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Topic: Glycogen

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  Glycogen - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Glycogen (commonly known as animal starch although this name is inaccurate) is a polysaccharide that is the principal storage form of glucose (Glc) in animal and human cells.
Glycogenin is a glycosyltransferase and occurs as a dimer in the core of glycogen.
Glycogen phosphorylase is the primary enzyme of glycogen breakdown.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Glycogen   (1029 words)

 glycogen - HighBeam Encyclopedia
glycogen, starchlike polysaccharide (see carbohydrate) that is found in the liver and muscles of humans and the higher animals and in the cells of the lower animals.
Glycogen is formed by the liver from glucose in the bloodstream and is stored in the liver; conversion of glucose to glycogen (glycogenesis) and hydrolysis of glycogen to glucose (glycogenolysis) together are the usual mechanism for maintenance of normal levels of blood sugar.
Glycogen is also produced by and stored in muscle cells; during short periods of strenuous activity, energy is released in the muscles by direct conversion of glycogen to lactic acid.
www.encyclopedia.com /doc/1E1-glycogen.html   (342 words)

 What Is Glycogen Storage Disease (GSD)?
The underlying problem in all of the glycogen storage diseases is the use and storage of glycogen.
Glycogen is a complex material made of individual glucoses linked together in long chains with many branches off the chains (just like a tree).
Glycogen is mainly stored in the liver and muscle cells; the kidneys and intestines store some limited amounts of glycogen.
www.agsdus.org /html/whatisglycogenstoragedisease.html   (839 words)

Glycogen is considered the principal storage form of glucose and is found mainly in liver and muscle, with kidney and intestines adding minor storage sites.
Glycogen phosphorylase is a homodimeric enzyme that exist in two distinct conformational states: a T (for tense, less active) and R (for relaxed, more active) state.
The activity of glycogen synthase is regulated by phosphorylation of serine residues in the subunit proteins.
www.med.unibs.it /~marchesi/glycogen.html   (2470 words)

Glycogen, a branched polymer of glucose, is a storage molecule whose accumulation is under rigorous nutritional control in many cells.
The activation state of glycogen synthase in glg1 glg2 cells is suppressed, suggesting that the Gig proteins may additionally influence the phosphorylation state of glycogen synthase.
This is proglycogen, a low molecular mass (similar to 400 kDa) form of glycogen that serves as a stable intermediate on the pathways to and from depot glycogen (macroglycogen, mass 10(7) Da, in muscle).
www.msu.edu /~delgadoi/glycogen.html   (809 words)

 Glycogen Guide - Carb Glucose Energy Store
A third glycogen location is the brain, where small amounts of glycogen are found in the glial cells.
Glycogen is generated from glucose (a simple monosaccharide sugar) by the enzyme glycogen synthase.
The conversion of glucose to glycogen (glycogenesis) and hydrolysis of glycogen to glucose (glycogenolysis), are the usual mechanism for maintenance of normal levels of blood sugar.
www.carbs-information.com /glycogen-glucose-energy-store.htm   (270 words)

 Carbohydrates - Glycogen
Glycogen is the storage form of glucose in animals and humans which is analogous to the starch in plants.
Structurally, glycogen is very similar to amylopectin with alpha acetal linkages, however, it has even more branching and more glucose units are present than in amylopectin.
In glycogen, the branches occur at intervals of 8-10 glucose units, while in amylopectin the branches are separated by 12-20 glucose units.
www.elmhurst.edu /~chm/vchembook/547glycogen.html   (384 words)

 Glycogen Metabolism
Glycogen Synthase catalyzes transfer of the glucose moiety of UDP-glucose to the hydroxyl at C4 of the terminal residue of a glycogen chain to form an
Instead of being converted to glycogen, glucose-1-phosphate in liver may be converted to glucose-6-phosphate, and dephosphorylated for release to the blood.
The conformation of Glycogen Synthase induced by the allosteric activator glucose-6-phosphate is susceptible to dephosphorylation by Protein Phosphatase.
www.rpi.edu /dept/bcbp/molbiochem/MBWeb/mb1/part2/glycogen.htm   (1222 words)

