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Topic: German Crusade, 1096

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  Crusade - Facts, Information, and Encyclopedia Reference article
The 13th century crusades never expressed such a popular fever, and after Acre fell for the last time in 1291, and after the extermination of the Occitan Cathars in the Albigensian Crusade, the crusading ideal became devalued by Papal justifications of political and territorial aggressions within Catholic Europe.
A crusading force from Hungary, Austria, and Bavaria achieved a remarkable feat in the capture of Damietta in Egypt in 1219, but under the urgent insistence of the papal legate, Pelagius, they proceeded to a foolhardy attack on Cairo, and an inundation of the Nile compelled them to choose between surrender and destruction.
The eighth Crusade was organized by Louis IX in 1270, again sailing from Aigues-Mortes, initially to come to the aid of the remnants of the Crusader states in Syria.
www.startsurfing.com /encyclopedia/c/r/u/Crusades.html   (3606 words)

  NationMaster - Encyclopedia: German Crusade, 1096
The Seventh Crusade was a crusade led by Louis IX of France from 1248 to 1254.
Count Emicho (of Flonheim) was a count in the Rhineland in the late 11th century and the leader of the German Crusade in 1096.
The Crusaders' atrocities against Jews in the German and Hungarian towns, later also in those of France and England, and in the massacres of non-combatants in Palestine and Syria have become a significant part of the history of anti-Semitism.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/German-Crusade%2C-1096   (3089 words)

 The German Crusade - First Crusade
German Crusade, 1096 The First Crusade ignited a long tradition of organized violence against Jews in European culture.
Setting off in the early summer of 1096, a German army of around 10,000 soldiers led by Gottschalk, Volkmar, and Emich of Leiningen, proceeding northward through the Rhine river valley, in the opposite direction of Jerusalem, began what is known as the first Holocaust, or pogrom.
Although the papacy abhorred the purging of Muslim and Jewish inhabitants during this Crusade, the crusaders zealous and murderous rampage continued for centuries.
mywebpage.netscape.com /AAS2593/first-crusade/the-german-crusade.html   (295 words)

 Crusades. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
The Crusaders, led mostly by French and Flemish nobles and spurred on by Fulk of Neuilly, assembled (1202) near Venice.
The Crusader Baldwin I of Flanders was elected first Latin Emperor of Constantinople, but within a year he was captured and killed by the Bulgarians and succeeded by his brother Henry.
The crusading period advanced the development of national monarchies in Europe, because secular leaders deprived the pope of the power of decision in what was to have been the highest Christian enterprise.
www.bartleby.com /65/cr/Crusades.html   (2318 words)

Crusaders wore a red cloth cross sewn on their tunics to indicate that they had assumed the cross and were soldiers of Christ.
The Crusaders continued an older tradition of the pilgrimage to the Holy Land, which was often imposed as a penance; now, however, they assumed a dual role as pilgrims and warriors.
By the end of the campaign, four Crusader states had been formed along the Syrian and Palestinian coast: the County of Edessa, the Principality of Antioch, the County of Tripoli, and the Kingdom of Jerusalem, where Baldwin was crowned king.
website.lineone.net /~ssleightholm/dict/glossary/crusade.htm   (1106 words)

 German Crusade, 1096
The German Crusade of 1096 is that part of the First Crusade in which peasant crusaders from France and Germany, attacked Jewish communities.
The crusade of the priest Folkmar, beginning in Saxony, persecuted Jews in Magdeburg and later, on May 30, 1096 in Prague in Bohemia.
In general the crusader mobs did not fear any retribution as the local courts did not have the jurisidiction to persue them pawst their locality nor the ability to identify and prosecute individuals out of the mob.
www.1bx.com /en/German_Crusade%2C_1096.htm   (2148 words)

 Crusade information - Search.com
The origins of the crusades lie in developments in Western Europe earlier in the Middle Ages, as well as the deteriorating situation of the Byzantine Empire in the east.
The military experiences of the crusades also had their effects in Europe; for example, European castles became massive stone structures, as they were in the east, rather than smaller wooden buildings as they had typically been in the past.
The Crusaders' atrocities against Jews in the German and Hungarian towns, later also in those of France and England, and in the massacres of non-combatants in Palestine and Syria have become a significant part of the history of anti-Semitism.
www.search.com /reference/Crusade   (4546 words)

 The Norton Anthology of English Literature: The Middle Ages: Introduction
Although written in the language called "Anglo-Saxon," the poem was claimed by Danish and German scholars as their earliest national epic before it came to be thought of as an "Old English" poem.
Preached by Pope Urban II, the aim of the crusade was to unite warring Christian factions in the common goal of liberating the Holy Land from its Moslem rulers.
The taking of Jerusalem by the crusaders came to be celebrated by European writers of history and epic poetry as one of the greatest heroic achievements of all times.
www.wwnorton.com /nael/middleages/welcome.htm   (1213 words)

