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Topic: Glutamine

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In the News (Sun 21 Oct 18)

The amino acid L-glutamate is metabolized to L-glutamine in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme glutamine synthase, a reaction which, in addition to L-glutamate, requires ammonia, ATP and magnesium.
Glutamine has been shown to be beneficial when administered in the form of glutamine peptides via TPN in some patients with varying forms of catabolic stress, e.g., some cancer, transplantation, intensive-care, surgical and immune-suppressed patients.
Benefits from enteral glutamine supplementation are generally less pronounced, but preliminary significant results have been reported with the use of oral glutamine in very-low-birth-weight infants and in some major trauma patients in whom glutamine seems to strengthen immunity, particularly in the gastrointestinal tract.
www.pdrhealth.com /drug_info/nmdrugprofiles/nutsupdrugs/lgl_0125.shtml   (2338 words)

 Glutamine - Supplements   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Glutamine supplements have also been shown to play a role in counteracting the catabolic (muscle-wasting) effects of stress hormones such as cortisol, which are typically elevated by strenuous exercise.
Glutamine is also thought to increase cell volume, where it may stimulate the activity of enzymes in the liver and muscles involved in glycogen storage as well as those involved in anabolic activities such as protein synthesis.
Glutamine supplements have also been hypothesized to increase levels of growth hormone, which may be expected to help stimulate protein synthesis and encourage gains in muscle mass and strength, but reliable evidence for this effect of glutamine supplements has not been demonstrated by clinical studies.
www.supplementwatch.com /supatoz/supplement.asp?supplementId=150   (1066 words)

 Glutamine Abstracts
Glutamine is an important metabolic substrate for cells cultivated under in vitro conditions and is a precursor for purines, pyrimidines and phospholipids.
Glutamine depletion in the cultivation medium decreases the mitogen-inducible proliferation of lymphocytes, possibly by arresting the cells in the G0-G1 phase of the cell cycle.
Glutamine dietary supplementation produced blood glutamine levels that were similar in both tumor-bearing and nontumor-bearing rats, apparently abrogating the increase in system n activity that was observed in tumor-bearing rats that were not fed supplemental glutamine.
www.integratedhealth.com /infoabstract/glutamineab.html   (5668 words)

 Le Magazine, September 1999 - Report: Glutamine: The Essential "Non-Essential" Amino Acid
Specifically, glutamine is utilized as a source of energy and for nucleotide synthesis by all rapidly dividing cells, such as the cells of the intestinal lining and certain immune cells (thymocytes, lymphocytes and macrophages).
Due to its dependence on sodium transport, glutamine is one of the amino acids that control the volume of water in the cells, and the osmotic pressure (osmoregulation) in various tissues.
Most glutamine in the diet (and also most dietary glutamate and aspartate) is metabolized by the intestines, both to serve as intestinal fuel and also to produce glutathione, nitric oxide, polyamines, nucleotides and the amino acids alanine, citrulline and proline, making these available to the rest of the body.
www.lef.org /magazine/mag99/sep99-report3.html   (5349 words)

Glutamine is used to protect the lining of the small and large intestines from damage caused by chemotherapy or radiation.
Glutamine may also protect against the development of mucositis (breakdown of the mucosal membranes of the mouth and nasal passages) caused by therapy for head and neck cancer.
Glutamine, usually in the form of L-glutamine, is available as an individual supplement or as part of a protein supplement.
www.umm.edu /altmed/ConsSupplements/Glutaminecs.html   (2342 words)

 Welcome to The Supplement Research Foundation
Glutamine is a neutral amino acid and is the most abundant amino acid found in human muscle and plasma.
Glutamine has come to be known as a "conditionally essential" amino acid because in times of stress (exercise is stress), the body requires more of it to maintain both blood and muscle stores of glutamine.
Glutamine peptide is also much more stable in solution, higher temperatures, and low PH than free form glutamine (free form L-glutamine tends to break down to ammonia and glutamic acid rather quickly in solution).
www.tsrf.com /supplements/supplements_lglut.htm   (465 words)

 Glutamine is one of the 20 amino acids encoded by the standard genetic code.
Glutamine is one of the 20 amino acids encoded by the standard genetic code.
Glutamine's three-letter abbreviation is Gln, and its one-letter abbreviation is Q. three-letter designation for either glutamine or glutamic acid is Glx (one-letter abbreviation: Z).
Glutamine can, hence, be used as a nitrogen donor in the biosynthesis of many compounds, including other amino acids, purines, and pyrimidines.
glutamine.cinephiles.net   (414 words)

