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Topic: Geniohyoid


In the News (Tue 14 Aug 18)

  
  geniohyoid muscle (anatomy) - General Practice Notebook   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Geniohyoid is one of the suprahyoid muscles of the anterior triangle of the neck.
It arises from the inferior mental spine on the posterior surface of the symphysis menti of the mandible.
Geniohyoid is innervated by fibres from the first cervical (C1) nerve root which are relayed via the hypoglossal nerve.
www.gpnotebook.co.uk /cache/-221249457.htm   (169 words)

  
 CHEST: The effects of chronic episodic hypercapnic hypoxia on rat upper airway muscle contractile properties and ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Isometric contractile properties were determined using strips of isolated geniohyoid and sternohyoid muscles in physiologic saline solution at 30[degrees]C. Fiber-type distribution was determined by adenosine triphosphatase staining.
Geniohyoid type 1 fibers were reduced and type 2B fibers increased, whereas sternohyoid muscle had an increase in type 1 and 2A fibers and a decrease in type 2B fibers.
(3,4) Normally, UA muscles such as the geniohyoid and sternohyoid muscles play a crucial role in maintaining the patency of the UA, (4) and there is evidence that abolition of reflexes controlling these muscles causes UA collapse in animals (5) and humans, (6) and that this reflex function is abnormal in patients with OSA.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m0984/is_4_122/ai_94121409   (1215 words)

  
 CHEST: The effects of chronic episodic hypercapnic hypoxia on rat upper airway muscle contractile properties and ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Chronic episodic hypercapnic hypoxia had no significant effect on the weight of the geniohyoid muscle (98 [+ or -] 2 mg vs 96 [+ or -3] mg, control vs hypercapnic hypoxia) or the sternohyoid muscle (144 [+ or -] 23 mg vs 139 [+ or -] 31 mg, control vs hypercapnic hypoxia).
The fiber-type distribution of both the geniohyoid and sternohyoid in control and chronic episodic hypercapnic hypoxia-treated animals is shown in Figure 5.
Thus, the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was 0.963 for the geniohyoid and 0.808 for the sternohyoid.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m0984/is_4_122/ai_94121409/pg_2   (1171 words)

  
 CHEST: Effects of chronic episodic hypoxia on rat upper airway muscle contractile properties and fiber-type ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Isometric contractile properties were determined using strips of isolated geniohyoid and sternohyoid muscles in physiologic saline solution at 30[degrees]C. Fiber-type distribution was determined using adenosine triphosphatase staining.
The present investigation tests the hypothesis that chronic episodic hypoxia affects UA muscle structure and function by determining the fiber-type distribution and the in vitro contractile properties of geniohyoid and sternohyoid muscles in rats exposed to episodic hypoxia for 5 weeks.
The digastric muscles were separated to reveal the omohyoid muscle, which was cut to expose the underlying geniohyoid muscles that run as two parallel strips from the midpoint of the mandible to the hyoid bone.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m0984/is_3_122/ai_92133017   (1172 words)

  
 Geniohyoid   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Definition: Of or pertaining to the chin and hyoid bone; as the geniohyoid muscle.
Of or pertaining to the chin and hyoid bone; as, the geniohyoid muscle.
Effect of geniohyoid and sternohyoid muscle contraction on upper...
www.bigletterlist.net /w/g/Geniohyoid.htm   (179 words)

  
 Effects of Chronic Episodic Hypoxia on Rat Upper Airway Muscle Contractile Properties and Fiber-Type Distribution* -- ...
the geniohyoids and sternohyoids dilates and/or stabilizes the
Geniohyoid (left) and sternohyoid (right) fiber-type distribution in control rats (n = 8) and rats with chronic intermittent hypoxia (n = 8).
O’Halloran, KD, Curran, AK, Bradford, A Effect of upper airway cooling and CO on diaphragm and geniohyoid muscle activity in the rat.
www.chestjournal.org /cgi/content/full/122/3/1012   (2965 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Obstructive sleep apnoea arises due to upper airway (UA) collapse which is normally counteracted by contraction of UA muscles such as the sternohyoids and geniohyoids.
The disorder has a marked male predominance but the effect of gender on UA muscle contractile properties is unknown and these properties have not been compared for the sternohyoid and geniohyoid muscles in the same species.
Isometric contractile characteristics were determined using strips of sternohyoid and geniohyoid muscle from male and female rats in Krebs solution at 30°C. For both muscles, there were no differences between male and female contractile kinetics, twitch or tetanic tension, tension-length or tension-frequency relationship or endurance.
www.elsevier.com /cdweb/journals/00345687/articles/113/2/S003456879800055.abstract.en   (157 words)

