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Topic: Genetic diversity

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  Genetic diversity - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Genetic diversity is a characteristic of ecosystems and gene pools that describes an attribute which is commonly held to be advantageous for survival -- that there are many different versions of otherwise similar organisms.
For example, the Irish potato famine can be attributed in part to the fact that there were so few different genetic strains of potatoes in the country, making it easier for one virus to infect and kill much of the crop.
The neutral theory of evolution proposes that diversity is the result of the accumulation of neutral substitutions.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Genetic_diversity   (231 words)

 genetic diversity
Genetic diversity in a population means that the population contains most of the possible alleles (alternate sets of plans) for a particular gene locus rather evenly distributed throughout the population.
The "wholesale genetic slaughter" method may be appropriate in a genetically diverse population with only an occasional individual case of the disease in question.
A reasonable course of action in any genetic disease demands that attention be paid both to removing the gene where possible without seriously degrading the genetic viability of the population, and taking steps to provide increased genetic diversity if it is needed.
www.gsdhelpline.com /genetics3.htm   (1406 words)

 Genetic Diversity -
An understanding of the diversity of genes responsible for individual species' adaptations and responses to their environment (intraspecific diversity) is a foundation for understanding all ecological and evolutionary processes.
Genetic diversity is the 'raw material' permitting species to adjust to a changing world, whether these changes are due to natural or human factors.
Studies of genetic diversity within a species also has the potential to reveal that a single species, perhaps classified as such for morphological reasons, may in fact be two or more species.
www.oceansatlas.org /cds_static/en/genetic_diversity__en_18044_all_1.html   (279 words)

 Biodiversity and Its Value: Biodiversity Series, Paper No. 1
Genetic diversity refers to the variety of genetic information contained in all of the individual plants, animals and microorganisms.
Ecosystem diversity relates to the variety of habitats, biotic communities, and ecological processes, as well as the tremendous diversity present within ecosystems in terms of habitat differences and the variety of ecological processes.
Genetic diversity will enable breeders to tailor crops to new climatic conditions, while the Earth's biota is likely to hold still undiscovered cures for known and emerging diseases.
www.deh.gov.au /biodiversity/publications/series/paper1   (6301 words)

 Genetic diversity
Genetic diversity in a population means that the population contains most of the possible alleles (alternate sets of plans) for a particular gene locus rather evenly distributed throughout the...
Genetic diversity is a characteristic of ecosystems and gene pools that describes an attribute which is commonly held to be advantageous for survival -- that there are many different versions of...
Genetic diversity of hepatitis C virus: implications for pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention.
www.indian-fabric.co.uk /590   (250 words)

 Mapping Adaptive Genetic Diversity - Biological Mapping - Land Use - CIAT
Genetic diversity provides the basis for both adaptation to changing environmental conditions and to future evolutionary change.
Assessing patterns of genetic diversity is notoriously difficult however, because studies must extensively survey and analyze data from all the areas of a species range that are of interest.
Because the diversity of adaptive traits in a given population is the product of its particular evolutionary history, it is possible to predict genetic patterns from an understanding of the evolutionary factors that shape them.
gisweb.ciat.cgiar.org /Sig/mapping_adaptive_genetic_diversity.htm   (508 words)

 Agriculture and genetic diversity
In the United States from 1930 to 1980, plant breeders' use of genetic diversity accounted for at least one-half of a doubling in yields of rice, barley, soybeans, wheat, cotton, and sugarcane; a threefold increase in tomato yields; and a fourfold increase in yields of corn, sorghum, and potato.
First, whereas one major use of the genetic diversity of crops has been in the development of strains resistant to specific pests and diseases, livestock husbandry has relied largely on vaccines since animals (unlike plants) can develop immunity to disease.
In effect, the spatial diversity of traditional agriculture is replaced with a temporal diversity created by a continuous supply of new cultivars.
pubs.wri.org /pubs_content_text.cfm?ContentID=574   (1125 words)

 Eigenbrode: Host Plant Resistance and Conservation of Genetic Diversity
Before the extent of this crisis was recognized, genetic diversity in agricultural crops began to erode as political and social changes of the industrial era transformed agriculture.
Genetic conservation began early this century when foresighted agriculturists saw that the loss of primitive varieties or "landraces" meant loss of genetic variation essential for sustained crop improvement.
The upcoming FAO-sponsored Fourth International Conference on Plant Genetic Resources (agenda is on-line) will bring together world experts in germplasm to assess the state of genetic diversity, to review the newest technical and legal tools to facilitate conservation, and to determine the capacity of human resources and institutional structures to meet conservation needs.
ipmworld.umn.edu /chapters/eigenbr.htm   (2906 words)