 German Crusade, 1096 - Biocrawler   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
The largest of these crusades, and the most involved in attacking Jews, was that led by Count Emich of Leiningen.
News of Emich's crusade spread quickly, and he was prevented from entering Mainz on May 25 by Bishop Ruthard.
Ruthard tried to protect the Jews by hiding them in his lightly fortified palace, but nevertheless Emich entered on May 27 and a massacre followed; Ruthard was possibly involved in this, as he took money from Jews who had been killed and then fled the city.
www.biocrawler.com /encyclopedia/German_Crusade%2C_1096   (1112 words)

 Suggested Reading and Books
The outline of the crusades is presented so that the reader becomes familiar with the place names, the route of the original crusades and the reason for placement of these castles.
Written by Anna Comnena, the daughter of the Byzantine Emperor Alexius I (1083-1153), this is the recollections by the princess of the Crusades as it occurred in her father's court during his reign.
Court intrigues, physical accounts of the Crusaders as they appear in her fathers court, the feeling of the life and politics of the time are all preserved in this book as a slice of culture in Byzantine Empire at the time of the First Crusade.
www.medievalcrusades.com /books.htm   (7607 words)

 Crusades: History
— November 27: The crusade is proclamed at the Council of Clermont.
But following the battle of Antioch, the crusader armeis were reduced to a level that would contribute to the Muslim reconquest decades later.
The crusaders shocks the Muslim world by eating human flesh from the adults and children massacred following their conquest.
i-cias.com /e.o/crusades_05.htm   (1178 words)

 History of the Crusades, From the First Crusade to the Last Crusade
The History of the Crusades: The Crusades of the Middle Ages were an almost continuous series of military-religious expeditions made by European Christians in the hope of wresting the Holy Land from the infidel Turks.
Death and desertions sapped the strength of the Crusaders, and their morale collapsed; but the discovery of a spear, which they believed to be the one used to wound the crucified Christ, inspired them to rise up and overthrow the Turks.
From the first Crusade to the last one, we hope that we have given you a taste of what your ancestors must have gone through fighting battles and wars for what they believed to be holy wars.
www.thetreemaker.com /last-name-meaning/crusades.html   (2739 words)

 The Peoples' Crusade
The Peoples' Crusade was the popular reaction to Pope Urban's call for armed assistance for the Byzantine Emporer.
The march of Walter's vanguard was peaceful enough, except for an incident at Semlin, where a straggling group of crusaders were murdered, and their clothes and armor dangled over the walls of the town.
The crusader cavalry was allowed to emerge from the valley before being bombarded with arrows.
www.brighton73.freeserve.co.uk /firstcrusade/Events/Other_events/peoples_crusade.htm   (1239 words)

 Jewish history Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
In the First Crusade (1096) flourishing communities on the Rhine and the Danube were utterly destroyed; see German Crusade, 1096.
In the Second Crusade (1147) the Jews in France were subject to frequent massacres.
The Crusades were followed by expulsions, including in, 1290, the banishing of all English Jews; in 1396, 100,000 Jews were expelled from France; and, in 1421 thousands were expelled from Austria.
www.hallencyclopedia.com /topic/Jewish_history.html   (4153 words)

 The First Crusade and the Jews of Western Europe -- A Brief History
The French Jews, concerned perhaps for their own welfare, perhaps for the German Jews', gave Peter a letter of introduction to the German Jews, asking the latter to help him financially; this they (specifically, the Jews of Trier) did, and Peter's band itself did little damage to the Jews at all.
As the crusading host, often no better than a mob, gathered, any Jewish community on its line of march was in jeopardy.
Indeed, of all the major teachers of Torah in the area, only one, Rabbi Yitzchak (son of Asher), survived the First Crusade; the decline of the German seminaries followed soon after (Agus, "Rashi", p.
www.math.wustl.edu /~msh210/crusade/history.html   (416 words)

 Peasant Crusade
In 1249, Saint Louis IX of France was away on crusade, and had been defeated...
The "Crusade" was preached in France by a peasant boy named Stephen from a village near Vendome.
Unfortunately, their zeal was not enough and the Turks decimated the peasant crusade in October of 1096.
psychicinvestigator.com /kw/cults/peasant-crusade.php   (410 words)

 Medieval Sourcebook: The Crusades
[Geary 28.4] Anna Comnena: On A Rude Crusader.
Odo of Deuil: The Crusade of Louis VII.
Ludolph of Suchem: The Fall of Acre, 1291 Philip de Novare: The Crusade of Frederick II, 1228-29.
www.fordham.edu /halsall/sbook1k.html   (1384 words)

 Growing in Faith
In July 1099, facing a disorganized and unprepared Muslim defense, the Crusaders took Jerusalem, led a mighty slaughter of Muslims, and fulfilled their Crusader vow by praying at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
The Third Crusade (1189), prompted by the Muslim capture of Jerusalem in 1187, was a moderate success.
While some crusaders headed to Egypt, others were bogged down in internal politics in Constantinople with the result that western Latin Christians ended up slaughtering eastern Greek Christians in that city for three days.
www.daughtersofstpaul.com /growinginfaith/catholicfaith/crusaders/crusadeshistory.html   (790 words)