  
 Effects of age and gender on rat upper airway muscle contractile properties.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
The reasons for this are unknown, as little is known about the effects of age and gender on upper airway muscle.
Isometric contractile properties were determined using strips of geniohyoid and sternohyoid muscles from young and old, male and female rats in physiological saline solution at 30 degrees C.
Aging had no effect on sternohyoid contractile properties, but geniohyoid force was greater in old than in young rats.
www.arclab.org /medlineupdates/abstract_10952361.html   (161 words)

  
 Geniohyoid Muscle Fatigability Alters after Intermittent Hypoxic Stimulation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Under deep anesthesia with sodium pentobarbital at 80mg/kg i.p., the geniohyoid muscle was exposed.
The distal ends of the lateral and medial branches of the hypoglossal nerves were severed, leaving only the collateral branch from each medial branch intact.
However, a significant increase (p < 0.01 for the slope) in fatigability was found in the treated rats, with 56.5% of the initial force for the 15hr, 49.1% for the 30hr treated, as compared to 67.2 % for the control group.
iadr.confex.com /iadr/2005Balt/techprogram/abstract_62801.htm   (301 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
We hypothesized that aging is associated with alterations in pharyngeal muscle structural and contractile properties.
Sternohyoid and geniohyoid muscles from young (3-4 months) and old (20-21 months) Fischer 344 rats were compared with diaphragm muscle.
With senescence, there was a small but significant increase in the proportion of FG fibers and a corresponding reduction in the proportion of fast oxidative glycolytic (FOG) fibers in all three muscles.
www.elsevier.com /cdweb/journals/00345687/articles/99/1/003456879400077.abstract.en   (198 words)

  
 The Effects of Chronic Episodic Hypercapnic Hypoxia on Rat Upper Airway Muscle Contractile Properties and Fiber-Type ...
geniohyoid fatigue and decreased the recovery from fatigue (Fig 3
Salomone, RJ, van Lunteren, E Effects of hypoxia and hypercapnia on geniohyoid contractility and endurance.
Geniohyoid muscle properties and myosin heavy chain composition are altered after short-term intermittent hypoxic exposure
www.chestjournal.org /cgi/content/full/122/4/1400   (2932 words)

  
 Upper airway cooling reduces upper airway resistance in anaesthetized young guinea-pigs -- Curran et al. 11 (6): 1257 ...
A constant flow of warm or cool air was applied to the isolated UA in anaesthetized, vagotomized young guinea-pigs breathing spontaneously through a low-cervical tracheostomy while ventilation, UA resistance and geniohyoid muscle electromyographic activity were recorded.
Topical anaesthesia of the UA or sealing the nose and cutting the superior laryngeal and glossopharyngeal nerves abolished the ventilatory and geniohyoid muscle responses but not the fall in UA resistance.
It is concluded that upper airway cooling reflexly inhibits breathing and excites geniohyoid muscle activity.
erj.ersjournals.com /cgi/content/abstract/11/6/1257   (280 words)

  
 Biomechanics of failed deglutitive upper esophageal sphincter relaxation in neurogenic dysphagia -- Williams et al. 283 ...
Minimum geniohyoid length during the swallow, a measure of maximum anterosuperior excursion of the hyoid bone, was determined
Relationship between extent of UES opening and geniohyoid shortening used as a measure of the external traction force on the UES.
Geniohyoid shortening in those with absent UES opening was present but significantly reduced when compared with that of healthy controls (* P = 0.006).
ajpgi.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/283/1/G16   (5973 words)

  
 On the Lower Jaw of an Anthropoid Ape [Dryopithecus]
There is the same abrupt upward slope of the anterior face of the bone, and although the digastric insertion (dotted in the figure) is relatively smaller in Dryopithecus than in Mesopithecus, it is still very large for an Anthropoid.
Here it is necessary to remember that the pit on the inner or posterior face of the symphysis is nearly filled by secondary bone developed in the tendon at the origin of the geniohyoid muscles.
Newton said that he was of opinion that the terms Pliocene and Miocene, or those of any of the other great periods, so frequently applied in palæontological research-work, were inadequate for accuracy, and that it was necessary to quote the particular stage of those rocks which had yielded the material described.
www.clarku.edu /~piltdown/map_report_finds/lower_jaw.html   (1522 words)

