
Much of the success of particle physics is based on situations where there is a small parameter (such as the fine structure constant in QED) and quantities of physical interest can be expanded in a perturbative series in terms of this small parameter.
Two of the most relevant open questions in particle physics are the ones related to the origin of mass and to the existence of a unified theory of all known elementary particle interactions.
physics.uchicago.edu /t_part.html   (3097 words)

 Particle Physics Glossary
In fixed target experiments, in which a beam of particles strikes a stationary target, the center-of-mass energy is significantly less than the sum of the energies of the two colliding particles.
Particles that travel faster than the speed of light in a given material emit a cone of light, in the same way that objects exceeding the speed of sound emit a sonic boom.
The particles that are observed are manifestations of the vibrations of fundamental strings.
www.interactions.org /cms?pid=1002289   (4816 words)

 Particle Physics for Non-Physicists: A Tour of the Microcosmos (Detailed Description)
A tour and explanation of the "particle zoo," the name that scientists give to the alien-sounding creatures—the hadrons and leptons, baryons and mesons, muons and gluons—that are the smallest bits of matter and energy that exist.
Particle physics also affects your life in that it is "big science," requiring very large sums of money to conduct.
He also describes the essential and continuing role that particle physics will play in the investigation of "dark matter" and "dark energy"—both of which have been measured but not identified—and in inflation theory, an extension of the Big Bang theory of the origin of the universe.
www.teach12.com /ttc/assets/coursedescriptions/1247.asp   (1050 words)

 [No title]
The UK Particle Physics Community is fully involved in the programme of the DataGrid project under the contract with the EU signed by PPARC, as one of 6 principal partners, at the end of 2000.
Its purpose is to exercise a general supervision over all areas of the project, to react to problems with available resources, as well as to ensure that the interests and priorities of the wider Particle Physics Community are fully taken into account in the construction of the Grid.
In general it is for the other WorkGroups to define and implement their information producers and consumers; however, we aim to recognise common requirements and, wherever possible, provide general solutions.
www.gridpp.ac.uk /cb/doc/GridPP_Proposal.doc   (18969 words)

 UA Physics Department - Experimental Elementary Particle Physics
Experimental elementary particle ("high energy") physics is the activity which - going hand-in-hand with theoretical elementary particle physics - seeks to discover and understand the basic constituents of matter and the interactions among them (see also the "Theoretical Elementary Particle" section).
The ATLAS experiment represents the next generation of particle physics experiments and may provide the first clear indications of physics beyond the Standard Model.
Physics interests include precision top quark measurements, including measurement of the top's coupling to the Higgs boson, and direct searches for new phenomena such as supersymmetry.
www.physics.arizona.edu /physics/research/exppart.html   (669 words)

 Experimental Particle Physics
Particle physics has two main aims: to find and determine the properties of the ultimate constituents of matter, and to investigate the forces through which these interact.
In the 1990s the Group was part of the OPAL Experiment that studied the W and Z particles in great detail and established that there are only three types of light neutrino and hence probably only six quarks and six leptons.
By looking at the difference between the way B particles and their antiparticles decay they are able to study so-called CP violation which might help explain why the Universe is dominated by particles with very few antiparticles.
hepwww.ph.qmw.ac.uk   (432 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
Throughout the history of particle physics, important contributions to our understanding have come from experiments that do not rely on accelerators as the source of particles.
A new generation of very sensitive low background experiments using novel cryogenic techniques for active background rejection is coming on line and promises to begin to test the hypothesis that the lightest supersymmetric particles constitute dark matter.
The financial support to non-accelerator particle physics (including particle and nuclear astrophysics, proton decay, neutrino experiments without accelerators and atomic measurements motivated by particle physics), currently totals about $40M annually; roughly two-third comes from the Department of Energy, and most of the remaining support comes from the National Science Foundation.
www.hep.net /documents/drell/sec6.html   (1070 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
Understanding the mass spectrum of elementary particles is an outstanding problem for high-energy physics.
E. Another outstanding problem in elementary particle physics is the very small asymmetry between the properties of matter and antimatter (particles and antiparticles), related to CP violation.
Whatever generates fermion masses apparently couples most strongly to heavy quarks, so it is very important to study the properties of the top and bottom quarks.
www.hep.net /documents/drell/sec3.html   (4135 words)