 Western European Jewry - Where From?
Some died by their own hands; others tried to offer resistance and were lynched; while those who survived owed their good fortune to the fact that they were given shelter for the duration of the emergency in the fortified castle of the Bishop or Burgrave who, at least theoretically, was responsible for their legal protection.
Frequently this measure was not enough to prevent a massacre; but the survivors, once the crusading hordes had passed, invariably returned to their ransacked homes and synagogues to make a fresh start.
And, just as in the case of the crusades, there is not a shred of evidence for this imaginary exodus.
www.churchoftrueisrael.com /13th-tribe/13th-tribe06.html   (2504 words)

 1200–1299 (A.D.) World History — FactMonster.com
Mongols defeat Germans in Silesia, invade Poland and Hungary, withdraw from Europe after Ughetai, Mongol leader, dies.
(1096) is assembled in response to Emperor Alexius I. The Christians capture Antioch (1098) and Jerusalem (1099).
It is led by King Louis VIII of France and Holy Roman Emperor Conrad III.
www.factmonster.com /ipka/A0001215.html   (269 words)

 German Crusade, 1096
In these cities the Jews were offered the chance to convert, but many preferred death; in at least one case, a Jewish mother killed her children and then herself in order to avoid being killed by the crusaders.
The chronicler Albert of Aix realized that it was against canon law to force conversions, but this was apparently not known by Emich and his followers.
Jewish money was also used in France for financing the Second Crusade; the Jews were also attacked in many instances.
www.datamass.net /ge/german-crusade,-1096.html   (806 words)

 The People's Crusade (1096 AD) - DBA Variant Army List
The mobs were gathered in five large crusading armies, the principal of which was lead by Peter the Hermit, a priest of Amiens, who quickly emerged as the dynamic leader of the People's Crusade, collecting nearly 15,000 crusaders as he marched overland from Flanders to Cologne.
Walter and Peter were followed by three armies of crusaders recruited in Lorraine, eastern France, Bavaria and Alemmania, which were collectively dubbed the "German Crusades." Inspired by one of Peter's sermons, Gottschalk gathered a band of 15,000 and set out after the Hermit.
The DBA Early Crusader (IV/7) is fashioned on the armies of the Princes' Crusade and the corresponding DBM list does not specifically provide for a People's Crusade (or Germans' Crusade) option.
www.fanaticus.org /DBA/armies/Variants/PeoplesCrusade.html   (1523 words)

 the 7 crusades
The goal of the Crusaders was to rescue the Holy Land from the hands of the Turks.
The Crusaders attacked the Turks in July,1203, and that attack was beten of easily.
The sixth Crusade was led by Fredrick II of Germany.
www.asmilan.org /eschool/middle_ages/crusade/the7crusades.html   (515 words)

 Judaism, Jewish History Overview and Time Line
A wild, unrestrained throng, for which the crusade was only an excuse to indulge its rapacity, fell upon the peaceful Jews and sacrificed them to its fanaticism.
In his days the Third Crusade took place (1188); and the preparations for it proved to be momentous for the English Jews.
The renaissance of art and science was coeval with the death of the Byzantine empire; and the newly discovered art of printing scoffed at canonical laws which tried to enslave thought.
www.important.ca /jewish_history_judaism.html   (2785 words)

 Amazon.com: In the Year 1096: The First Crusade and the Jews: Books: Robert Chazan   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
We learn that the pope-inspired crusade was taken over by out-of-control German peasant mobs, aided by local burghers who wanted Jews eliminated as competitors rather than killed in Christ's honor.
As Chazan views the events of 1096 in historical perspective, he sees the political struggle of Masada eclipsing the religious conflict of the Rhineland as the modern paradigm of extreme Jewish resistance in the face of imminent destruction.
The author uses striking passages from contemporary chronicles to illustrate his points while giving the reader the opportunity to form his or her own opinion about the events there described (the chronicles are found, in a highly readable translation and in full lenght, in the appendix).
www.amazon.com /Year-1096-First-Crusade-Jews/dp/0827605757   (1187 words)

 German Crusade, 1096 - meaning of word
Although anti-Semitism had existed in Europe for centuries, this was the first organized pogrom, and is sometimes called "the first Holocaust." ==Background== The preaching of the First Crusade inadvertently inspired an outbreak of anti-Semitism.
==Folkmar and Gottschalk== In the spring of 1096 a number of small bands of knights and peasants, inspired by the preaching of the Crusade, set off from various parts of France and Germany.
The Bishop of Worms, Germany attempted to do the same, but the crusaders broke in to his episcopal palace and killed the Jews inside on May 18.
www.wordsonline.org /German_Crusade,_1096   (1164 words)

 Medieval Sourcebook: Soloman bar Samson: The Crusaders in Mainz,
When the father saw the death of his four beautiful, lovely children, he cried aloud, weeping and wailing, and threw him upon the sword in his hand so that his bowels came out, and wallowed in blood on the road together with the dying who were convulsed, rolling in their life's blood.
This is a description of a massacre during the first Crusade, 1096, by the same Joseph ben Joshua.
Although his translation is made from a i rather bold reconstruction of a German translation of the original Hebrew chronicle, it is still close enough to the original to give a good picture of some aspects of the crusade as it affected the Jews.
www.fordham.edu /halsall/source/1096jews-mainz.html   (2111 words)

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