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# Topic: Geographic coordinate system

###### In the News (Wed 17 Apr 19)

 Geographic coordinate system - Biocrawler   (Site not responding. Last check: ) The geographic (earth-mapping) coordinate system expresses every horizontal position on Earth by two of the three coordinates of a spherical coordinate system which is aligned with the spin axis of the Earth. The equator is obviously an important part of this coordinate system, it represents the zeropoint of the latitude angle, and the halfway point between the poles. The equator is the fundamental plane of the geographic coordinate system. www.biocrawler.com /encyclopedia/Geographic_coordinates   (568 words)

 Geographic coordinate system - Definition, explanation The geographic (earth-mapping) coordinate system expresses every horizontal position on Earth by two of the three coordinates of a spherical coordinate system which is aligned with the spin axis of the Earth. The equator is obviously an important part of this coordinate system, it represents the zeropoint of the latitude angle, and the halfway point between the poles. The equator is the fundamental plane of the geographic coordinate system. www.calsky.com /lexikon/en/txt/g/ge/geographic_coordinate_system.php   (545 words)

 Coordinate Systems, Transformations and Units - SVG 1.1 - 20030114 A single unit in the new viewport coordinate system and the new user coordinate system are the same size as a single unit in the current user coordinate system for the element establishing the viewport. the initial coordinate system, because the user coordinate system aligns exactly with the parent's coordinate system, and because often the parent's coordinate system aligns with the device pixel grid, "5px" might actually map to 5 devices pixels. Indicates that the user coordinate system for the contents of the pattern is established using the bounding box of the element to which the pattern is applied. www.w3.org /TR/SVG/coords.html   (7070 words)

 Geographic coordinate system - Centiare, the free directory A geographic coordinate system expresses every location on Earth by two of the three coordinates of a spherical coordinate system which is aligned with the spin axis of Earth. The equator is obviously an important part of this coordinate system, it represents the zeropoint of the latitude angle, and the halfway point between the poles. The equator is the fundamental plane of the geographic coordinate system. www.centiare.com /Geographic_coordinate_system   (729 words)

 geographic_coordinate_system This coordinate system is defined by the axes of latitude, longitude and height. N] of (earth_surface_feature) These are the areas of the surface of the Earth that are defined as appropriate to use this coordinate system. prime_meridian M prime_meridian This is the prime meridian for the geographic coordinate system. www.august.com /epicentre/inherit/geographic_coordinate_system.html   (533 words)

 Geographic coordinate system 7 A geographic coordinate system is a reference system that uses a three-dimensional spherical surface to determine 7 locations on the earth. Therefore, the coordinate system's measurements 7 are not be accurate 7 if they are used with an area other than the one that they were designed. For example, the coordinates in DMS of a control point in Redlands, California using the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD 1983) are: "-117 12 57.75961 34 01 43.77884" The coordinates of the same point on the North American Datum of 1927 (NAD 1927) are: "-117 12 54.61539 34 01 43.72995". publib.boulder.ibm.com /infocenter/db2luw/v8/topic/com.ibm.db2.udb.doc/opt/csb3022a.htm   (941 words)

 OGR: OGR Projections Tutorial Coordinate systems are encapsulated in the OGRSpatialReference class. The first is geographic (positions are measured in long/lat) and the second is projected (such as UTM - positions are measured in meters or feet). A Geographic coordinate system contains information on the datum (which implies an spheroid described by a semi-major axis, and inverse flattening), prime meridian(normally Greenwich), and an angular units type which is normally degrees. www.gdal.org /ogr/osr_tutorial.html   (1164 words)

 Selecting a Geographic Coordinate System -- Choosing between UTM and Lat/Lon And many GPS users never consider that there may be other coordinate system that would better meet their needs. If you are working with other folks and passing map coordinates around, then you will want to use the same coordinate system and notations that they use. On larger scale maps the choice of coordinate system is often determined by the coordinate references that have been supplied by the map maker. www.maptools.com /coordsys/index.html   (610 words)

 HotBot Web Search for coordinates specific coordinate system is useful for numerical calculations in a given space, the space itself is considered to exist independently of any particular choice of coordinates. Spherical coordinates, also called spherical polar coordinates (Walton 1967, Arfken 1985), are a system of curvilinear coordinates that are natural for describing positions on a... Investigate the Cartesian coordinate system through identifying the coordinates of a randomly generated point, or requesting that a particular point be plotted. www.hotbot.com /?query=coordinates&first=0&page=more&currProv=msn   (311 words)

