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Topic: Gigapascal

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In the News (Tue 23 Jul 19)

 orbital loop
The mass required for an Earth loop would be in the order of 10 000 tons.
The maximum tensile forces would not exceed 2 gigapascal.
Potential applications would be the transfer of, for example, helium-3 from lunar strip-mining bases for nuclear fusion on Earth.
www.daviddarling.info /encyclopedia/O/orbital_loop.html   (267 words)

 ESRF Highlights 2001: Materials
The stresses in this layer are key parameters in the control of the corrosion rate: they might induce crack formation in the oxide, stabilisation of the normally unstable tetragonal zirconia and alter the diffusion rate of oxygen through the oxide.
Many experiments have been performed at room temperature on thick oxides showing a high compressive stress in the gigapascal (GPa) range.
If one wishes to measure the true stress level related to the oxidation mechanism, it is necessary to perform, an experiment at the temperature at which the oxides are grown (i.e.
www.esrf.fr /info/science/highlights/2001/materials/MAT10.html   (666 words)

 SPACE.com -- Nanotubes Might Not Have the Right Stuff
Laboratory tests have demonstrated that flawless individual nanotubes can withstand about 100 gigapascals of tension; however, if a nanotube is missing just one carbon atom, it can reduce its strength by as much as thirty percent.
Bulk materials made of many connected nanotubes are even weaker, averaging less than 1 gigapascal in strength.
In order to function, a space elevator ribbon would need to withstand at least 62 gigapascals of tension.
www.space.com /businesstechnology/technovel_nanotubes_060602.html   (589 words)

 Amorphous carbonia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Amorphous carbonia, also called a-carbonia or a-CO, is an exotic amorphous solid form of carbon dioxide that is analogous to amorphous silica glass.
It was first made in the laboratory in 2006 by subjecting dry ice to high pressures (40-50 gigapascal, or 400,000 to 500,000 atmospheres).
While normally carbon dioxide forms molecular crystals, where individual molecules are bound by Van der Waals forces, in amorphous carbonia a covalently bound three-dimensional network of atoms is formed, in a structure analogous to silicon dioxide or germanium dioxide glass.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Amorphous_carbonia   (195 words)

 News   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Neutron diffraction is in fact a unique tool which allows scientists to probe not only crystalline orders, as with X-ray diffraction, but also magnetic orders (by using complex environments, such as pressure, magnetic field, etc.).
Pyrrhotite is known to undergo a transition to a non-magnetic state at moderately high pressure (between 1 GPa (gigapascal) and 5 GPa).
In order to quantitatively test the hypothesis of demagnetisation by impact around Hellas and Argyre, it was therefore necessary to determine precisely the pressure at which the magnetism disappears.
www.ill.fr /pages/press/gb/press_releases/Mars.htm   (591 words)

 WorldNetDaily: Methane synthesized
from inorganic chemicals
The research team decided to squeeze together iron oxide, calcium carbonate, and water at temperatures as hot as 500 degrees Celsius and under pressures as high as 11 gigapascals (one gigapascal is equivalent to the pressure of 10,000 atmospheres).
Simply put, the scientists were trying to see if iron oxide, calcium carbonate, and water would produce methane if they were combined under pressures and temperatures comparable to those experienced in the Earth's upper mantle.
The goal was to prove that a hydrocarbon of the petroleum family could be produced via simple inorganic reactions involving no biological agents whatsoever.
www.worldnetdaily.com /news/printer-friendly.asp?ARTICLE_ID=47471   (808 words)

 The Eros of Cratering and Explosions
When an impact occurs in rock at 15 km/s, the peak pressures reach 500 GPa.
The GPa, or gigapascal, may be an unfamiliar unit of pressure, but it corresponds to 9900 times atmospheric pressure, and even a few GPa suffices to crush the strongest steels we know how to make.
Hence when the iron meteorite hit the ground to make Barringer Crater, it was completely crushed, and partly melted and vaporized, even though iron meteorites are made of very strong material.
www.spacedaily.com /news/near-00zz.html   (1237 words)

 CMS—Search for Methane in Earth's Mantle   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Research indicates that methane bubbles form when iron oxide, calcite, and water are heated to about 1,500°C at a pressure of 5.7 gigapascals and then decompressed at room temperature to 0.5 gigapascal.
Petroleum geologists have long searched beneath Earth’s surface for oil and gas, knowing that hydrocarbons form from the decomposition of plants and animals buried over time.
In one experiment, a sample of iron oxide, calcite, and water is heated to 600°C at a pressure of about 2 gigapascals.
www-cms.llnl.gov /s-t/cheetah_methane_str.html   (1312 words)

 Lubrication Regimes and Friction Investigation At Ultra Low Contact Pressures Using The Nano Tribome
The Scanning Force Microscope (SFM) has been the instrument of choice for investigating friction, wear and lubrication at such small scales.
However, the SFM often produces contact pressures in the gigapascal range owing to the small dimensions of the tip.
The Nano Tribometer from CSM Instruments allows a much greater variation in contact conditions, and is therefore more suited to the study of lubricants at very low loads.
www.azonano.com /Details.asp?ArticleID=1808   (1403 words)

 Case Study Series - Leonid Dubrovinsky - geoscientist at the University of Bayreuth (Germany) and ESRF user
Our idea is to find out the properties of the constituents we know depending on the conditions where they are.
Factors like the high temperature - it reaches 6000 degrees Kelvin - and the pressure - over 300 Gigapascal- can change the characteristics of substances.
We also want to know how constituents can interact with each other taking into account the environment where they are set.
www.lightsources.org /cms/?pid=1001429   (852 words)

 EETimes.com - IC makers gird for 65-nm fray   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Because the 65-nm node has no major material shifts, few expect similar problems in manufacturing chips with 65-nm line widths.
Strained silicon, with its gigapascal levels of stress brought to bear on the silicon channel, could cause yield-killing defects, "especially for companies that are new to strained silicon at the 65-nm node," said Scott Thompson, an associate professor at the University of Florida at Gainesville, who helped develop Intel Corp.'s strained technology.
Franck Arnaud, a CMOS technology development manager at STMicroelectronics, said, "The key change for us at the 65-nm node was not the transistor itself, but the link with design." For example, chips must be laid out in more yield-friendly vertical and horizontal patterns.
www.eetimes.com /showArticle.jhtml?articleID=175400161   (742 words)

 Cornell News: No metallic hydrogen yet
But most previous theories, he says, "have grossly underestimated the pressure required to do this."
(A GPa is a gigapascal, a measurement of atmospheric pressure, and is equal to 10,000 times the pressure at the Earth's surface.
The pressure at the center of the Earth is about 361 GPa, or more than four million times surface pressure.)
www.news.cornell.edu /releases/May98/misbehaving.hydrogen.deb.html   (682 words)

 Slashdot | New Material Harder Than Diamond
From the article: 'The hardness of a material is measured by its isothermal bulk modulus.
The hardness of a material is measured by its isothermal bulk modulus.
Aggregated diamond nanorods have a modulus of 491 gigapascals (GPa), compared with 442 GPa for conventional diamond.
rss.slashdot.org /Slashdot/slashdot?m=249   (5150 words)

 S&TR | July/August 2005: The Search for Methane in Earth's Mantle
July/August 2005: The Search for Methane in Earth's Mantle
Also, their transparency permits diagnostic radiation, such as x rays and visible light, to pass unhampered through their crystalline structure.
Thermochemical calculations for a mixture of iron oxide, calcite, and water heated to 500°C show that methane is produced at pressures up to almost 7 gigapascals.
www.llnl.gov /str/JulAug05/Fried.html   (1340 words)

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