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Topic: Genetic material


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  Genetic Engineering - MSN Encarta
Genetic engineering is used to increase plant and animal food production; to help dispose of industrial wastes; and to diagnose disease, improve medical treatment, and produce vaccines and other useful drugs.
Included in genetic engineering techniques are the selective breeding of plants and animals, hybridization (reproduction between different strains or species), and recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
In recent decades, genetic engineering has been revolutionized by a technique known as gene splicing, which scientists use to directly alter genetic material to form recombinant DNA.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761557775/Genetic_Engineering.html   (728 words)

  
 Genetic Material | World of Biology
Genetic material is the inheritable material of an organism.
Genetic material must be able to replicate information about itself to pass on to future generations.
In 1944, Oswald Avery showed that genetic material was carried in the nucleic acid of the cell.
www.bookrags.com /research/genetic-material-wob   (198 words)

  
 The Babcock Institute
Genetics is a science that studies the variation and transmission of features or traits from one generation to the next.
Heredity is the transmission of traits from the parents to the offspring via genetic material.
For example, cells of the skin (a specialized tissue) contain all the genetic material needed to recreate an individual, but the only specialized genes that are turned on in these cells are the ones responsible for the formation and color of hair.
babcock.cals.wisc.edu /downloads/de_html/ch14.en.html   (1632 words)

  
 Genetic Engineering Is Not An Extension Of Conventional Plant Breeding; How Genetic Engineering Differs From ...
Genetic elements from Agrobacterium are never added to a plant's DNA through conventional breeding, and are only see in the DNA of other species in nature in plants infected with crown gall or hairy root disease, in the infected cells.
Hypermethylation of genetic material is one mechanism associated with preventing transcription (Matzke and Matzke, 1995) while formation of aberrant RNA molecules, with occasional DNA methylation, is the main mechanism for posttranscriptional silencing (Scheid et al, 1998).
Genetically engineered plants almost always contain a viral promoter gene, the "on"switch for the gene inserted; genetic material from Agrobacterium, which facilitates transfer of the genetic construct into a plant's genome; and in most cases a bacterial antibiotic marker gene.
www.consumersunion.org /food/widecpi200.htm   (6041 words)

  
 Jewish Perspectives on Genetic Engineering
Genetic engineering may be, according to its proponents, one of the greatest scientific advances in the history of mankind, or, according to its detractors, one of the greatest threats to the existence of life on the planet.
Most rabbinic authorities consider genetic material that is separated from or synthesized from the parent organism to be essentially "inert," in other words, independent of the defining characteristics of the parent organism.
The transfer of genetic material between different species of plants is less clear, and there is some disagreement among rabbinic authorities as to the permissibility of performing certain types of genetic engineering on plants.
www.jcpa.org /art/jep2.htm   (3054 words)

  
 Flashback: Epigenetic Control Systems
Recombination also results in changes in the code, but these changes are achieved in a more orderly fashion; they require the physical association of different kinds of genetic material and are limited in their possibilities in any given instance by the nucleotide sequences in the parental materials.
According to this hypothesis, the genetic material expresses its specificity through a decoding process, by which the information in the nucleotide sequences is eventually translated into, for example, amino acid sequences in proteins.
Thus cytoplasmic genetic elements may be lost by specific environmental manipulations, and specific introduction of genetic material (as in virus infection) may not be detected as such, yet may lead to specific genetic alterations.
www.life.uiuc.edu /nanney/epigenetic/PNAS-1958.html   (2737 words)

  
 Genetic Research   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Though the banking of genetic material is expected to yield benefits, it may also pose potential harms to individuals, their families, and the groups to which they may belong.
Though no international consensus currently exists regarding long-term banking of genetic material for the purposes of genetic research, the storage of samples should be for a defined term; some researchers state five years, while others prefer 25 years, to allow another generation to potentially benefit from the information.
Suggested methods to handle secondary use of genetic material or research data include a separate and comprehensive informed consent document (ICD), which allows the research subject to choose from a number of options (e.g., use of the material only in the present study, use restricted to the condition, or other clearly specified use).
www.mcg.edu /Research/OHRP/BestPractices/Genetic_Research.htm   (885 words)

  
 JHM IRB Guidelines for Clinical Genetics Research
The consent form should make it clear to participants that it is their decision whether or not to agree to the genetic testing component of a larger clinical study and that they may opt out and still participate in the parent study.
The precautions needed in conveying genetic screening results depend upon the age of onset of the disorder, the burden of illness, whether there are reproductive implications, and the availability of treatment or prevention.
The communication of genetic information carries with it the responsibility to interpret the results and provide counseling for the individual; and thus, it is ideally done in the setting of a clinical rather than research relationship with the subject.
irb.jhmi.edu /Guidelines/Clinical_Genetics_Research.html   (1648 words)

