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# Topic: Geostationary orbit

 Geostationary orbit - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The geostationary orbit was first popularised by science fiction author Arthur C. Clarke in 1945 as a useful orbit for communications satellites. Geostationary orbits are useful because they cause a satellite to appear stationary with respect to a fixed point on the rotating Earth. To calculate the geostationary orbit altitude, one begins with this equivalence, and uses the fact that the orbital period is one sidereal day. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Geostationary_orbit   (744 words)

 Geostationary transfer orbit - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia After a typical launch the inclination of the LEO (the angle between the plane of the orbit and the plane of the equator) is determined by the latitude of the launch site and the direction of launch. Once in the GTO, it is usually the satellite itself that performs the conversion to geostationary orbit by firing a rocket at a tangent to the GTO at the apogee. The reason for this is that the GTO is an orbit cycling between a perigee tangent to LEO and an apogee tangent to a geostationary orbit. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Geostationary_transfer_orbit   (686 words)

 Britain.tv Wikipedia - Geosynchronous orbit Circular geosynchronous orbits at the equator are known as geostationary orbits. In practice the satellite will drift out of this orbit (because of perturbations such as the solar wind, radiation pressure, variations in the Earth's gravitational field, and the gravitational effect of the Moon and Sun), and thrusters are used to maintain the orbit in a process known as stationkeeping. A further form of geosynchronous orbit is obtained by the theoretical space elevator in which one end of the structure is tethered to the ground, maintaining a longer orbital period than by gravity alone if under tension. www.britain.tv /wikipedia.php?title=Geosynchronous_orbit   (787 words)

 Footprints by Dish Size - Definition of Geostationary (Geosynchronous), Polar, LEO, HEO, MEO, Sun Synchronous Orbits, ... More technically, a geostationary orbit is a circular prograde orbit in the equatorial plane with an orbital period equal to that of the earth; this is achieved with an orbital radius of 6.6107 (equatorial) earth radii, or an orbital height of 35786 km. Geostationary satellites receive the uplinked signal, amplify it, shift it to a lower frequency and then couple the outgoing signal to the transmitting array of on-board satellite antenna where the signal is focused into a narrow beam and sent back to earth. Radarsat is in orbit 798 kilometres above the Earth, at an angle of inclination of 98.6 degrees to the equator as it circles the globe from north pole to south pole. www.geo-orbit.org /sizepgs/geodef.html   (6827 words)

 Satellites - Geostationary Orbit   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) A satellite in geostationary orbit appears to remain in the same spot in the sky all the time. Geostationary orbits, therefore, are also known as high orbits. Geostationary orbit, therefore, is really just a special type of equatorial orbit. collections.ic.gc.ca /satellites/english/anatomy/orbit/geostati.html   (148 words)

 Geosynchronous orbit A geosynchronous orbit may be defined as one with an orbital period (the time needed to orbit once around the Earth) that matches the rotation rate of the Earth. A geostationary orbit is a special case of a geosynchronous orbit. A satellite is in a geostationary orbit when it appears stationary from the point of view of an observer on the Earth's surface. www.centennialofflight.gov /essay/Dictionary/GEO_ORBIT/DI146.htm   (163 words)

 CelesTrak: "Basics of the Geostationary Orbit" While communications satellites perform their missions in many types of orbits, from near-earth constellations like Iridium and Globalstar to the highly-inclined, eccentric Molniya orbits used by the Russian Federation, one of the more important classes of orbits for these satellites is the geostationary orbit. Since the geostationary orbital plane is not coincident with the plane of the earth's orbit (the ecliptic) or that of the moon's orbit, the gravitational attraction of the sun and the moon act to pull the geostationary satellites out of their equatorial orbit, gradually increasing each satellite's orbital inclination. Oftentimes, geostationary satellites are boosted into a slightly higher orbit at the end of their planned lifetime to prevent them causing havoc with other geostationary satellites. celestrak.com /columns/v04n07   (1553 words)

 Shupe | how stuff works.orbits   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) As it turns out, a geostationary orbit is a member of the set or family of geosynchronous orbits, but it is a special case of a geosynchronous orbit which is circular and lies in the Earth's equatorial plane. Such an orbit is called a geosynchronous orbit, and its radius is 42,300 km from the center of the Earth (about 35,900 km from the surface of the Earth). The angular amplitude of the oscillation is equal to the angle between the orbital plane of the satellite and the equatorial plane of the Earth. www.sccs.swarthmore.edu /users/05/shupe/orbits.html   (413 words)