 Geographic coordinate system Summary Borrowing from theories of ancient Babylonians, later expanded by the famous Greek thinker and geographer Ptolemy, a full circle is assigned 360 degrees (360°). Latitude and Longitude values are established based on an associated Geodetic system or datum such as WGS84. This could be expressed in terms of the vertical distance to Earth below, but, because of the ambiguity of "surface" and "vertical", is more commonly expressed relative to a more precisely defined datum such as mean sea level (as height above mean sea level) or the geoid. www.bookrags.com /Geographic_coordinate_system   (1449 words)

 TatukGIS FAQ - DK - Geographic Coordinate Systems, Reprojecting... I suppose that this is becuase the layers are in different coordinate systems. Prior to the DK v.8 final release version, the GDA 94 coordinate system is not directly supported as a simple selection item, but support for GDA 94 can be easily added to a DK application with... Q10330 - I need to project some unprojected point coordinates to a coordinate system in order to use the point data in distance calculations. www.tatukgis.com /faq/book/bp1.aspx   (723 words)

 RockWare- Coordinate Calculator: free coordinate conversion software performs the conversion of the coordinates of a point from one geographic coordinate system to a second geographic coordinate system interactively. The coordinate system reflects the combination of a cartographic projection and datum. For those needing greater functionality, Tralaine is a coordinate conversion program that gives you all the functionality of the Coordinate Calculator as well as: www.rockware.com /catalog/pages/freecalculator.html   (160 words)

 Geographic Coordinate System description The Geographic Coordinate System description is part of the CRS description. This is the top level entry for completely defining a geographic coordinate system (ellipsoid, datum, prime meridian,...) Please refer to the Dimap Documentation for a complete description of the Dimap Geodetic scheme. www.spotimage.fr /dimap/spec/dictionary/dimap_generic/GEOGRAPHIC_CS.htm   (92 words)

 PROJ.4 - Cartographic Projections Library Support has also been added for 3 and 7 parameter datum shifts, the PJ* structure now also carries datum information and PJ* can be considered a full coordinate system (geographic coordinate systems are also now supported with the +proj=latlong pseudo-projection). The new pj_transform() is used to access the extended coordinate system to coordinate system transformation with datum shifting. A mapping file (epsg) has also been introduced mapping most EPSG (www.epsg.org) coordinate systems to PROJ.4 format. proj.maptools.org   (786 words)

 Geographic coordinate system A geographic coordinate system enables every location on the earth to be specified by the three coordinates of a spherical coordinate system aligned with the spin axis of the Earth. The circles of longitude, the meridians, meet at the geographical poles, with the west-east width of a second being dependent on the latitude. The equator is the fundamental plane of all geographic coordinate systems. www.photonicsknowledge.com /search/Geographic_coordinate_system   (958 words)

 Oregon Department of Forestry Geographic Information Systems To assist in the stewardship of Oregon's forests through the acquisition, analysis, distribution, and display of geographic information. A Geographic Information System (GIS) is an organized collection of personnel, geographic data, computer hardware, and software designed to efficiently capture, store, update, manipulate, analyze, distribute, and display all forms of geographically referenced information. A GIS can also be described by the complexity and types of questions that the system can answer. oregon.gov /ODF/GIS/gis_home.shtml   (253 words)

 Coordinate System Conversions and Transformations   (Site not responding. Last check: ) Coordinates may be changed from one coordinate reference system to another through the application of a coordinate operation. A projected coordinate reference system is the result of the application of a map projection to a geographic coordinate reference system. This form of coordinate transformation must be between source and target geographical coordinate reference systems with the coordinates of both expressed in geographical terms. www.slb.com /media/services/software/opensystems/seabed/spatial/WebHelp/spatial_model/spatial_data_overview/coordinate_system_conversions_and_transformations.htm   (301 words)