 Genetic Diversity   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-01)
Genetic diversity among organisms is a necessity for a plethora of reasons, mainly being survival.
(Genetic Diversity, 2002) When a local population is reduced to a fractional size of the originating population, the ability for the remaining population to adapt and survive is lessened due to less genetic diversity within their local gene pool.
(Genetic Diversity, 2002) The ability to adapt is vital to a population; otherwise it may die out, or eventually become extinct if the overall population becomes too small for diversity at the molecular level to be passed on through reproduction due to having too few remaining members.
www.cals.ncsu.edu:8050 /course/gn301/Supplements/GeneticBiodiversity.html   (4235 words)

 SiriusDog.com - The Ins and Outs of Pedigree Analysis, Genetic Diversity, and Genetic Disease Control
A basic tenet of population genetics is that gene frequencies do not change from the parental generation to the offspring.
Studies in genetic conservation and rare breeds have shown that this practice actually contributes to the loss of genetic diversity.
Genetically complex or dominant traits should be addressed early in a long-range breeding plan, as they may take several generations to fix.
siriusdog.com /articles/bell-pedigree-analysis-genetic-diversity.htm   (3999 words)

 Genetic Diversity
Known as genetic diversity, this incredible variation within species is what allows populations to adapt to changes in climate and other local environmental conditions.
Genetic diversity boosts the total crop values on American farms by some $520 million a year, and, without a constant infusion of new hardy genes into our crop species, pests and diseases could quickly get out of hand.
In this case, genetic uniformity allowed a disease that is always present at low levels, even in the best of years, to run wild.
pubs.wri.org /pubs_content_text.cfm?ContentID=2027   (521 words)

 Genetic diversity and food security
Plant genetic resources—that component of genetic diversity of actual or potential use to humanity—provide the raw material for breeding new varieties of crops.
Not respecting diversity can incur high costs: in 18th-century Ireland, where potatoes were the only significant source of food for about one third of the population, farmers came to rely almost entirely on one very fertile and productive variety, which proved susceptible to the devastating potato blight fungus.
Genetic engineering has enormous potential to help solve problems that have proved intractable using conventional breeding approaches, such as developing crop varieties with in-built resistance to key pests and diseases and tolerance to stresses such as drought.
www.unesco.org /courier/2000_05/uk/doss23.htm   (1033 words)

 Sustainable Table: The Issues: Biodiversity: Reduction of Genetic Diversity   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-01)
As the number of crop varieties decreases (reducing the genetic diversity of these plant species), existing crops become increasingly susceptible to devastation by disease and pests — if crops are all the same, it's much easier for a new disease or pest to wipe-out the entire harvest.
Lack of genetic diversity led to massive outbreaks of citrus canker in Florida in 1984 and in Brazil in 1991.
As a result of the lack of genetic diversity, a fungus was able to destroy the entire potato crop, causing the infamous Irish Potato Famine.
www.sustainabletable.org /issues/biodiversity/reductionofgd.html   (1435 words)

 Genetic diversity - genealogical trees - conservation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-01)
Much recent work, for example on diversity hotspots, has shown that species diversity is not distributed uniformly.
Within-species (genetic) diversity is also important - it confers resistance to disease, for example, and is needed for a population to be robust to future environmental changes.
Diversity is the sum of all the ways that members of a population differ from each other.
swiss.csail.mit.edu /~rauch/diversity   (258 words)

 Crop Genetic Diversity Boosts Production But Faces Threats   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-01)
Crop genetic diversity is threatened by habitat loss, conversion from landraces (farmer-developed varieties) to scientifically bred varieties, and genetic uniformity in scientifically bred varieties.
Despite the benefits of maintaining genetic diversity, conservation of diverse genetic resources remains a challenge, in part because genetic resources have the characteristics of a public good: They are openly available and an individual holder cannot easily exclude others from using them, so the private benefits from conservation are small compared to the social benefits.
These characteristics mean that private returns to the holders of crop genetic resources are lower than their values to the world, and are unlikely to provide the incentives to achieve a socially optimal level of crop genetic diversity.
www.ers.usda.gov /AmberWaves/September05/Findings/CropGenetic.htm   (404 words)