 Orbit   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) An orbit is the path a body takes around object or point in space under the influence of various physical forces, including gravity in its periodic revolution. Earth satellite orbits with inclinations near 0 degree are called equatorial orbits because the satellite stays nearly over the equator. Orbits with inclinations near 90 degrees are called polar orbits because the satellite crosses over (or nearly over) the north and south poles. www.centennialofflight.gov /essay/Dictionary/ORBIT/DI153.htm   (209 words)

 CelesTrak: "More on the Geostationary Orbit" For the satellite to be geostationary, of course, its latitude must be zero and its altitude must be 35,786 kilometers (for this development, we will assume a true geostationary orbit and a spherical earth). In both cases, it should be noted that the rotation axis of the satellite is perpendicular to the satellite's orbital plane—which for geostationary orbits is the equatorial plane. As the earth goes around its orbit, its distance from the sun changes from a minimum of 0.983 astronomical units (AUs—the mean distance from the earth to the sun is approximately 1 AU or 149,597,870 km) to a maximum of 1.067 AU—a difference of 12,518,000 km. celestrak.com /columns/v04n09   (1680 words)

 Orbits The orbit chosen for a satellite is a comprimise between the mission requirements, the capabilities of the rocket used to launch the satellite and orbital mechanics. A geostationary orbit is a special case of the geosynchronous orbit where inclination = 0 and the period is equal to the rotation period of the earth (approx 1436 minutes), corresponding to a cricular orbit of approx. The perigee corresponds to the altitude of the initial low earth orbit parking orbit, the apogee the geostationary orbit altitude and the inclination is usually the inclination of the initial parking orbit. jersey.uoregon.edu /~js/ast221/lectures/lec11.html   (3300 words)

 What is Geostationary Orbit? A geostationary orbit is one in which a satellite orbits the earth at exactly the same speed as the earth turns and at the same latitude, specifically zero, the latitude of the equator. A satellite orbiting in a geostationary orbit appears to be hovering in the same spot in the sky, and is directly over the same patch of ground at all times. A geosynchronous orbit is one in which the satellite is synchronized with the earth's rotation, but the orbit is tilted with respect to the plane of the equator. www.wisegeek.com /what-is-geostationary-orbit.htm   (405 words)

 ESA - Launchers Home - Types of orbits A geostationary orbit, often referred to as a GEO orbit, circles the Earth above the equator from west to east at a height of 36 000 km. The orbital track of the satellite does not have to cross the poles exactly for an orbit to be called polar, an orbit which passes within 20 to 30 degrees of the poles is still classed as a polar orbit. Generally these orbits are used for Earth observation, solar study, weather forecasting and reconnaissance, as ground observation is improved if the surface is always illuminated by the Sun at the same angle when viewed from the satellite. www.esa.int /esaMI/Launchers_Home/ASEHQOI4HNC_0.html   (509 words)

 The Geostationary Orbit An advantage of the geostationary orbit is that antennas on the ground, once aimed at the satellite, need not continue to rotate. One disadvantage of the geostationary orbit is that the gravity of the sun and moon disturb the orbit, causing the inclination to increase. The geostationary orbit's finite capacity is another disadvantage; satellites using the same frequencies must be separated to prevent mutual interference. www.aero.org /publications/crosslink/winter2002/01_sidebar1.html   (346 words)

 Orbit - Search Results - ninemsn Encarta Orbit, path or trajectory of a body through space under the influence of forces of attraction or repulsion from a second body. Geosynchronous Orbit, also called geostationary orbit, the orbit of a satellite or spacecraft around the equator. A satellite in a geosynchronous orbit follows a circular orbit over the equator at an altitude of 35,800 km (22,300 mi), completing one orbit every... au.encarta.msn.com /Orbit.html   (151 words)

 Cnes - Geostationary orbit Geostationary orbit is a scarce resource and, unlike in low-Earth orbit, we cannot rely on the natural mechanisms occurring below a certain altitude to keep it clean of debris. Geostationary orbit is a unique equatorial, circular orbit at an altitude of 35,786 km. Geostationary satellites have an average period of 23 h 56 min, exactly equal to Earth’s rotational period. www.cnes.fr /html/_455_471_4423_4433_.php   (384 words)