 CERN Courier - Why does CP violation matter - IOP Publishing - article
In 1978, CP violation and GUTs were combined by Yoshimura in a proposal for generating the matter asymmetry of the universe via the decays of massive particles.
As a GUTless alternative, perhaps the matter in the universe was generated when the cooling of the universe triggered a phase transition enabling quarks and the W and Z carriers of the weak force to acquire their masses from the Higgs boson?
Supersymmetric models capable of generating matter in the universe raise the possibility that the decays of Higgs bosons might reveal novel violations of CP symmetry.
www.cerncourier.com /main/article/39/8/16   (2034 words)

 EU-US Workshop: Documents
A data thunderstorm is gathering on the horizon with the next generation of particle physics experiments.
Particle physicists have been at the vanguard of data-handling technology, beginning in the 1940's with eye scanning of bubble-chamber photographs and emulsions, through decades of electronic data acquisition systems employing real-time pattern recognition, filtering and formatting, and continuing on to the PetaByte archives generated by modern experiments.
Particle physicists are thus engaged in large national and international projects that address this massive data challenge, with special emphasis on distributed data access.
www.cacr.caltech.edu /euus/documents/bunn.html   (527 words)

 The whatUseek Directory - Physics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
Physics Concept Map - Organizes equations and units of measurement by using six color coded chosen basic units.
Physics Today - The flagship publication of the American Institute of Physics (AIP), and has been published monthly for more than 50 years.
Physics and Astronomy Classification Scheme (PACS) - Hierarchical numbering scheme, developed by the American Institute of Physics, used to identify fields and sub-fields of physics.
dir.whatuseek.com /Science/Physics   (557 words)

 HERO - Higher Education & Research Opportunities in the UK: UK physicist appointed to coordinate European ...
Brian is an excellent choice for the project and his appointment further underlines the important and leading role that the UK is playing in the preparation of this exciting global project.
He is a member of the UK Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council, the UK funding agency for particle physics.
He led Bristol's particle physics group from 1992 until 2003, when he accepted an appointment as Professor of Experimental Physics at Oxford University and a Fellowship of Balliol College.
www.hero.ac.uk /media_relations/10077.cfm   (660 words)

 Open Directory - Science: Physics: Education   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
Physics Laws and Quizzes - Solve some problems using the fundamental laws and be announced as a Quiz Master.
Physics, the Neglected Science - Pages to help increase awareness about the value of physics and to lend support to high school physics students, teachers, and parents.
UMPERG: Minds-On Physics (MOP) - A one-year curriculum for high-school physics.
dmoz.org /Science/Physics/Education   (2517 words)

 symmetry - June/July 2005 - No Little Plans
Pier Oddone outlines the future of Fermilab during a presentation to the Elementary Particle Physics in the 21st Century committee.
The promise and challenge of 21st-century particle physics and the future of Fermilab are one and the same.
Fermilab's goals, Oddone told the panel, are to enable the most powerful exploration of the fundamental questions of particle physics; to provide world-class facilities for particle physics as part of the global community; and to develop science and technology for the next generation of particle physics and cosmology research.
www.symmetrymagazine.org /cms?pid=1000134   (2013 words)

 Technology for Particle Physics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
Particle Physics makes extremely heavy technological demands in the construction and operation of its detectors.
The trajectory of a particle can be uncovered using tracking detectors which rely on small interactions of the particle with matter.
In contrast to tracking detectors, which only sample the path of a particle, a calorimeter detector measures the energy of a particle by slowing it down through multiple interactions with matter until it stops completely.
hepwww.rl.ac.uk /OpenDays98/Detectors   (270 words)

 Next Generation Particle Accelerator moves closer to reality
The consensus of the international particle physics community to build a single, global particle accelerator took a step closer to becoming a reality today when the International Committee for Future Accelerators endorsed the findings of a panel of physicists charged to recommend the preferred technology choice for the machine.
The consensus of the international particle physics community to build a single, global particle accelerator sited somewhere in the world took a step closer to becoming a reality today when the International Committee for Future Accelerators endorsed the findings of a panel of physicists charged to recommend the preferred technology choice for the machine.
The particle bunches are made up of electrons and positrons which hurtle in opposite directions through the beam pipe (blue), entering the detector from both sides and colliding in the center of it.
www.pparc.ac.uk /Nw/LC_tech.asp   (846 words)