 PROVET HEALTHCARE INFORMATION - Glutamine   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Glutamine is a 5-carbon amino acid which is important in several metabolic pathways.
Enterocytes preferentially use glutamine as their energy source and so glutamine is important to maintain integrity of the intestinal mucosa.
For this reason many gastroenterologists consider glutamine to be a "conditionally essential nutrient" and ensure adequate glutamine intake in patients with severe gastrointestinal disease.
www.provet.co.uk /health/diseases/glutamine.htm   (200 words)

 Glutamine GL3 by AST
Glutamine provides a critical link in muscle metabolism not shared by any other single amino acid, and GL3 from AST makes utilizing glutamine a realistic and effective endeavor.
Glutamine is the most abundant single amino acid in the blood and in the intracellular free amino acid pool (most abundant amino acid in muscle tissue).
Glutamine is a key factor in muscle growth, and controlling the “skeletal muscle/whole body glutamine gradient” is critical in maintaining and building muscle tissue.
www.musclemaster.com /info/glutamine_ast.htm   (598 words)

 L-Glutamine 1000 mg, 100 tablets - health-marketplace.com
Glutamine is an important amino acid that may help to maintain muscle, boost the immune system, support gastrointestinal health, and sustain healthy growth hormone levels, and supply energy to the brain.
Glutamine, however, is referred to as a “conditionally” essential amino acid because in certain circumstances, the body is unable to produce enough glutamine to meet its needs.6 Studies have shown that prolonged exercise, surgery, burns, and infectious disease can deplete glutamine levels by as much as 50%.2 Under these conditions, supplementation with glutamine becomes crucial.
Glutamine may help to maintain healthy muscle tissue in people who are susceptible to a loss of muscle mass.
www.health-marketplace.com /L-Glutamine.htm   (1709 words)

 Bodybuilding.com - Prolab Glutamine Powder - Free Amino Acid! On sale now!
Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in muscle tissue and plays a key role in many bodily functions.
Glutamine supplementation has been shown to prevent the loss of body mass through the positive role glutamine plays in protein synthesis and its action as a potent anabolic agent.
Glutamine is the single most abundant amino acid found in skeletal muscle and is widely believed to help with muscle cell volumization.
www.bodybuilding.com /store/pl/glutamine.html   (350 words)

Glutamine acts as a nitrogen carrier in the body, transporting ammonia to the stomach in order to convert it to urea in the liver, or excreting it via the kidneys.
Additionally, there is evidence that glutamine acts as a substrate for transamination (the reaction between an amino acid and an alpha-keto acid through which the amino group is transferred from the former to the latter) reactions in the liver [114].
Glutamine is superior to glucose in stimulating water and electrolyte absorption across rabbit ileum.
www.abcbodybuilding.com /magazine04/glutamine.htm   (10345 words)

 L-Glutamine   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Glutamine is considered a non-essential amino acid, as human cells can readily synthesize it via activity of the enzyme glutamine synthetase (see Figure 1), which is found in high concentration in skeletal muscle, liver, brain, and stomach tissue.
Glutamine is converted in the mitochondria of intestinal cells to glutamate, then alpha ketoglutarate, which is utilized in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA, Krebs) cycle for ATP production (see Figure 2).
Glutamine supplementation is necessary in trauma and surgical patients, and in the critically ill to prevent gut mucosal atrophy, infection, and to reduce gut permeability, sepsis, and possibly multiple organ failure.
www.thorne.com /altmedrev/fulltext/glutamine4-4.html   (4033 words)

Although glutamine is heavily used by all rapidly dividing cells, it has been shown to prolong survival by slowing down carbolic wasting (cachexia).
Clinical use and animal studies have "suggested" that glutamine can be fiven to cancer patients "without stimulating tumor growth or metastasis." Patients should consult their physicians before beginning use.
Glutamine was used in conjunction with methotrexate at.5g/kg/day.
www.annieappleseedproject.org /lglutamine.html   (290 words)