 RS:Principles: Intro to Satellites and Orbits   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) A geostationary satellite orbits the Earth in an equatorial orbit at an altitude where its period is equal to that of the Earth's rotation (24 hours). A geostationary orbit is usually circular with an inclination of 0º. One limitation of a geostationary satellite is that the platform is only useful from the equator up to a latitude of about 70 degrees north and south of the equator. chesapeake.towson.edu /data/orbits4.asp   (403 words)

 Earth Orbit All geostationary satellites orbit the Earth equatorially (in an east-west circle) at a height of approximately 22,237 miles. Other satellite orbits are equatorial (east-west circle), polar (north-south circle) and elliptical, the latter having an orbit that changes drastically in altitude during a single orbit. Many polar orbits are calculated to be solar synchronous, meaning that the plane of the orbit remains at a constant angle to the light of the sun. dolio.lh.net /~apw/astro/orbit.html   (1224 words)

 Geostationary Orbits Part 2: ORBITAL GEOMETRY   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) This is the second in a series of articles about geostationary orbits; i.e., the orbits occupied by communications satellites which remain at fixed points in the sky. A geosynchronous satellite whose circular and direct orbit lies in the plane of the earth's equator and which thus remains fixed relative to the earth; by extension, a satellite which remains approximately fixed relative to the earth. Since all geostationary orbits fall in the Clarke Belt, each geostationary satellite can be represented as a point in the lower arch. www.ctiinfo.com /SatControl/ComTrack/InclinedOrbitTutorial/satgeom2.htm   (1242 words)

 Basics of Space Flight Section I. The Environment of Space It is possible to choose the parameters of a spacecraft's orbit to take advantage of some or all of these gravitational influences to induce precession, which causes a useful motion of the orbital plane. The result is called a walking orbit or a precessing orbit, since the orbital plane moves slowly with respect to fixed inertial space. A walking orbit whose parameters are chosen such that the orbital plane precesses with nearly the same period as the planet's solar orbit period is called a sun synchronous orbit. www2.jpl.nasa.gov /basics/bsf5-1.html   (1166 words)

 Know your orbit   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) All orbits are defined by a small number of orbital parameters which describe their size, shape and orientation in space, the main ones being the height of the orbit above the Earth’s surface, its eccentricity and its inclination. The height of an orbit is more likely to be quoted than its diameter (which is measured from the center of the Earth), because it is directly related to practical matters, such as how far radio signals have to travel and the breadth of the coverage area. An orbit used particularly by Earth observation or remote sensing satellites is the sun-synchronous or heliosynchronous orbit. telephonyonline.com /news/telecom_know_orbit   (1974 words)

 geosychronous/geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) An elliptical orbit, with an apogee (high point) of 35,784 km, a perigee (low point) of a few hundred km, and an inclination roughly equal to the latitude of the launch site, into which a spacecraft is initially placed before being transferred to a geosynchronous or geostationary orbit. After attaining GTO, the spacecraft’s apogee kick motor is fired to circularize the orbit and thereby achieve the desired final orbit. By the rocket equation, assuming a (typical) specific impulse of 300 seconds, the fraction of the separated mass consumed by the propellant for the apogee maneuver is 46% from Cape Canaveral, 40% from Kourou, and 39% from the equator. www.daviddarling.info /encyclopedia/G/GTO.html   (338 words)

 Spacecrafts in Geostationary Orbit   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21) If such a satellite's orbit lies over the equator, it is called a geostationary satellite. The orbits are known as geosynchronous orbit and geostationary orbit. The "magic" altitude is at 35,786 km at which a satellite's orbital speed exactly matches the rate at which the earth rotates: once every sidereal day (23 hours 56 minutes). www.sciencepresse.qc.ca /clafleur/Scfam-geostationary.html   (330 words)

 Geostationary Orbits Part 5: INCLINED-ORBIT SATELLITES This is the fifth in a series of articles about geostationary orbits; i.e., the orbits occupied by communications satellites which remain at fixed points in the sky. The cyclic nature of this force tends to cause it to cancel itself: an easterly pull at one part of the cycle is offset by a westerly pull half a day later; similarly, a northerly pull is offset by a southerly pull. An inclined orbit is indeed geosynchronous, but it is not a circle and it does not lie in the earth's equatorial plane. www.ctiinfo.com /SatControl/ComTrack/InclinedOrbitTutorial/satgeom5.htm   (2000 words)

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