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Topic: Genotype

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In the News (Fri 24 May 19)

Genotype is the genetic makeup encoded in an individual's DNA.
Genotype and phenotype are often not directly correlated; some genes are triggered only by special environmental conditions, and some phenotypes are the result of multiple genotypes.
The determination of genotype was pioneered by Gregor Mendel, the father of genetics.
www.iscid.org /encyclopedia/Genotype   (306 words)

 Genotype - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The genotype is the specific genetic makeup (the specific genome) of an individual, in the form of DNA.
Typically, one refers to an individual's genotype with regard to a particular gene of interest and, in polyploid individuals, it refers to what combination of alleles the individual carries (see homozygous, heterozygous).
The distinction between genotype and phenotype is commonly experienced when studying family patterns for certain hereditary diseases or conditions, for example, hemophilia.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Genotype   (501 words)

 The Genotype/Phenotype Distinction (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
The genotype of an organism is the class to which that organism belongs as determined by the description of the actual physical material made up of DNA that was passed to the organism by its parents at the organism's conception.
The distinction that is made between genotype and phenotype is made necessary by the separation of causal pathways that lead on the one hand to the passage of information about organisms between successive generations, and, on the other, to the growth and development of an organism within a generation from conception to death.
That is, the different partial genotypes and phenotypes that are the subject of the analysis and experiment are not differentially affected by the variation in the rest of the genome and phenome.
plato.stanford.edu /entries/genotype-phenotype   (5038 words)

 Biology 115L Project - 'The Gene Machine!'   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The reason I must know about your parents is that when a particular gene has a dominant allele, a person with a genotype with one allele of the dominant gene will have the same phenotype as a person with two copies of the dominant allele.
This means that, with three possible genotypes (homozygous dominant, heterozygous, and homozygous recessive) we get two possible phenotypes (the dominant one, and the recessive one).
The genotypes of the parents are shown on the outside of the grid, and the possible combinations resulting from those alleles are shown on the inside of the square.
www.sonic.net /~nbs/projects/bio115l   (376 words)

 HBV Genotype May Predict Cirrhosis
Genotype C and reactivation of hepatitis B were associated with increased risk of cirrhosis.
Genotype C was significantly more frequent in the latter (68.8% or 11/16) than in the former (28.3% or 15/53, P=0.008).
None of the 42 genotype B patients progressed to cirrhosis during the mean follow up of 9.8±3.2 (range 3-19) years, while three (11.1%) of 27 genotype C patients progressed to cirrhosis during the mean follow up of 11.1±4.2 (range 3-19) years (P=0.056).
www.natap.org /2005/HBV/090605_02.htm   (1631 words)

 Genotype Information
Genotype 1 is the most common genotype seen in the United States.
Patients with genotypes 2 and 3 are almost three times more likely than patients with genotype 1 to respond to therapy with alpha interferon or the combination of alpha interferon and ribavirin.
For patients with genotypes 2 and 3, a 24-week course of combination treatment is adequate, whereas for patients with genotype 1, a 48-week course is recommended.
www.liversociety.org /html/genotype.html   (226 words)

We examined 140 patients with chronic hepatitis C. The HCV genotype was determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on genotypes 1 and 2 specific recombinant proteins; genotype 1 was found in 100 patients (96 were 1b and 4 were indeterminate) and genotype 2 in 36.
Overlapping 20 mer peptides corresponding to the amino acid sequence of the prevalent viral population identified in the serum of each patient were used for the analysis of the T-cell proliferative response to avoid possible problems caused by amino acid differences between infecting virus and HCV proteins used in vitro.
The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of genotypes with clinical course, risk factors for infection, and antibody to HCV reactivity in asymptomatic subjects.
www.natap.org /2000/sept/does_genotype090800.htm   (1520 words)

The Genotype is now used, in conjunction with a liver biopsy, to help determine if treatment is necessary and is used in deciding how long the treatment regime should be.
Genotype 1 is the most difficult to treat, therefore if you have this genotype you should be on treatment for 48 weeks.
If you are a Genotype 1 (either a or b) you should continue with treatment for a full 48 weeks, as studies have shown that Genotype 1 is a slow responder, but does respond if treatment is extended for a longer period.
www.geocities.com /TheTropics/Shores/4259/Genotype.html   (406 words)

 Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Genotype, Northern Malawi | CDC EID
The genotype may be particularly virulent and have a predilection for developing drug resistance; the multidrug-resistant W strain is a member of this family (1).
The RFLP patterns of the 12 Beijing genotype strains from Karonga District are shown in Figure 1.
After excluding 154 patients (3 with Beijing genotype) who were lost to follow-up or transferred, we found that the proportion who died during treatment was similar for those with Beijing genotype strains as for the other patients (Table).
www.cdc.gov /ncidod/EID/vol11no01/04-0869.htm   (1951 words)

 Genotype Articles 2003
Moreover, in multivariate analysis, liver steatosis is associated with HCV genotype 3 and not with the stage of fibrosis.
Genotype 4 assignment was based on sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the 5' noncoding and NS5B regions of the genome.
In patients with chronic hepatitis C and genotype 1, steatosis and steatohepatitis correlate strongly with the presence of insulin resistance and visceral adiposity.
janis7hepc.com /genotype_articles_2003.htm   (8658 words)

 Genotype   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
As an instance of a Genotype is evolved, all of its Chromosomes are also evolved.
A Genotype may be constructed normally via constructor, or the static randomInitialGenotype() method can be used to generate a Genotype with a randomized Chromosome population.
Constructs a new Genotype instance with the given array of Chromosomes and the given active Configuration instance.
jgap.sourceforge.net /javadoc/2.6/org/jgap/Genotype.html   (916 words)

 Genomics|HuGENet|Reviews|ALAD genotype and lead|PubMed ID: 11427399
However, using the difference of lead levels in patellar versus tibial bone as an indicator of effect of the genotype on the distribution of lead in bone, a difference of borderline significance was found between 1-1 and 1-2/2-2 genotypes (p = 0.06).
The authors suggested that the difference in BLL by genotype was not significant possibly because of the small number of individuals in the 1-2/2-2 group (n = 30).
It is difficult to make a decision as to which genotype is in fact “at risk” because different measures of outcome indicate that each genotype is more susceptible to one or more adverse effects compared to the other.
www.cdc.gov /genomics/hugenet/reviews/ALADPb.htm   (4655 words)

 Genotype & Phenotype
Definitions: phenotype is the constellation of observable traits; genotype is the genetic endowment of the individual.
In a narrow "genetic" sense, the genotype defines the phenotype.
Genotype is also used to refer to the pair of alleles present at a single locus.
biomed.brown.edu /Courses/BIO48/5.Geno.Pheno.HTML   (1087 words)

 Genotype-phenotype distinction - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The genotype of an organism represents its exact genetic makeup, that is, the particular set of genes it possesses.
An organism's genotype is the largest influencing factor in the development of its phenotype, but it is not the only one.
This means that a canalized phenotype may form from a large variety of different genotypes, in which case it is not possible to exactly predict the genotype from knowledge of the phenotype.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Genotype-phenotype_distinction   (506 words)

 Genomics|Search|Genotype Prevalence Database
The database includes a description of the study population, references to the published report or the researcher’s contact information, and genotype frequency data that are stratified by geographic area, and in some instances, race and gender.
The database presents genotype frequencies in preference to allele frequencies because a) genotypes have been proposed for researchers who either report or appraise studies of prevalence and gene-disease associations, b) specific genotypes, not alleles, are often associated with disease risk, and c) genotype frequency data can be used to calculate allele frequency (2).
genotype results may be derived from polymerase chain reaction methods or inferred on the basis of a phenotypic test.
www.cdc.gov /genomics/search/aboutGTP.htm   (1152 words)

 Constantinos G. Athanasopoulos reviews Genotype to Phenotype edited by S. Malcolm and J. Goodship
Cambien’s quite insightful contribution enlightens yet another application of the theory related to phenotype manifestations of a particular genotype: the quite interesting and quite theoretical (as yet) fields of evolutionary genetics, population genetics and genetic epidemiology.
Ann K. Daly’s contribution investigates the fascinating field of pharmacogenomics or the study of the genetic factors that determine drug efficacy and toxicity and is closely allied to the subject of pharmacogenetics or the study of the genetics of drug metabolism and other genetic factors of drug efficiency such as receptors.
Daly concludes that in the not so distant future genotyping will help physicians to determine which drug will benefit the patient best and what dose should be used in many diseases, with the diabetes mellitus, asthma and hypertension being probably the first.
human-nature.com /nibbs/03/genotype.html   (1433 words)

 Relationship   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The relationship between the genotype and phenotype is a simple one...
The "internally coded, inheritable information", or Genotype, carried by all living organisms, holds the critical instructions that are used and interpreted by the cellular machinary of the cells to produce the "outward, physical manifestation", or Phenotype of the organism.
As these physical structures begin to act and interact with one another they can produce larger and more complex phenomena such as metabolism, energy utilization, tissues, organs, reflexes and behaviors; anything that is part of the observable structure, function or behavior of a living organism.
www.brooklyn.cuny.edu /bc/ahp/BioInfo/GP/Relationship.html   (139 words)

