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Topic: German resistance

  Memorial to the German Resistance - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Memorial to the German Resistance (German: Gedenkstätte Deutscher Widerstand), is a memorial and museum in Berlin, capital of Germany.
Although the memorial is primarily intended to commemorate those members of the German Army who tried to assassinate Hitler in 1944, it is also a memorial to the German Resistance in the broader sense.
All resisters are given equal respect, with no judgements being made about the motives of, for example, the Communist Party (which did not oppose the Nazis until the German attack on the Soviet Union in 1941).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Memorial_to_the_German_Resistance   (595 words)

 German Resistance - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The term German Resistance should not be understood as meaning that there was a united resistance movement in Germany at any time during the Nazi period, analogous to the more coordinated (for example) French Resistance.
These networks might better be described as "opposition" rather than “resistance,” since they engaged in little overt resistance activity against the regime apart from incitement of strikes, but rather sought to keep their parties alive in the hope of being able to take advantage of a political change in the future.
After the German defeat in the Battle of Stalingrad in 1942, they able to make contact with a significant number of Army officers who were convinced that Hitler was leading Germany to disaster, although fewer who were willing to engage in overt resistance.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/German_Resistance   (11059 words)

 France: Anti-German Resistance(1940-1944)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
Resistance camps were established in the massif, which were not really attacked by the Italian occupation troops.
When the Germans took the control of the zone formerly under Italian control, the situation hardly changed and the Resistance movements were able to control the few possible ways of access to the mountain.
The resistance movements was organized in Sassenage, near Grenoble, by a group of friends fond of rock-climbing, who had understood the strategical interest of Vercors.
www.crwflags.com /fotw/flags/fr^resm.html   (903 words)

 Rezension - Stoltzfus über Fest
Keeping a focus on the characters of resistance as much as on events, he places the history of the conspirators within a conventional narrative of political and military history of the Third Reich, but begins the story of German resistance with the rise to power of Hitler and the Nazi Party.
The July 20 conspiracy is "The German Resistance" because it was the "branch of resistance whose motives were the clearest and whose efforts came closest to succeeding" (5).
The German Resistance Memorial Center, seated in Nazi Berlin's wartime headquarters and commissioned in 1983 to document the entire extent of German resistance, has published over forty essays from eyewitnesses and scholars on various aspects and personages of resistance, and none are on Johann Georg Elser.
hsozkult.geschichte.hu-berlin.de /REZENSIO/buecher/stna0798.htm   (4345 words)

 PCTOnline.com :: Article :: "Nuts" to the Concept of German Cocokroach Resistance
It was ultimately determined that German cockroaches were predisposed to bendiocarb resistance due to their heavy and repeated exposure to the organo-chlorine insecticides during the 1950s and 1960s.
Resistance is a problem in German cockroach populations, not in the species.
German cockroaches easily produce four to five generations per year as well as numerous egg capsules that contain twice as many eggs as other species.
www.pctonline.com /articles/article.asp?Id=10&SubCatID=18&CatID=6   (1085 words)

 ::The French Resistance::
There were resistance movements that took direct orders from the Special Operations Executive, there was the communist resistance, groups loyal to de Gaulle, regional resistance movements that wanted independence etc. In the north, the target was simply the Germans while in the south, the Vichy government was a target as well as the Germans.
The first resistance movements were in the north, such as the OCM (Organisation Civile et Militaire) and by the end of 1940, six underground newspapers were being regularly printed in the north.
Post-war analysis of the success of the resistance shows that the 150 most successful acts of sabotage against factories in France between 1943 and 1944, used just 3,000 lbs of explosives - the equivalent of the bomb load of one single Mosquito plane.
www.historylearningsite.co.uk /french_resistance.htm   (1138 words)

