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Topic: Glucose


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  Glucose - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The glucose molecule can exist in an open-chain (acyclic) and ring (cyclic) form, the latter being the result of an intramolecular reaction between the aldehyde C atom and the C-5 hydroxyl group to form an intramolecular hemiacetal.
In animals, glucose is synthesized in the liver and kidneys from non-carbohydrate intermediates, such as pyruvate and glycerol, by a process known as gluconeogenesis.
Some of glucose goes directly to fuel brain cells and erythrocytes, while the rest makes its way to the liver and muscles, where it is stored as glycogen, and to fat cells, where it is stored as fat.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Glucose   (1210 words)

  
 Glucose meter - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A glucose meter (or glucometer) is a medical device for determining the approximate amount of glucose in a drop of blood obtained by pricking the skin with a lancet.
Glucose levels in plasma (one of the components of blood) are generally 10-15% higher than glucose measurements in whole blood (and even more after eating).
Besides glucose oxidase, the test kit containes a benzidine derivative, which is oxidized to a blue polymer by the hydrogen peroxide formed in the oxidation reaction.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Glucose_meter   (1692 words)

  
 Glucose - MSN Encarta
Glucose is a normal constituent of the blood of animals (see Sugar Metabolism).
Glucose is formed by the hydrolysis of many carbohydrates, including sucrose, maltose, cellulose, starch, and glycogen.
Glucose is made industrially by the hydrolysis of starch under the influence of dilute acid or, more commonly, under that of enzymes.
encarta.msn.com /encnet/refpages/RefArticle.aspx?refid=761565342   (207 words)

  
 Carbohydrates - Glucose
Glucose is by far the most common carbohydrate and classified as a monosaccharide, an aldose, a hexose, and is a reducing sugar.
Glucose is also called blood sugar as it circulates in the blood at a concentration of 65-110 mg/mL of blood.
Glucose is initially synthesized by chlorophyll in plants using carbon dioxide from the air and sunlight as an energy source.
www.elmhurst.edu /~chm/vchembook/543glucose.html   (575 words)

  
 Glucose
Glucose, a simple monosaccharide sugar, is one of the most important carbohydrates and is used as a source of energy in animals and plants.
Some of this glucose goes directly to fuel brain cells, while the rest makes its way to the liver and muscles, where it is stored as glycogen ("animal starch"), and to fat cells, where it is stored as fat.
Glucose is prepared commercially via the enzymatic hydrolysis of starch.
www.mrsci.com /Chemical-Pathology/Glucose.php   (1038 words)

  
 Carbohydrates   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
Glucose is the most important monosaccharide to all organisms because of the central role it plays in metabolism.
A disaccharide consisting of one glucose monomer and one galactose monomer.
As with amylose, celluloseis a linear polymer of glucose.
www.mansfield.ohio-state.edu /~sabedon/biol1025.htm   (1257 words)

  
 Glucose
As you have learned, glucose can be synthesized from water and carbon dioxide by a process known as photosynthesis.
In turn, glucose can be used as a starting material to make fats, carboxylic acids and amino acids, and other chemicals.
Glucose can also be converted into a variety of other sugar molecules by doing such things as reorienting the location of hydroxyl groups, such as when it is converted into galactose, or by oxidizing one carbon and reducing another by shifting the locations of the hydrogen atoms, such as when it is converted into fructose.
dl.clackamas.cc.or.us /ch106-07/glucose.htm   (802 words)

  
 MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Glucose test
Glucose is a major source of energy for most cells of the body.
The major hormone regulating glucose concentration in the body is insulin (although other hormones such as glucagon, epinephrine, and cortisol also affect it).
Glucose levels are measured most commonly to diagnose diabetes or to monitor adequacy of diabetic control.
www.nlm.nih.gov /medlineplus/ency/article/003482.htm   (877 words)

