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Topic: Genetic load

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In the News (Mon 24 Jun 19)

  Genetic load - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In population genetics, genetic load or genetic burden is a measure of the cost of lost alleles due to selection ( selectional load) or mutation ( mutational load).
Genetic load may be defined as "the extent to which the average individual in a population is inferior to the best possible kind of individual", which is equivalent to "the relative chance that an average individual will die before reproducing because of the deleterious genes that it possesses".
Load caused by mutations is known as mutational load.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Genetic_load   (351 words)

 Evolution - A-Z - Genetic load   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Genetic load is a number between 0 and 1 and it measures the extent to which the average individual in a population is inferior to the best possible kind of individual.
The genetic load equals the relative chance that an average individual will die before reproducing because of the deleterious genes that it possesses.
Genetic load can exist for several reasons, of which mutational load is the most important.
www.blackwellpublishing.com /ridley/a-z/Genetic_load.asp   (183 words)

 Genetic Load
The difference between purebred dogs and a human is that the latter have something in excess of 2500 genetic diseases, but most of them are extremely rare and thus seldom come from both parents to produce an affected child, whereas many dog breeds have a relatively small number of very common genetic diseases.
It is the frequency of these problems, rather than the number of different ones, that is the true indicator of genetic health in a population.
They will also make it easier to identify individuals carrying dominant traits that are not always expressed, and those who are homozygous for late-onset diseases, such as SA, which do not show up until after an affected individual may have passed the gene on to every one of his or her progeny.
www.netpets.org /dogs/healthspa/load.html   (265 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
When the genetic program is executed, an array of the most recent mouse positions is passed in as input, which the program is free to use however it likes.
In designing the language of the genetic code and the virtual machine for interpreting it, inspiration was taken from assembly languages and their use of low level instructions, an instruction pointer, and registers for storing data.
However, genetic programs can be generated that contain infinite loops, dead code, code that has no effect on the output, or that generate output that is not a function of the mouse input.
www.dgp.toronto.edu /~mjmcguff/csc2521/project/report   (3644 words)

 Segregational Vs. Mutational Genetic Loads as Sources of Inbreeding Depression in the Autotetraploid
Therefore, it may be said that alfalfa bears a heavy genetic load.
Genetic load might depress varietal performance, especially in narrow-based synthetic cultivars, and perhaps also in modern highly-selected multiple pest resistant cultivars.
Second, total (and covert) loads are much larger in the autotetraploid because, by the same equation, the frequencies of recessive alleles are much higher in the autotetraploid.
www.naaic.org /Publications/1998Proc/abstracts/Groose1.html   (513 words)

 SiriusDog.com - Purebred Dog Breeds into the Twenty-First Century: Achieving Genetic Health for Our Dogs Part 2
The difference between the fittest genotype of a population and the average fitness of that population is known as genetic load.
Genetic load is sometimes measured by the number of lethal equivalents, and the severity of inbreeding depression can be quantified in this way.
It is hopeless to attempt to freeze the genetic characteristics of small populations and even the attempt, which is doomed to eventual failure, is quite costly in terms of the loss of hardiness and viability.
siriusdog.com /articles/article24.htm   (6492 words)

 Effects of a change in the level of inbreeding on the genetic load.
Severe inbreeding can also reduce genetic load due to overdominant alleles, provided selection coefficients are not symmetrical at all loci, because alleles giving lower fitness will be reduced in frequency at equilibrium [7,8].
With either fitness model, however, reduction in genetic load takes time, and the initial effect of an increase in inbreeding is reduced fitness due to homozygosity.
Our results show that the genetic load present in an outcrossing population can be explained only with a high mutation rate to partially recessive deleterious alleles, and that inbreeding purges the population of mutant alleles.
www.zanzaraafghans.org /articleonInbreeding.html   (2038 words)

 Sewall Wright and Others on Ewens
Ewens is not alone in his opinion that the substitution cost and other genetic load arguments do not place the kind of limits on the substitution rate that Haldane and Kimura imagined.
In the chapter on genetic loads in " Evolution and the Genetics of Populations: Vol 3.
Thus the load relative to the 100-fold heterozygote is meaningless.
www.gate.net /~rwms/wright.html   (992 words)

 Dr. Crow's comments   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
The confusion is in our inability to rationalize genetic death, particularly in the cases of greatest interest (diploids and multiple concurrent substitutions).
Since neither genetic death nor genetic load speak anything about a 'time delay', they lead to increasing inaccuracy as the substitution speed increases.) This is another error wrought by the concepts of genetic death and genetic load.
Such fundamental confusions were never addressed in the literature, because "genetic death", as a rational physical concept, quickly becomes incomprehensible once you get past single substitutions in haploids.
www1.minn.net /~science/Crow_comments.htm   (5492 words)

 Patterns of Inbreeding Depression and Architecture of the Load in Subdivided Populations -- Glémin et al. 165 ...
to recessive deleterious mutations, the so-called mutation load.
Curves correspond to Equation 18 for within-deme inbreeding depression, to Equation 19 for the load, to Equation 20 for heterosis, and to Equation 21 for between-deme inbreeding depression.
depression and the load (as in an infinite population).
www.genetics.org /cgi/content/full/165/4/2193   (5265 words)