 French Resistance
One of the first acts of public resistance to German occupation was a small public demonstration of secondary school students at the Arc de Triomphe on 11th November 1940, when they celebrated the Allied victory over Germany in the First World War.
These armed resistance groups were able to slow down the attempt by the 2nd SS Panzer Division to get to the Normandy beaches.
All resistance organizations of any composition or political affiliation, other than the three principal groups associated with the Coordinating Committee, must be invited to attach their members to one of these groups and to merge their action units with units of the Secret Army now being formed.
www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk /FRresistance.htm   (3108 words)

 Germans against Hitler: The German Resistance - DiscussAnything.com -
The German army group center had ceased to exist, and the Russians were moving with no one to stop them.
Another duties were given to important resistance members: The interior to Leber, the education to Popitz, the war to General Olbricht, and the posts to General Fellgiebel.
Stauffenberg was appointed to the "secretary of state in the the war council", and Yorck was appointed to the secretary of state in the prime minister's office.
www.discussanything.com /forums/showthread.php?t=69948   (754 words)

 Occupation and Resistance September 1939 - May 1945
Resistance often began as soon as the country was occupied.
Resistance members brought Norwegians to Sweden, where they learned police training and filled the vacuum left by the Germans when they surrendered.
The Resistance movements in Occupied Europe became a symbol of the struggle against the Nazis.
www.worldwar2database.com /html/resistance.htm   (1055 words)

 Foreign Affairs - Book Review - Plotting Hitler's Death: The Story of the German Resistance - Joachim Fest   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
This book is not "the story of the German resistance," but of the efforts of military men, of the conservative circle around Carl Goerdeler, the former mayor of Leipzig, and of the Kreisau Circle, led by Count Helmuth von Moltke, to overthrow and, if necessary, assassinate Hitler.
Later, the resisters were caught in a dilemma: "Victories, they felt, made [Hitler] popular with the people and therefore unassailable, while defeats laid them.
It was largely an upper-class movement that never reached the general population, unlike the resistance movements in occupied countries.
www.foreignaffairs.org /19970301fabook3435/joachim-fest/plotting-hitler-s-death-the-story-of-the-german-resistance.html?mode=print   (426 words)

 Library of Congress Information Bulletin - September 5 1994
The symposium participants discussed many aspects of German resistance, including the work of Stauffenberg's group, which has sometimes been dismissed as a band of aristocratic, opportunistic officers who, after realizing the Germans would lose the war, decided to kill Hitler to gain better terms from the Allies.
Because the representatives of the German resistance often arrived as representatives of Nazi Germany, Americans were naturally suspicious of their being Nazi agents, Dr. Mruck said.
Like political resistance, helping Jews was a criminal offense in Nazi Germany, Dr. Milton explained in her paper, "With a Touch of Compassion." Once the war began, she said, resistance to the Nazi regime was considered treason.
www.loc.gov /loc/lcib/94/9416/resist.html   (820 words)

 German Resistance Bibliography   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
Herman Graml et al., The German Resistance to Hitler (Berkeley, 1970).
Theodore Hamerow, On the Road to the Wolf’s Lair: German Resistance to Hitler
Martyn Housden, Resistance and Conformity in the Third Reich (London, 1997).
hometown.aol.com /baronvanc/wsitebib.htm   (306 words)

 Mommsen, H.; McGeoch, A., trans.: Alternatives to Hitler: German Resistance under the Third Reich.
Internal opposition to Nazism is often mythologized as heroic or dismissed as "too little, too late, and for the wrong reasons." These seminal writings trace the real and complex history of the German Resistance from the ascent of the Nazi Party to the July 1944 attempted assassination of Hitler.
While upholding resistance to Nazism as a value beyond reproach, Mommsen considers the varied and sometimes murky motives of those who resisted--motives that ranged from principled commitment to pragmatic self-interest by former Nazi sympathizers.
Julius Leber and the German resistance to Hitler 194
pup.princeton.edu /titles/7646.html   (560 words)