  
 Glucose
Glucose can be thought of as a derivative of hexane (a 6-carbon chain) with -OH groups attached to every carbon except the endmost one, which exists as an aldehyde carbonyl.
Glucose is a ready source of energy, since its carbon atoms are easily oxidised (burnt) to form carbon dioxide, releasing energy in the process.
Later, when the level of glucose in the blood decreases as it used to fuel cell activities, glycogen is gradually broken down back to glucose units which re-enter the blood to replace what has been lost.
www.ch.ic.ac.uk /vchemlib/mim/bristol/glucose/glucose_text.htm   (939 words)

  
 Muscle Physiology - Glucose Metabolism
Two different pathways are involved in the metabolism of glucose: one anaerobic and one aerobic.
Glucose in the bloodstream diffuses into the cytoplasm and is locked there by phosphorylation.
A glucose molecule is then rearranged slightly to fructose and phosphorylated again to fructose diphosphate.
muscle.ucsd.edu /musintro/glucose.html   (364 words)

  
 Glucose Tests: The Test
Blood glucose testing can be used to screen healthy, asymptomatic individuals for diabetes and pre-diabetes because diabetes is a common disease that begins with few symptoms.
Increased urine glucose levels may be seen with medications, such as estrogens and chloral hydrate, and with some forms of renal disease.
Hypoglycemia is characterized by a drop in blood glucose to a level where first it causes nervous system symptoms (sweating, palpitations, hunger, trembling, and anxiety), then begins to affect the brain (causing confusion, hallucinations, blurred vision, and sometimes even coma and death).
www.labtestsonline.org /understanding/analytes/glucose/test.html   (1305 words)

  
 Diagnosing Diabetes: glucose tolerance test and blood glucose levels.
When a person has a fasting glucose equal to or greater than 110 and less than 126 mg/dl, they are said to have impaired fasting glucose.
A person is said to have impaired glucose tolerance when the 2-hour glucose results from the oral glucose tolerance test are greater than or equal to 140 but less than 200 mg/dl.
A person has diabetes when oral glucose tolerance tests show that the blood glucose level at 2 hours is equal to or more than 200 mg/dl.
www.endocrineweb.com /diabetes/diagnosis.html   (771 words)

  
 Glucose and dextrose information page. All about glucose and dextrose and the role it plays in your diet.
Glucose which is also referred to as dextrose, is a moderately sweet sugar found in vegetables and fruit.
When glucose is fermented by the enzyme zymase, in yeast, it results in the formation of carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol.
It is the basic structure to which all carbohydrates are reduced to in the end, for transport via the bloodstream and use by the cells of the body.
www.anyvitamins.com /glucose-info.htm   (214 words)

  
 WSBTV.com - Health Encyclopedia - All About Blood Glucose Monitoring
Blood glucose monitoring is a measurement of glucose (sugar) in the blood.
The finger is pricked and a drop of blood is put on a special strip, which uses a chemical substance to determine the amount of glucose in the blood.
The test allows the person with diabetes to carefully monitor blood glucose levels, to assure that they are within the normal range.
www.wsbtv.com /encyclopedia/6864467/detail.html   (596 words)

  
 Glucose oxidase   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-21)
The enthalpy change associated with the oxidation of glucose by glucose oxidase is sufficiently large so as to be detected with a thermistor and has formed the basis of a number of glucose biosensor configurations.
The enantioselective bioelectrocatalyzed oxidation of glucose by glucose oxidase at an electrode modified by a chiral electron-transfer mediator: (A) Organization of the chiral ferrocene monolayer-modified Au-electrode and its interaction with soluble GOx.
Since the rate-limiting process in the oxidation of glucose is the electron-transfer between the substrate and the enzyme redox-center, the amperometric response of the electrode is dependant on the glucose concentration.
chem.ch.huji.ac.il /~eugeniik/glucose_oxidase.htm   (3439 words)