  
 Effects of upper airway carbon dioxide on upper airway resistance and muscle activity in young guinea-pigs -- Curran et ...
There is evidence that some UA reflexes are stronger in young than in adult animals, but it is not known whether CO2-sensitive receptors are present in the UA of young animals, and the effects of UA CO2 on UA resistance and on UA dilator muscle activity have not been investigated in young animals.
The responses of ventilation, UA resistance and geniohyoid muscle electromyographic activity to warm air containing 10% CO2 applied to the isolated UA were measured in anaesthetized, vagotomized young guinea-pigs breathing spontaneously through a low-cervical tracheostomy.
Geniohyoid activity became apparent following vagotomy and this activity was reduced by upper airway carbon dioxide.
erj.ersjournals.com /cgi/content/abstract/15/5/902   (312 words)

  
 Geniohyoid muscle function in awake canines -- Yokoba et al. 95 (2): 810 -- Journal of Applied Physiology
Representative traces of geniohyoid length, moving-average electromyogram (EMG), and inspiratory airflow during resting breathing (A), CO -stimulated breathing (B), inspiratory-resisted breathing (C), and airway occlusion (D).
Group mean geniohyoid length change and EMG during resting breathing, inspiratory resistance, and occlusion.
from the geniohyoid branch of the hypoglossal (XII) nerve in
jap.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/95/2/810   (3831 words)

  
 Current state of the tongue model
On the other hand, the fiber directions of the geniohyoid which connects a lower point of the mandible (behind the chin) to the front of the hyoid bone is not visible and can only be assumed to be roughly parallel to its outer boundaries.
However, as can be found in the actual data, some of the fibers of the geniohyoid muscle seem to fail to end at the hyoid bone.
A midsagittal cross section throught the Visible Human data set is also shown and two oblique cross sections, one to the left roughtly where the attachments of the geniohyoid to the jaw can be found, and the other about at the front plane of the hyoid bone.
webpages.charter.net /reinerwt/themodel.htm   (2854 words)

  
 uprightnormal   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
These four muscles, together with the diagastric, mylohyoid and geniohyoid muscles, are responsible for the movements of the mandible.
The diagastric, mylohyoid and geniohyoid are used only during depression of the mandible.
Temporalis is a large fan-shaped muscle with has its origin over the lateral surface of the skull demarcated by the inferior temporal line.
www.thetmjdoctor.com /skullmovie/uprightnormal.html   (770 words)

  
 ANATOMICAL EVIDENCE FOR PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS AMONG WOODPECKERS
Origin is from the medial surface of the mandible posterior to that of geniohyoid.
In those woodpeckers where it is well- developed a broad band of muscle fibers has one or two points of attachment to the trachea in the vicinity of the tracheohyoid (Figures 8A, 8B, 8C).
Geniohyoid and hyoid horns.--The long horns and associated geniohyoid muscles that encircle the head and enter the upper bill in Picus, Dinopium, and Colapres (Figure 9C) are also unusual in the Picidae.
elibrary.unm.edu /sora/Auk/v089n01/p0065-p0085.html   (13438 words)

  
 Breathing modes, body positions, and suprahyoid muscle activity -- Takahashi et al. 29 (4): 307 -- Journal of ...
Vertical bar represents 500 µV for both the genioglossus and geniohyoid muscle activities, and horizontal bar represents 1 second for swallowing and 3 seconds for other maneuvers.
The geniohyoid muscle activity is truncated in the second half during jaw opening in the subject 2.
9 O’Halloran KD, Curran AK, Bradford A. Effect of upper airway cooling and CO on diaphragm and geniohyoid muscle activity in the rat.
jorthod.maneyjournals.org /cgi/content/full/29/4/307   (2478 words)

  
 Definition of Mandible   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Near the lower part of the symphysis is a pair of laterally placed spines, termed the mental spines, which give origin to the genioglossus.
Immediately below these is a second pair of spines, or more frequently a median ridge or impression, for the origin of the geniohyoid.
In some cases the mental spines are fused to form a single eminence, in others they are absent and their position is indicated merely by an irregularity of the surface.
www.wordiq.com /definition/Mandible   (2154 words)