 Genetic load - EvoWiki   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Genetic load is the problem of disseminating a favorable mutation held by a single individual in the next generation of a larger, stable population of which it is a member.
One reason why isolated habitats like islands are believed to experience more rapid evolution is because it is easier for an individual with a favorable mutation to affect the genetic mix of succeeding generations.
Salser W, Isaacson JS, "Mutation rates in globin genes: the genetic load and Haldane's dilemma." Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol.
wiki.cotch.net /wiki.phtml?title=Genetic_load   (248 words)

As biotechnology is essentially the technology of information, in the genetic code, corporate secrecy and patent laws have allowed a few companies to dominate the industry, while several small rip-off companies (called clonebiotechs) exist in their shadow.
Past 500% genetic load, there the probability that the genes begin to interfere with each other, and further modifications are impossible (called expression fading).
In addition to genetic load, there is the probability that the new gene interferes with the delicate balance of oncogenes, which gives rise to cancer.
www.ludd.luth.se:81 /~antenna/matt/btlcat.htm   (3025 words)

 SF AIDS Fdn: BETA 4/99 -- Conference Notes: Clinical Research
Viral load changes in the two groups after four to eight weeks of the new regimen were averaged and compared.
As expected, the viral load response in both groups correlated with the number of active drugs (as determined by resistance testing) prescribed in the new regimen.
Genotypic resistance refers to genetic changes in the virus known to be associated with drug resistance, while phenotypic resistance refers to resistance detected when HIV is grown in the laboratory in the presence of an anti-HIV drug.
www.sfaf.org /treatment/beta/b40/b40conference1.html   (3464 words)

 [No title]
Combination of GDE and genetic algorithm robust searching capability will be used to explore the variety of exchange parameters to achieve the minimum convergence rate of the web cluster.
Genetic Based GDE Approach in Load Balancing The aim of this method is to compare and equalize each neighbor server workload in an arbitrary web cluster topology until the workload distribution reaches the balance stage.
For the genetic algorithm approach, initially, the unknown exchange parameters are 12 and the genome length of the encoded chromosomes is represented by 60 randomly distributed binary value where every parameter is represented by 5 binary bits.
www.journal.au.edu /ijcim/2002/sep02/article_04_sep02.doc   (2642 words)

 Botany online: Selection and Fitness. Definitions and Theory - Polymorphism - Genetic Load   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
The number of a gene’s alleles of a given gene pool can have any number, but a few alleles and a small number of gene locations are absolutely sufficient in order to create a vast variety of genotypes.
The alleles belonging to the genetic load do without doubt not offer any advantage to their host, they do nevertheless constitute a genetic reservoir that may be of advantage under changed living conditions or in different genetic constellations.
It is difficult to esteem the proportion of the genetic load that a population can still bear, but it looks as if this value is higher in plants than in animals and higher in polyploids than in diploids.
www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de /b-online/e40/40e.htm   (358 words)

 A Chromosomal Region Promoting Outcrossing in a Conifer -- Williams et al. 159 (3): 1283 -- Genetics
Genetic load was estimated from 1805 selfed seeds and 359 outcrossed
as a replicate for estimating embryo genetic load.
Genetic load for parent 7-1037 was representative for P.
www.genetics.org /cgi/content/full/159/3/1283   (3380 words)

 Genetic Toxicology - Part 6   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
They contribute to genetic load and create a risk of cancer.
It is only when an embryo receives two defective alleles of the same gene that a genetic disease is manifested.
We should avoid exposure to mutagens because mutations contribute to genetic load and increase the risk of cancer.
www.uoguelph.ca /mbgwww/courses/94200/Toxicology6.html   (508 words)

 Assay of locus-specific genetic load implicates rare Toll-like receptor 4 mutations in meningococcal susceptibility -- ...
Assay of locus-specific genetic load implicates rare Toll-like receptor 4 mutations in meningococcal susceptibility -- Smirnova et al.
Assay of locus-specific genetic load implicates rare Toll-like receptor 4 mutations in meningococcal susceptibility
load at TLR2) in the meningococcal population, and the trend was,
www.pnas.org /cgi/content/full/100/10/6075   (3680 words)

 Impact of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy and Immunologic Status on Hepatitis C Virus Quasispecies Diversity in ...
Lack of association of hepatitis C virus load and genotype with risk of end-stage liver disease in patients with human immunodeficiency virus coinfection.
Quasispecies of hepatitis C virus and genetic drift of the hypervariable region in chronic type C hepatitis.
Genetic drift in hypervariable region 1 of the viral genome in persistent hepatitis C virus infection.
jvi.asm.org /cgi/content/full/77/3/1940   (7864 words)