  
 Chromosome analysis The Genetics Center, Inc.
Since genetic conditions may be from changes that are too small to be seen under a microscope, normal results of chromosome analysis do not guarantee that there are no genetic problems.
Genetic counseling, with either a geneticist or a genetic counselor, will often be recommended when a chromosome abnormality is discovered.
Genetic counseling includes explaining what results of genetic and chromosome testing mean for an individual, his or her family, and future family members.
www.thegeneticscenter.com /chroman.htm   (1156 words)

  
 Genetic material - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Genetic material is used to store the genetic information of an organic life form.
The first genetic material is generally believed to have been RNA, initially manifested by self-replicating RNA molecules floating on bodies of water.
This hypothesis is based on RNA's ability to act both as genetic material and as a catalyst, known as ribozyme or a ribosome.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Genetic_material   (386 words)

  
 Genetic material Summary
Genetic material is used to store the genetic information of an organic life form.
The first genetic material is generally believed to have been RNA, initially manifested by self-replicating RNA molecules floating on bodies of water.
This hypothesis is based on RNA's ability to act both as genetic material and as a catalyst, known as ribozyme or a ribosome.
www.bookrags.com /Genetic_material   (542 words)

  
 Brazil's Bill on Access to Genetic
PROVIDER OF GENETIC RESOURCE: individual or corporate body, indigenous population or local community, empowered, under the terms of this Act and by means of the contract of access, to take part in the decision-making process regarding the provision of a genetic resource, genetic material, or their derived products.
GENETIC RESOURCES: genetic material of actual or potential value, including the genetic variability of species of plants, animals and microorganisms which make up biological diversity, of present or potential social and economic interest, for immediate utilization or genetic improvement, in biotechnology, in other sciences or in related undertakings.
Any procedure of access to genetic resources in the Brazilian territory, in in situ conditions, shall be subject to prior authorization of the competent authority and to the signing and publication of a contract between the competent authority and the individuals and corporate bodies concerned.
www.lclark.edu /org/ielp/brazilgenetic.html   (5669 words)

  
 DNA - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
DNA is a long polymer of nucleotides (a polynucleotide) that encodes the sequence of amino acid residues in proteins, using the genetic code.
DNA is responsible for the genetic propagation of most inherited traits.
Some non-coding DNA represents pseudogenes, which have been hypothesized to serve as raw genetic material for the creation of new genes through the process of gene duplication and divergence.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/DNA   (4915 words)

  
 SCIENTISTS DISCOVER ENZYMES CAPABLE OF DUPLICATING DAMAGED GENETIC MATERIAL
Genetic material (DNA) is damaged on a daily basis due to environmental factors, such as solar radiation and exposure to certain hazardous materials, as well as natural cell processes.
Genetic material is constantly duplicated as an integral part of cell division and reproduction occurring in all living beings.
The flip side, however, is that by enabling bacteria to rapidly evolve new genetic characteristics, these enzymes are also responsible for the increasing bacterial resistance to antibiotic drugs.
www.newmaterials.com /news/5837.asp   (733 words)

  
 Genetic Code
The theory that the transition from non-life or prebiotic material to life resulted from a single dynamic event relies on the observation that all living matter shares the same genetic code.
This early genetic material (an early RNA) was required to perform its job alone, without the helping enzyme (protein catalyst) molecules characteristic of today's molecular machinery.
This early genetic material has been completely replaced (unless we discover some hidden early-type bacteria or archaea still using it) by the more efficient DNA.
exobio.ucsd.edu /Space_Sciences/genetic_code.htm   (676 words)

  
 Plant Genetic Resources: Material Transfer Agreement
The material is held in trust under the terms of this agreement, and the recipient has no rights to obtain Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) on the material or related information.
The recipient of material provided under this MTA is encouraged to share the benefits accruing from its use, including commercial use, through the mechanisms of exchange of information, access to and transfer of technology, capacity building and sharing of benefits arising from commercialization.
CIAT is prepared to facilitate the sharing of such benefits by directing them to the conservation and sustainable use of the plant genetic resources in question, particularly in national and regional programmes in developing countries and countries with economies in transition, especially in centres of diversity and the least developed countries.
www.ciat.cgiar.org /pgr/mta.htm   (607 words)

  
 Erbmaterial - genetic material (German to English translation glossary) Clinical Drug Investigation,Medical ...
In patients with both chronic hepatitis B virus and liver cancer, the genetic material of hepatitis B virus is frequently found to be part of the genetic material of the cancer cells.
It is thought, therefore, that specific regions of the hepatitis B virus genome (genetic code) enter the genetic material of the liver cells.
This hepatitis B virus genetic material may then disrupt the normal genetic material in the liver cells, thereby causing the liver cells to become cancerous.
www.proz.com /kudoz/1234731   (583 words)