 German Resistance Exhibit from Berlin Opens in Low Rotunda Next Week
Peter Steinbach, professor of history at the University of Berlin and director of the German Resistance Memorial Center in Berlin, curated the exhibition, which consists of 43 freestanding panels with photographs of resistance leaders and wartime scenes, documents from the underground and text describing the various resistance movements.
The history of the German resistance is the subject of a permanant exhibition at the German Resistance Memorial Center at the historic Bendlerblock complex in Berlin, where the chief conspirators of the 20th of July were executed.
Among leaders of the German resistance featured in the exhibition is theologian Dietrich Bonhoeffer, who wrote and preached widely about the dangers of the Nazi movement.
www.columbia.edu /cu/record/archives/vol20/vol20_iss1/record2001.29.html   (897 words)

 Exhibit and Symposium Explore German Resistance to Nazism at the Library of Congress
These ruthless tactics made mass resistance difficult and resistance activities were usually confined to small groups and individuals.
Books on German resistance scholarship were selected to supplement the exhibition from the Library of Congress's collections.
A symposium entitled, "Neither Glorify nor Disparage: A Half- Century Assessment of German Resistance to Hitler," will be held at the Library of Congress on July 20, the 50th anniversary of Stauffenberg's attempt on Hitler's life.
www.loc.gov /today/pr/1994/94-113.html   (293 words)

 Lithuanian Resistance to German Mobilization Attempts 1941-1944
Nevertheless, the Germans established the headquarters for forming a Lithuanian SS legion in the city of Kaunas in early 1943.
The Germans did not oppose the conference, especially since it was in favor of mobilizing against the eminent communist threat.
The Germans were very surprised and deeply shocked by the number of volunteers since their own appeals went unheeded, as described.
www.lituanus.org /1986/86_4_02.htm   (3307 words)

 H-Net Review: Kevin P. Spicer on Alternatives to Hitler. German Resistance Under the Third Reich
Still, he stresses how difficult it was for them to overcome the deep-seated bond of loyalty between Hitler and the German people, which, from their perspective, was a psychological barrier that they needed to destroy without the risk of being labeled traitors to the nation.
According to Mommsen, the political thinking of the resisters was "borne along by their desire to find a new solution to the intellectual and political crisis, which they perceived as a pan-European phenomenon.
Chapter 11 addresses resistance among the military and chapter 12 examines antisemitism among the resisters in the context of the Holocaust.
www.h-net.org /reviews/showrev.cgi?path=178811121794414   (1981 words)

 Literary Encyclopedia: German Resistance to National Socialism [Nazism]
In contrast to fierce and ultimately successful partisan warfare in Europe’s Nazi occupied territories, for the German resistance movement the obstacles to regime change in Germany itself were enormous.
Although not a unified movement, der Widerstand (resistance) was active during the entire “Third Reich” (1933-45), spread throughout all public institutions, social classes, professions, and regions with increasing coordination between over 300 cells, and emissaries frequently contacting the Allies.
Half a million dissenters of the German political opposition – most of them on the left – were imprisoned in 1933 alone.
www.litencyc.com /php/stopics.php?rec=true&UID=1543   (626 words)

 Holocaust Literature: Resistance Accounts
Resistance occurred in many forms, from the simple act of prayer; to the organization of armed partisans; to the smuggling of food, arms and people into and out of ghettos.
Since she was fair-skinned, she managed to escape from the ghetto as an "Aryan" and began to work for the resistance as a liaison to people still in the ghetto.
Whenever Vladka was asked by German soldiers for her identity papers, she relied on her wits and eluded capture by means of bribe or bluff.
fcit.coedu.usf.edu /holocaust/arts/litResis.htm   (1486 words)

 Oxford University Press: German Resistance against Hitler: Klemens von Klemperer
He explores the formation of their policy and analyzes the relations of the Resistance with the Vatican and the ecumenical movement, the intelligence agencies of the Allied powers, and the resistance movements outside Germany.
Measured by the conventional standards of diplomacy, the German Resistance to Hitler was a failure.
However, von Klemperer shows that many of the principles and strategies of the German Resistance, albeit ignored or overridden by the Allies during wartime, were to find their place in the concerns of international relations in the post-war period.
www.oup.com /us/catalog/general/subject/HistoryWorld/European/Germany/?ci=0198205511&view=usa   (372 words)