 The KLI Theory Lab - keywords - genotype
Roll-Hansen, N. The genotype theory of Wilhelm Johannsen and its relation to plant breeding and the study of evolution.
Keywords: genotype • history of biology •; phenotype •; plant breeding.
Wade, M.J. Effective population size: The effects of sex, genotype and density of the mean and variance of offspring numbers in the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum.
www.kli.ac.at /theorylab/Keyword/G/genotype.html   (187 words)

 Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C Genotype 4   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The SVR among genotype 1 patients was lower than that observed in genotype 4 patients but the difference did not reach a statistical significance level (45 vs 68%; p= 0.11).
The results of this study indicate that peginterferon alfa-2b and weight-based ribavirin therapy was associated with a higher SVR rate among genotype 4 compared to genotype 1 patients (68 vs 45%).
Hepatitis C virus infection and genotypes in southern Israel and the Gaza strip.
www.hepcnet.net /boards/medsforum/index.cgi?noframes;read=416   (1614 words)

 Clinical Trial: Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin Therapy in Chronic Hepatitis Genotype 4
Genotype 4 is the least-studied hepatitis C virus genotype and was considered a difficult to treat genotype due to the disappointing response of chronic hepatits C genotype 4 to conventional interferon monotherapy.
The main objective of this is to assess the duration of pegylated interferon ribavirin therapy in chronic hepatitis genotype 4 and assess the clinical utility of rapid and early virologic response in determining the optimal duration of peg interferon ribavirin therapy in chronic hepatitis C. Condition
Peg interferon and ribavirn therapy is associated with adverse events and is expensive; therefore, careful determination of the optimal treatment duration is crucial as it spares the patient unnecessary or prolonged therapy and enhances the cost-effectiveness of therapy.
www.clinicaltrials.gov /ct/show/NCT00277862   (649 words)

 Genotype and Phenotype   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The genotype describes the genes inherited by an organism.
But this explanation is not true because the cutting from parent #24 thrived at this level compared to the performance of this genotype at low and high altitude.
Each line is called the 'norm of reaction'.The term 'norm of reaction' refers to how a particular genotype (from a parent plant) develops into a phenotype (cloned offspring) as a function of the environment in which the clone develops.
salmon.psy.plym.ac.uk /year3/psyc364evolutionary_psychobiology/psy364_genotype_phenotype/psy364_genotype_phenotype.htm   (2608 words)

 Genotype definition - Medical Dictionary definitions of popular medical terms
Genotype: The genetic constitution (the genome) of a cell, an individual or an organism.
The genotype of a person is her or his genetic makeup.
It is the composite of the characteristics shown by the cell, individual or organism under a particular set of environmental conditions.
www.medterms.com /script/main/art.asp?articlekey=8472   (183 words)

 Brainstorms: Defining Genotypes and Genotype/Phenotype Maps
Existing genetic theories, therefore, require the existence of both a genotype to phenotype map and a phenotype to genotype map.
If, it is suggested, you refine the definition of genotype, then there appears to be fairly direct one to one genotype to phenotype and phenotype and genotype mappings.
The NDG definition of genotype is based on the assumption that genetic material is, or can be viewed as, essentially unchanged during the lifetime of the organism.
www.iscid.org /boards/ubb-get_topic-f-6-t-000116.html   (666 words)

 Technical Library - Responder Genotype in TG.AC Mice - Index   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-13)
The correlation of this genotype to the responder phenotype was confirmed by Dr. Ron Cannon of the NIEHS and through double blind studies in cooperation with Dr. Ray Stoll of BI.
These theoretical averages for the responder genotype are consistent with the observations of the Stoll lab given the size of the positive control groups (N=7-12).
However, additional genotyping of distributed mice and/or Taconic breeders is required before firm conclusions can be reached regarding the incidence of the Responder genotype amongst SV40 hemizygotes and homozygotes.
www.taconic.com /anmodels/tranvha/tgacnotice.htm   (1944 words)

 Evolution 101: Genotype versus Phenotype
An organism’s genotype is the set of genes that it carries.
An organism’s phenotype is all of its observable characteristics—which are influenced both by its genotype and by the environment.
So in defining evolution, we are really concerned with changes in the genotypes that make up a population from generation to generation.
evolution.berkeley.edu /evosite/evo101/IIIA1Genotypevsphenotype.shtml   (214 words)

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