  
 MIT OpenCourseWare | Biology | 7.A12 Freshman Seminar: Structural Basis of Genetic Material: Nucleic Acids, Fall 2005 | ...
Since the discovery of the structure of the DNA double helix in 1953 by Watson and Crick, the information on detailed molecular structures of DNA and RNA, namely, the foundation of genetic material, has expanded rapidly.
In this seminar, students discuss, from a historical perspective and current developments, the importance of pursuing the detailed structural basis of genetic materials.
Your use of the MIT OpenCourseWare site and course materials is subject to the conditions and terms of use in our Legal Notices section.
ocw.mit.edu /OcwWeb/Biology/7-A12Fall-2005/CourseHome/index.htm   (174 words)

  
 Pacific Fertility Center - Pre-Implantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD)
Some couples have been tested for common genetic mutations such as cystic fibrosis or sickle cell anemia and are aware prior to conceiving a child that they are at risk of having a child with serious medical problems.
With the development of amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling (pre-natal genetic testing) and the development of the ability to test the DNA (genes) of the fetus directly, a couple can know fairly early in pregnancy if their child will be affected with the disease.
It is important that the family talks to their own genetic counselor or to a counselor we work with who may be helpful in determining whether informative DNA markers or mutation testing is available for their particular family's genetic disorder.
www.infertilitydoctor.com /genetic/pgd.htm   (676 words)

  
 The Search for the Genetic Material   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
Since we know that traits are determined by the enzymes and proteins that act within us, and that these proteins are determined by their sequences, the genetic material must be able to encode the sequence of proteins.
Proof that the chromosomes were Mendel's hereditary factors did not come until 1905, when the first physical trait was shown to be the result of the presence of specific chromosomal material and, conversely, that the absence of that specific chromosome meant the absence of the particular physical trait.
Thus, sex was shown to be the direct result of a specific combination of chromosomal material, and sex became the first phenotype (physical characteristic) to be assigned a chromosomal location - specifically the X and Y chromosomes.
web.mit.edu /esgbio/www/dogma/history1.html   (786 words)

  
 Genetic Engineering Techniques
Plasmids are small circular pieces of genetic material found in bacteria that have the ability to cross species boundaries.
Finally, there are so-called projectile methods that use metal slivers to deliver the genetic material to the interior of the cell.
Once in the cell, the genetic material is transported to the nucleus where it is incorporated among the host genes.
www.ucsusa.org /food_and_environment/genetic_engineering/genetic-engineering-techniques.html   (490 words)

  
 SSRN-What's the Use? Law and Authority in Patenting Human Genetic Material by Jonathan Kahn
Contemporary discourses of genetics and rights may be currently reshaping understandings of citizenship to the extent that the legal identity of the individual is implicated in and constructed through a relationship to her genetic material.
The first step toward understanding and analyzing the nature of this relationship is to explore how genetic material itself is identified and defined within the domain of legal discourse.
This article explores the patenting of human genetic material as a site where science, the market, and law "situate the self" in the genome in a manner that simultaneously renders it a subject of commerce.
papers.ssrn.com /sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=409220   (613 words)

  
 Canine Diversity Homepage
Both lead to the indiscriminate loss of genetic diversity and increase the frequency of genetic problems in the population.
You do not have to be a professional geneticist or breeder to join, having a love of dogs and a concern for their future is sufficient.
The Listowner reserves the right to cancel the membership of anyone who does not adhere to the generally accepted rules of good conduct on the Internet ("netiquette") See Guidelines for Members of the PSG for more detailed guidelines.
www.canine-genetics.com   (589 words)

  
 DNA as Genetic Material
The Discovery of DNA as the Genetic Material
He determined that nonvirulent strains (rough-strain) could be transformed (genetically changed) to virulent (smooth) strains if the remains of dead virulent bacteria were made available to the living nonvirulent bacteria.
This strongly suggested that DNA was the genetic material.
home.earthlink.net /~dayvdanls/dna1.htm   (917 words)

  
 What is Evolution?
The changes in populations that are considered evolutionary are those that are inheritable via the genetic material from one generation to the next.
One can quibble about the accuracy of such a definition (and we have often quibbled on these newsgroups) but it also conveys the essence of what evolution really is. When biologists say that they have observed evolution, they mean that they have detected a change in the frequency of genes in a population.
(Often the genetic change is inferred from phenotypic changes that are heritable.) When biologists say that humans and chimps have evolved from a common ancestor they mean that there have been successive heritable changes in the two separated populations since they became isolated.
www.talkorigins.org /faqs/evolution-definition.html   (940 words)

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