 CB120: Genetic load   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
The overall effect of mutations is to lower the viability of populations, due to the "genetic load," or genetic burden, that they add to the gene pool.
The genetic load of a stable population is an equilibrium between the two.
Bacteria mutate much faster than plants and animals do, yet their populations are not becoming less viable.
www.talkorigins.org /indexcc/CB/CB120.html   (77 words)

 GeneWatch UK - Home Page   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
GeneWatch UK is a not-for-profit group that monitors developments in genetic technologies from a public interest, environmental protection and animal welfare perspective.
We work on all aspects of genetic technologies - from GM crops and foods to genetic testing of humans.
Please note that GeneWatch UK should not be confused with The Council for Responsible Genetics in the USA which publishes a Newsletter called GeneWatch.
www.genewatch.org /default.htm   (410 words)

 The Ultimate Load - American History Information Guide and Reference
Load is what is carried, or a force.
The power consumed by a device or circuit in performing its function.
Genetic load, a specific form of which is mutational load.
www.historymania.com /american_history/Load   (127 words)

 hpc,The Fourth International Conference on High-Performance Computing in the Asia-Pacific Region-Volume 2
In this paper, genetic based Generalized Dimension Exchange (GDE) method is proposed with the intention to uniformly distribute the unprecedented Web cluster workload.
Due to the vagueness of workload during redistribution period, fuzzy approach is implemented to model the Web cluster distributed system during workload exchanged.
Based on the load-weight, genetic algorithm with robust searching capabilities will equally redistribute the workload among the servers with the assistance of fuzzy system.
csdl.computer.org /comp/proceedings/hpc/2000/0589/02/05890714abs.htm   (199 words)

 The Substitution Cost Bibliography
Ewens, W. 2000 "The Mathematical Foundations of Population Genetics" "Evolutionary Genetics" Singh, R.S. and Krimbas, C.B. (editors) Cambridge University Press, pp.
This quote refers to Ewens arguments against the importance of the substitutional load for Kimura's neutral theory.
Felsenstein, J. The Substitution Load in a Finite Population Heredity 28 : 57-69
www.gate.net /~rwms/Bibliography.html   (665 words)

 HKUST Institutional Repository: Item 1783.1/1932   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
In this paper we study the routing and wavelength converter placement problems in optical networks with sparse wavelength conversion.
We propose a new dynamic routing algorithm with two new path cost functions based on the concept of the Least-Load Routing (LLR) with sparse converter placement.
Moreover, we discuss the application of Genetic Algorithms (GA) to determine the optimal location of wavelength converters so that the call blocking probability is minimized.
hdl.handle.net /1783.1/1932   (165 words)

 ictai,13th IEEE International Conference on Tools with Artificial Intelligence (ICTAI'01)
Incoming tasks (of varying durations) accumulate, then are periodically scheduled, in small batches, to the available processors.
Two important priorities for our scheduling work are that loads on the processors are well balanced, and that scheduling per se remains cheap in comparison to the actual productive work of the processors.
We also include experimental results, exploring a variety of distributions of task durations, which show that our scheduler consistently produces well-balanced schedules, and quite often does so at relatively low cost.
csdl.computer.org /comp/proceedings/ictai/2001/1417/00/14170121abs.htm   (186 words)

 Genetic Load Terms and Definitions at www.MedicalGlossary.org
Home > Biological Sciences > Genetic Phenomena > Genetic Load Terms and Definitions
The relative amount by which the average fitness of a POPULATION is lowered, due to the presence of GENES that decrease survival, compared to the GENOTYPE with maximum or optimal fitness.
(From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
medicalglossary.org /genetic_phenomena_genetic_load_definitions.html   (147 words)

 Stanny Franssen, Genetic Recordings, Belgium
Welcome to stannyfranssen.com, Homepage of Stanny Franssen, DJ, Producer and head of Genetic Recordings
Here you will find detailed information about Stanny Franssen (DJ, Producer and head of Genetic Recordings) including soundfiles, booking info, playlist, dj schedule, release info, biography and much more
One new genetic releases is scheduled at the moment.
www.stannyfranssen.com   (906 words)

 Kandid, a genetic art project, Tutorial: Load from Database
Kandid, a genetic art project, Tutorial: Load from Database
All image published in the Kandid WEB database are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0.
This software is licensed under the CC-GNU GPL.
kandid.sourceforge.net /tut_4_4.html   (52 words)

 Alibris: Bruce Wallace
In this personal history, one of the pioneers in population genetics recounts the evolution of his ideas about the effects of genetic variability on a population.
From Gregor Mendel's experiments on garden peas to the mammoth Human Genome Project of today-how did we get where we are in the science of genetics?
In this intriguing book, Bruce Wallace examines the concept of the gene and recounts the history of genetic research, providing a concise transition from genetics to modern molecular biology.
www.alibris.com /search/books/author/Bruce_Wallace   (685 words)

 Waste-Load Allocation Using Genetic Algorithms   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management, Vol.
This paper explores the capabilities of genetic algorithms for identifying solutions to waste-load allocation problems.
Three optimization model formulations are developed for examining different waste-load allocation problems.
www.pubs.asce.org /WWWdisplay.cgi?0100913   (158 words)

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