 Earth Floor: Diversity
Species diversity describes the number of different species in a region or in the world.
Genetic diversity describes the differences within a single species.
Classification is the method we use to keep track of all the different kinds of living things and how they are related to each other.
www.cotf.edu /ete/modules/msese/earthsysflr/diversity.html   (322 words)

 ScienceDaily: Little-Explored African Genetic Diversity May Hold Key To Human Origins, Medical Questions
The researchers were looking at genetic information that is inherited from both the mother and the father, and exists on a strand of DNA close enough together so that the markers are transferred intact.
Genetic Studies Shed Light On The Malaria Parasite's Origins And Drug Resistance (July 18, 2002) -- Researchers at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) report mining the genome of the malaria parasite has uncovered new data showing the parasite is genetically more diverse and much older -- at...
Heritability -- In genetics, heritability is the proportion of phenotypic variation in a population that is due to genetic variation.
www.sciencedaily.com /releases/1999/01/990125073157.htm   (1971 words)

 ECO-PROS Biodiversity - Genetic
There are also genetic traits related to health that may or may not be inherited along family lines in a species.
Although humans are very similar to each other, we each have specific genetic traits we have inherited from our parents and ancestors (like height, facial appearance, and color of hair, eyes, skin, and other genetic factors) that make us unique as individuals.
Genetic diversity gives species the ability to adapt to changing environments, including new pests and diseases and new climatic conditions.
www.eco-pros.com /biodiversity-genetic.htm   (605 words)

 Genetic diversity
The study of biological inheritance is called "genetic research." Genes, which are composed of DNA, store the information that an individual inherits from his or her parents.
The genetic inbreeding in cheetahs has led to low survivorship (a large number of animals dying), poor sperm quality, and greater susceptibility to disease.
Because of their lack of genetic diversity, a deadly virus could wipe out all of the worlds' wild cheetahs instead of just the susceptible animals.
www.cheetah.org /?nd=41   (713 words)

 Biological Diversity in Food and Agriculture
They comprise the diversity of genetic material contained in traditional varieties and modern cultivars, as well as crop wild relatives and other wild plant species that can be used now or in the future for food and agriculture.
The Global Plan of Actionfor the Conservation and Sustainable Use of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture was adopted by 150 countries at the Leipzig International Technical Conference in 1996 and subsequently endorsed by the FAO Conference and the Conference of Parties of the Convention on Biological Diversity.
This is achieved by gathering and disseminating information on plant genetic resources for food and agriculture, and through its function as an instrument for the periodic assessment of the state of the world's plant genetic resources for food and agriculture.
www.fao.org /biodiversity/crops_en.asp   (674 words)

 Gene Expression: Measuring Genetic Diversity: Lewontin’s Other Fallacy
In measuring genetic diversity we are attempting to quantify the extent of differences within or between populations.
Intuitively, we would expect diversity to be higher, other things being equal, when there are more alleles in the system rather than fewer, and when their frequencies are evenly spread rather than concentrated in one or a few alleles.
H meets these criteria of diversity rather well, and in general the level of H seems to be a reasonable way of ranking different populations with respect to their internal genetic diversity.
www.gnxp.com /MT2/archives/003951.html   (1760 words)

 Theory predicts the uneven distribution of genetic diversity within species
We studied diversity of populations, how individuals in a population are different from each other and the degree to which they are different from each other.
The exciting result was that there are individuals or small groups that contribute much of the diversity, they are very different from the others, and therefore if they are lost, then much of the diversity is lost.
The importance of diversity: Biodiversity is important to survival of species in general.
necsi.org /projects/evolecol/diversity1.html   (530 words)

 Elite Breeding and Canine Genetic Diversity
As these methods increase the genetic defect risk they can be seen as a kind of animal experiment that should be reserved for scientific institutions and are only acceptable for an important purpose.
In order to enjoy a life worth of living, dogs have the right to be provided with an adequate genetic diversity outfit, just as much as to good care, feeding, and freedom from abusive treatment.
The very helpful discovery of genetic markers permitting the identification of carriers of specific genetic diseases should not be considered a warrant to continue in the old way as they will not cure the deterioration of the gene pool caused by the above practices.
www.workingdogs.com /doc0192.htm   (761 words)

 Australia's Biodiversity - Genetic diversity
Genetic diversity is the variety of genes within a species.
To conserve genetic diversity, different populations of a species must be conserved.
Not all groups of animals have the same degree of genetic diversity.
www.austmus.gov.au /biodiversity/what/genetic.htm   (170 words)

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