 10 August 2005 - CCLRC: New Director for Particle Physics
His new post gives him responsibility for the particle physics research programme; he will also advise the CCLRC on its future particle physics strategy.
The next few years will be a fascinating time for particle physics and there are plenty of challenges ahead.
Professor Ken Peach stepped down as Director of Particle Physics in order to take up his new post as Director of the John Adams Institute for Accelerator Science, jointly hosted by Oxford University and Royal Holloway University of London.
www.interactions.org /cms?pid=1021432   (509 words)

 The Office of Science - Eementary Particle Physics in the 21st Century
Elementary Particle Physics produces new knowledge, inspires the next generation, and produces spin-offs that change the way we do all of science and live our daily lives.
The United States had not always been the center of nuclear and particle physics: prior to the Second World War, Europe had been the center of this field, and this could have been a problem for the U.S. were it not for certain aspects of the history of that period.
Another reason we should aspire to remain a world leader is that the pursuit of Elementary Particle Physics presents us with tremendous scientific and technological challenges, and the solutions developed for them can have paradigm-shifting consequences for other sciences, and for our way of life.
www.er.doe.gov /Sub/Newsroom/News_Releases/DOE-SC/2005/Elementary_Particle_Physics.htm   (1431 words)

 Boing Boing: Art of particle physics
Industrial designer Jan-Henrik Andersen collaborated with particle physics to visualize the hidden world of elementary particle physics.
The particles must have the same basic form, yet reflect differences in mass, parities, functions, and behavior.
There must be logical coherence between the particles according to the categorization and decay patterns of the Standard Model.
www.boingboing.net /2005/10/13/art_of_particle_phys.html   (232 words)

 Small Window to Particle Physics   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
For the first generation the antigeneron repulsion leads to linear quasi-one dimensional configuration, and for the second generation the (anti)generon repulsion to triangular quasi-two dimensional configuration, and for the third generation to tetrahedral quasi-three dimensional configuration.
The properties of the quarks and leptons, their interactions and the parameters of the Standard Model (or at least part of them) were fixed at the birth of our universe, when a choice was made out of the many possibilities.
It must evade the general difficulties outlined above, and it must select a value that is almost exactly the same as that selected by the anthropic principle, differing by one order of magnitude out of 120.
fysix.blogspot.com   (3139 words)

 Mission Statement - Future Generations
Future Generations is concerned with the current and future direction of human evolution.
Future Generations wants to insure that we evolve in a favorable direction, for the good of all who come after us.
Few people realize there is not one particle of evidence that it has succeeded, and many studies have shown it has failed utterly (reference.) Somehow, its original purpose has been forgotten, it's lauded as a great "success," and it grows ever larger.
www.eugenics.net /papers/mission.html   (3968 words)

 UCT Physics PHY322S Nuclear/Particle Physics Syllabus and Reading List   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
This syllabus and reading list may be updated and modified slightly as the course progresses.
You should read widely before this course starts, covering material from first and second year physics, and preparing for the concepts you will meet in this course.
Particles and the Universe the 1998/9 Institute of Physics Schools and Colleges Lecture; an article by Professor Peter Kalmus (Physics Education 34,2 pp 59-67 (March 1999)
www.phy.uct.ac.za /courses/phy322s/322r04n.htm   (191 words)

 UK Physicist Appointed to Coordinate European Linear Collider Effort
Together with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a circular particle collider now nearing completion at CERN, the ILC would break through to a new energy scale where physicists expect to make long-awaited discoveries.
Brian Foster himself is looking forward to the challenge ahead, "The linear collider is an extraordinary project for the field of particle physics.
He was awarded the Alexander von Humboldt Research Prize in 1999 and the Max Born Medal and Prize, awarded jointly by the German Physical Society and UK Institute of Physics, in 2003.
www.pparc.ac.uk /Nw/gde.asp   (649 words)

 physics experiments -- physics experiments   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-18)
PHYSICS FAIR; Provoke your Imagination Here are experiments with some unexpected aspects which show 'the man in the street' that physics can be fun and that nature can behave unexpectedly.
Physics Experiments at Augustana College PH 101 - Principles of Physics I PH 102 - Principles of Physics II PH 103 - Principles of Physics III Measurement of Length Motion of a Falling Object...
Particle Physics Experiments Experiments with direct UK involvement Where available simple introductions to experiments and their physics are shown as pedestrian guides.
www.aratom.com /physicsexperiments   (3338 words)

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