 GLUTAMINE (MDXexchange)
Glutamine is involved with the synthesis of proteins, nucleotides, and amino sugars.
Glutamine, manufactured in the liver from glutamate, cysteine, and glycine, is an extremely important substrate in supporting liver detoxification processes and acts as a powerful antioxidant protecting hepatocytes.
Glutamine and human growth hormone caused an increase in body weight and lean muscle mass and a decrease in body fat without causing significant adverse reactions in three case studies.
www.micromedex.com /products/updates/drugdex_updates/de/glutamine.html   (2702 words)

 L-Glutamine Amino Acid
Glutamine is particularly valuable to the body during times of stress.
Glutamine's effects on replenishing the body after stress or trauma have been medically documented in Europe where L-Glutamine is commonly given to patients in hospitals.
Glutamine is the most recent amino acid to generate excitement as a HGH releaser, thanks to a 1995 study by Tomas C. Welbourne of Louisiana State University College of Medicine in Shreveport.
www.csmngt.com /lglutamine.htm   (526 words)

 Life Extension Foundation Pharmaceutical Grade Supplements
L-Glutamine 500 mg, 100 capsules Item Catalog Number: 345 Glutamine is a nonessential amino acid that is the most abundant free amino acid in human muscle and plasma.
L-Glutamine Powder 100 grams Item Catalog Number: 141 Glutamine is a nonessential amino acid that is the most abundant free amino acid in human muscle and plasma.
L-Glutamine 750 grams (26.4 oz) powder Item Catalog Number: 2136 Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the body and is involved in many metabolic processes.
www.lef.org /newshop/cgi-shop/searchItems.cgi?keyword=dptglutamine   (149 words)

 L   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid found in the muscles of the body.
Glutamine is considered by most athletes to be an essential part of their nutritional program.
Glutamine is unique it contains two nitrogen atoms, nitrogen helps clear toxic ammonia from the tissues, especially brain tissue, and can transfer nitrogen from one area to another.
www.internalhealth.com /l_glutamine.htm   (419 words)

 Bodybuilding.com - Glutamine Information and Product Listing! Glutamine FAQ!
Glutamine is highly in demand throughout the body.
Since the body relies on glutamine as cellular fuel for the immune system, scientific studies have shown that glutamine supplementation can minimize the breakdown of muscle tissue and improve protein metabolism.
Since bodybuilders use a lot of their glutamine when working out, they are more susceptible to health related problems, as the immune system relies heavily on this amino acid.
www.bodybuilding.com /store/glutamine.html   (464 words)

 Glutamine - Vitacost   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid (protein building block) in the body and is involved in more metabolic processes than any other amino acid.
Glutamine is converted to glucose when more glucose is required by the body as an energy source.
A physician should be consulted for the supplemental use of glutamine for the support of serious health conditions.
www.vitacost.com /science/hn/Supp/Glutamine.htm   (675 words)

Glutamine enhancement of structure and function in transplanted small intestine in the rat.
of glutamine on ultrastructure of the graft enterocyte.
Glutamine is produced mainly by the muscle tissue.
www.cfsn.com /glutamine3.html   (1788 words)

Glutamine or glutamic acid effects on intestinal growth and disaccharidase activity in infant
Effects of hypothyroidism on glucose and glutamine metabolism by the gut of the rat.
glutamine from luminal oligopeptides was investigated in humans.
www.cfsn.com /glutamine1.html   (1566 words)

The cells of the immune system need an adequate supply of Glutamine or they cannot defend the body against infection and disease.
Glutamine keeps the immune system working at maximum capacity and stimulates the production of antioxidants.
Studies show that Glutamine is needed to keep the digestive tract healthy.
www.bioactivenutrients.com /Glutamine.html   (582 words)

 Prolab Glutamine
You will be prompted at Checkout to accept this offer if your order qualifies.
Do not add the item to your shopping cart unless you want to purchase them.
Entire order will be delayed until all ordered items are in stock.
www.netrition.com /prolab_glutamine_page.html   (980 words)

 AST Sports Science - GL3 L-Glutamine
Glutamine provides a critical link in muscle metabolism not shared by any other single amino acid, and GL3 makes utilizing glutamine a realistic and effective endeavor.
“GL3 is by far the best Glutamine supplement I have ever used.
If we use it, we'll send you a FREE AST Sports Science t-shirt!
www.ast-ss.com /Products/ProductPage.asp?ProdID=17   (660 words)

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