 Non-Jewish Resistance   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
Within the German conservative elite and the German General Staff small pockets of opponents of the Nazi regime existed.
After the German occupation of Denmark in April 1940, a resistance movement began operations there; its activities included killing informers, raiding German military facilities, and sabotaging rail lines.
In May 1944, SS men ordered Roma (Gypsies) to leave their barracks at the Auschwitz Gypsy family camp (presumably to be sent to the gas chambers).
www.ushmm.org /wlc/article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10005551   (334 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
Despite the high risk of being caught by police with the help of their many informers, some individuals and groups attempted to resist Nazism even in Germany.
After the important Soviet victory at Stalingrad in early 1943, when it looked as though the tide was turning against the German army, a serious assassination attempt was planned by a group of German military officers and carried out in 1944.
The "White Rose" movement was founded in June 1942 by Hans Scholl, a 24-year-old medical student at the University of Munich, his 22-year-old sister Sophie, and 24-year-old Christoph Probst.
www.ushmm.org /outreach/rgerman.htm   (272 words)

 German Resistance to Hitler   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
Helena Schrader earned her PhD in History cum laude from the University of Hamburg with research on the German Resistance to Hitler.
She was the first Western historian to gain access to the military and municipal archives of the GDR (East Germany), doing research prior to German Reunification.
The dissertation was published in German (under her maiden name, Helena P. Page) by Bouvier Verlag, Bonn, in 1992 (2nd ed.
www.elysiumgates.com /~schrader/German_Resistance.htm   (240 words)

 Underground Resistance
Although it was Bonhoeffer’s duty as a German citizen to join the army, he did not want to, so a friend of his in the army, also a member of the resistance, got him a job in the German Abwehr, the equivalent of the CIA.
The methods of resisting may not have directly accomplished the goals of killing Hitler and cleansing Germany of Nazism from within, but Jews were able to escape and truths were made known.
When the Danish resistance was informed that the Nazis were soon planning to deport the Jews in Denmark, the Danes responded quickly by organizing an escape route for Jews by sea to Sweden.
www.meredith.edu /stones/undergro.htm   (3401 words)

 Amazon.de:  Plotting Hitler's Death: The Story of German Resistance: English Books   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
Any attempt to give ordinary people a consequent role in resisting National Socialism founders, he contends, on the realities of a totalitarian system, which can be challenged effectively only by those with the protection and influence to shield themselves as they draw conclusions and make plans.
While the resisters had no head for conspiracy and no coherent concept of Germany's future, they did accurately perceive their essential task: to remove Hitler, at whatever cost.
I have to concede that at first I was highly skeptical that Fest, not just any German, but a German from the Nazi generation, would write an honest account of the German Resistance (I admit to harboring prejudices against Germans; my parents are survivors of the Nazi death camps).
www.amazon.de /exec/obidos/ASIN/0805056483   (966 words)

 Amazon.ca: Encyclopedia of German Resistance to the Nazi Movement: Books   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-24)
German opposition to Hitler's national-socialist party took many forms before the Nazis came to power in 1933, including pamphlets, polemical books, novels, protests, lawsuits, George Grosz's graphics and John Heartfield's political posters.
A valuable resource, this volume includes 10 essays by German historians and political scientists discussing opposition to Hitler by socialists, communists, liberals, reactionary nationalists, dissenting Protestants and Catholics, women, exiles, youth and the military.
Originally published in German in 1994, this work does not totally dispel traditional assumptions regarding the resistance to the rise of Hitler and the Nazis, but it does clarify the kinds of resistance offered by groups as diverse as religious and youth movements.
www.amazon.ca /exec/obidos/ASIN/0826409458   (393 words)

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