 [No title] A geographic coordinate system has two axes, latitude and longitude, which are only unambiguous when both of the related prime meridian and geodetic datum are given, and in turn the geodetic datum definition includes the definition of an ellipsoid. A geocentric coordinate system is a 3-dimensional coordinate system with its origin at or near the center of the earth and with 3 orthogonal axes. The X-axis is in or parallel to the plane of the equator and passes through its intersection with the Greenwich meridian, and the Y-axis is in the plane of the equator forming a right-handed coordinate system with the X and Z axes. www.remotesensing.org /geotiff/spec/geotiff2.5.html   (2911 words)

 Assigning Grids So, using the geographic coordinate system, we have a grid of lines dividing the earth into squares that cover approximately 4,773.5 square miles at the equator…a good start, but not very useful for determining the location of anything within that square. An alternative method of notation in the geographic coordinate system, often used for many GIS applications (Geographic Information Systems, or GIS, is discussed in detail in another exercise), is the decimal degree system. In the decimal degree system the major (degree) units are the same, but rather than using minutes and seconds, smaller increments are represented as a percentage (decimal) of a degree. geology.isu.edu /geostac/Field_Exercise/topomaps/grid_assign.htm   (667 words)

 NMPlot User's Guide, Chapter 20: Geographic Coordinate Systems The Equirectangular coordinate system is essentially a direct scaling of longitudes and latitudes to distances east and north, with the scaling selected such that distortion is minimized along the central latitude parallel. The Equirectangular coordinate system is often used to map bands that encircle the Earth and are enclosed by two fairly close parallels of latitude: for example, the region between latitudes 20° north and 30° north. The Lambert Conformal Conic coordinate system is commonly used for large-scale maps of regions that are predominantly east-west in extent. www.wasmerconsulting.com /nmplot_usersguide_geographiccoordinatesystems.htm   (1830 words)

 What is a Coordinate System Without a concise definition of the coordinate system used to represent a point, it is difficult to change to a new coordinate system. Projection formulas are mathematical expressions that convert data from a geographical location (latitude and longitude) on a sphere or spheroid to a corresponding location (x and y) on a flat, two–dimensional surface. The coordinate system for a layer is stored in the LAYERS table as a text string that may be as long as 1024 characters. edndoc.esri.com /arcsde/9.0/general_topics/what_coord_sys.htm   (688 words)

 Standardization of Coordinate Systems and Datums for Data Exchange   (Site not responding. Last check: ) If horizontal coordinates, initially obtained by a 3D measurement system as NAD 83 coordinates, are converted to NAD 27 coordinates (with their accuracy degraded), it will still be necessary to retain NAD 83 as the basis for expressing ellipsoid height, thus requiring dual datums to be used in the data bases that are maintained. With NAD 27 this was accomplished by (1) specifying the coordinates of a single monumented station in Kansas, Meades Ranch, (2) specifying the geodetic azimuth from Meades Ranch to a nearby station, and (3) imposing the condition that the z axis be parallel to the mean rotation axis of the Earth. Three dimensional coordinates are computed by NGS for these reference stations on a daily basis to continuously monitor their position at about the 0.03 foot accuracy level relative to the NAD 83 coordinate axes and, therefore, relative to one another. wvgis.wvu.edu /otherdocs/standardsandpubs/wv_coordinate_systems_aug02.html   (4392 words)

 Project1.html   (Site not responding. Last check: ) Boundary coordinates are -60° for the east, and -150° for the west — north and south are represented at the poles; 90° in the north and -90° in the south. Geographic coordinates are angle measurements from the center of the earth, starting at arbitrary points on the earth's surface, known as the equator and the prime meridian. The UTM and Geographic coordinate systems are best used on a smaller scale (larger area) project as they are "global" systems, whereas State Plane Coordinate are best used on larger scale (smaller area) proejcts due the the increase accuracy coming from each zones standard lines being closer to the target area. www.personal.psu.edu /jjc365/Project1.html   (1251 words)

 Assigning grids to the earth One of the most common coordinate systems in use is the geographic coordinate system, which uses degrees of latitude and longitude to describe a location on the earth’s surface. So, using the geographic coordinate system, we have a grid of lines dividing the earth into squares that cover approximately 4,773.5 square miles at the equator…a good start, but not very useful for determining the location of anything within that square. In the decimal degree system the major (degree) units are the same, but rather than using minutes and seconds, smaller increments are represented as a percentage (decimal) of a degree. www.cs.nmsu.edu /~jbj/index_auxil/idaho_virtual_campus/grid_assign.htm   (665 words)

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