  
 Geniohyoid - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Look for Geniohyoid in Wiktionary, our sister dictionary project.
Look for Geniohyoid in the Commons, our repository for free images, music, sound, and video.
If you have created this page in the past few minutes and it has not yet appeared, it may not be visible due to a delay in updating the database.
www.wikipedia.org /wiki/Geniohyoid   (122 words)

  
 Effect of upper airway cooling and CO2 on diaphragm and geniohyoid muscle activity in the rat -- O'Halloran et al. 9 ...
Effect of upper airway cooling and CO2 on diaphragm and geniohyoid muscle activity in the rat
Upper airway (UA) reflexes play an important role in regulating breathing and UA patency, but the effects of UA CO2 and cooling on ventilation and UA muscle activity are controversial.
Diaphragm and geniohyoid electromyographic activities were recorded in anaesthetized rats, breathing spontaneously through a low-cervical tracheostomy.
erj.ersjournals.com /cgi/content/abstract/9/11/2323   (345 words)

  
 Neck muscles
The digastric muscle is a small muscle located on the under side of the jaw.
It assists the mylohyoid and geniohyoid muscles in moving the hyoid bone and the tongue upward and forward and then upward and backward during the process of swallowing.
It assists the geniohyoid, which lies just beneath the mylohyoid muscle, and the digastric muscles in moving the hyoid bone and the tongue upward and forward and then upward and backward during the process of swallowing.
www.american.edu /adonahue/m7neck.htm   (1499 words)

  
 What Could This Be?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
This lesion may occur anywhere on the skin but has a propensity for the midline of the floor of the mouth.
If the cyst develops above the geniohyoid muscle, a sublingual swelling may displace the tongue toward the roof of the mouth and create difficulty in eating, speaking, or even breathing.
Cyst that occur below the geniohyoid muscle often produce a submental swelling a "double chin" appearance.
www.dental.mu.edu /oralpath/cases/case6/case6a.htm   (204 words)

  
 National Center for Voice and Speech   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-15)
Electromyography was recorded simultaneously from the submental surface as well as from five individual muscles: mylohyoid, anterior belly of the digastric, geniohyoid, genioglossus and platysma.
Muscles that received a high correlation, numeric and/or analytic value were considered to be primary contributors to the submental recording.
Regardless of analysis approach, the primary contributions to the submental surface recording were the mylohyoid, anterior belly of the digastric, and the geniohyoid muscles.
www.ncvs.org /ncvs/info/rescol/progreport/abs13/13-7.html   (192 words)

  
 Effects of chronic intermittent asphyxia on haematocrit, pulmonary arterial pressure and skeletal muscle structure in ...
Effect of chronic intermittent hypoxia on geniohyoid (A) and sternohyoid (B) fibre-type distribution.
Effect of chronic intermittent asphyxia on geniohyoid (A) and sternohyoid (B) fibre-type distribution.
Effect of chronic intermittent asphyxia on geniohyoid fatigue (A) and recovery from fatigue (B) and sternohyoid fatigue (C) and recovery from fatigue (D).
ep.physoc.org /cgi/content/full/89/1/44   (3593 words)

  
 Effects of hypoxia and hypercapnia on geniohyoid contractility and endurance -- Salmone and Van Lunteren 71 (2): 709 -- ...
Effects of hypoxia and hypercapnia on geniohyoid contractility and endurance
of the geniohyoid muscle were examined in situ during severe hypoxia
However, the endurance of the geniohyoid, as reflected in the
jap.physiology.org /cgi/content/abstract/71/2/709   (479 words)

  
 Contractile and endurance properties of geniohyoid and diaphragm muscles -- van Lunteren et al. 69 (6): 1992 -- Journal ...
Contractile and endurance properties of geniohyoid and diaphragm muscles -- van Lunteren et al.
Contractile and endurance properties of geniohyoid and diaphragm muscles
force was 0.67 +/- 0.06 for the geniohyoid and 0.15 +/- 0.03 for the
jap.physiology.org /cgi/content/abstract/69/6/1992   (382 words)

  
 Upper airway resistance and geniohyoid muscle activity in normal men during wakefulness and sleep -- Wiegand et al. 69 ...
Upper airway resistance and geniohyoid muscle activity in normal men during wakefulness and sleep -- Wiegand et al.
Upper airway resistance and geniohyoid muscle activity in normal men during wakefulness and sleep
geniohyoid activity generally preceded the start of inspiratory airflow.
jap.physiology.org /cgi/content/abstract/69/4/1252   (570 words)

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