  
 New to Diabetes? Do You Have a Loved One Recently Diagnosed?
Diabetes is a disease in which the body is unable to properly use and store glucose (a form of sugar).
Glucose backs up in the bloodstream — causing one’s blood glucose (sometimes referred to as blood sugar) to rise too high.
But happily, a nationwide study completed over a 10-year period showed that if people keep their blood glucose as close to normal as possible, they can reduce their risk of developing some of these complications by 50 percent or more.
www.joslin.harvard.edu /Beginners_guide_522.asp   (885 words)

  
 Howstuffworks "How Diabetes Works"
Glucose is a simple sugar that provides energy to all of the cells in your body.
The cells take in glucose from the blood and break it down for energy (some cells, like brain cells and red blood cells, rely solely on glucose for fuel).
In a diabetic, the blood glucose is usually higher after fasting, rises more after the glucose solution and takes from four to six hours to come down.
www.howstuffworks.com /diabetes1.htm   (920 words)

  
 Blood Glucose
Oral glucose tolerance test is used to diagnose diabetes that occurs during pregnancy (gestational diabetes).
A fasting glucose level below 40 mg/dL (2.2 mmol/L) in women or below 50 mg/dL (2.8 mmol/L) in men that is accompanied by symptoms of hypoglycemia may mean you have an insulinoma, a tumor that produces abnormally high amounts of insulin.
An oral glucose tolerance test may be done with a blood glucose test to confirm a diagnosis of diabetes.
www.webmd.com /hw/diabetes_1_2/hw8252.asp   (1454 words)

  
 Glucose, Glucose
Glucose is vital to the functioning of many of the body's cells, including muscle cells, because it yields energy in the form of ATP when it is broken down.
A buildup of lactic acid due to "excessive" glucose breakdown is thought to impair exercise performance.
Thus, many athletes have what might be termed a "love-hate relationship" with glucose: they need it to fuel their muscles during exercise, yet burning it at high rates can get them into trouble.
faculty.washington.edu /crowther/Misc/Songs/glucose.shtml   (307 words)

  
 GLUCOSE
These eight isomers (including glucose itself) are all diastereoisomers in relation to each other and all belong to the D-series.
We can speculate on the reasons why glucose, and not another monosaccharide such as fructose (Fru), is so widely used.
Through glycolysis and later in the reactions of the Citric acid cycle (TCAC), glucose is oxidized to eventually form CO and water, yielding energy, mostly in the form of ATP.
www.solarnavigator.net /solar_cola/glucose.htm   (1087 words)

  
 eMedicine - Glucose Intolerance : Article by Samuel T Olatunbosun
Glucose intolerance may be present in many patients with cirrhosis due to decreased hepatic glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis.
Glucose intolerance: Diagnosis of glucose intolerance may also be coincidental in patients with various conditions that may be complicated with glucose intolerance.
Hepatic glucose output is decreased; peripheral insulin-stimulated uptake is increased.
www.emedicine.com /med/topic897.htm   (6409 words)

  
 Diabetes Information - Glucose Meters and Diabetes Management
Most glucose meters are able to read glucose levels over a broad range of values from as low as 0 to as high as 600 mg/dL.
Third-party or "generic glucose reagent strips" are test strips developed as a less expensive option than the strips that the manufacturer intended the meter to be used with.
Testing urine for glucose, which was once the best way for patients to manage their diabetes, has mostly now been replaced by self-monitoring of blood glucose.
www.fda.gov /diabetes/glucose.html   (5800 words)

  
 Blood Sugar or Glucose information from HealthCentersOnline - Page 1
When food is eaten, it is broken down into glucose and absorbed into the bloodstream.
This natural hormone helps carry the glucose from the bloodstream into the cells of muscle and fat tissue.
Inside the cells, glucose – which is made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen – is broken down and converted into adenosine triphosphate, better known as ATP.
diabetes.healthcentersonline.com /glucose/glucose.cfm   (380 words)

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