 SSE #79: Dietary Carbohydrate & Performance of Brief, Intense Exercise   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Reduction of muscle glycogen during a typical resistance exercise bout or a single 30-s sprint is likely to be in the range of 25-35% of the total glycogen store in the active muscles, whereas repeated sprints will cause a greater drain on glycogen.
The magnitude of glycogen depletion was related to the intensity of the lift and to the amount of work performed, i.e., glycogen was used at a faster rate with more intense lifting, but total depletion of glycogen was dependent on the amount of work performed during the resistance exercise bout.
Given that muscle glycogen, phosphocreatine, and sarcoplasmic reticulum function (calcium uptake and release) recorded at baseline and at 15% and 30% fatigue fell in a similar pattern and that serum lactate rose identically for both the high- and low-carbohydrate conditions, these factors did not seem to explain the differential fatigue with the dietary treatments.
www.gssiweb.com /reflib/refs/259/sse79.cfm?pid=38   (4780 words)

 The chemical logic behind... Glycogen synthesis and degradation
Glycogen synthase can only add glucose to pre-existent glycogen chains,i.e, it is unable to start the synthesis of a new glycogen molecule.
Glycogen phosphorylase is much faster than the debranching enzyme, and therefore the outer branches of glycogen are degraded bery rapidly in muscle when much energy is needed.
Glycogen degradation beyond this point demands the action of the debranching enzyme and is therefore slower, which partly explains the fact that the muscle can only perform its maximum exertion during a few.
www2.ufp.pt /~pedros/bq/glycogen.htm   (730 words)

 Glycogen Facts   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Glycogen is a polymer of glucose used as a storage molecule.
Glycogen is found in most cells but is used primarily in liver and muscle cells.
Glycogen in the liver is used primarily to maintain blood sugar levels. /bio/Courses/biochem2/Glycogen/Glycogen3.html   (217 words)

 Muscle Glycogen Resynthesis and Bodybuilding by Rehan Jalali   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Glycogen synthase activation is considered to be an important regulatory step in glycogen synthesis (1).
The activity of glycogen phosphorylase is increased by epinephrine (adrenaline).
According to one university study, a physiological concentration of glutamine stimulates glycogen synthesis from glucose and gluconeogenic pre-cursors (16).
www.mesomorphosis.com /exclusive/jalali/glycogen.htm   (2838 words)

 Hormonal Control of Glycogen Metabolism
The control of glycogen metabolism is initiated by epinephrine (or glucagon) by a cAMP initiated cascade which results in the phosphorylation of both glycogen phosphorylase and glycogen synthase.
An important purpose of the "cascade of reactions" involved in glycogen metabolism is to amplify hormonal signals.
The peptide hormone insulin also plays a role in stimulating glycogen synthesis by activating protein phosphatase I. Insulin is released by the pancreas in response to elevated blood glucose levels.
www.db.uth.tmc.edu /faculty/alevine/1521_2000/hormone.htm   (1395 words)

 Fluids 2000: (24)Glossary of Sports Nutrition Terms   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
During intense exercise, carbohydrate (stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen) is the preferred fuel.
The rate of gastric emptying, a critical issue for sports drinks, is influenced by a number of factors including the initial volume of fluid in the stomach, the caloric density of the fluid, and the metabolic, hydration or emotional status of the individual.
Low levels of glycogen contribute to the early onset of fatigue during exercise.
www.gssiweb.com /reflib/refs/143/d00000002000002d9.cfm?pid=38   (856 words)

 Glycogen storage diseases Encyclopedia of Medicine - Find Articles
Glycogen storage diseases, also known as glycogenoses, are genetically linked metabolic disorders that involve the enzymes regulating glycogen metabolism.
These enzymes are responsible for creating glycogen from glucose, transporting the glycogen to and from storage areas within cells, and extracting glucose from the glycogen as needed.
The glycogen constructed in GSD IV is abnormal and insoluble.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_g2601/is_0005/ai_2601000598   (1399 words)

 Hyperactive Glycogen Synthase Mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Suppress the glc7-1 Protein Phosphatase Mutant -- ...
Glycogen synthase is regulated at the level of gene expression and by posttranscriptional mechanisms.
Purification and characterization of glycogen synthase from a glycogen-deficient strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
GLC3 and GHA1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are allelic and encode the glycogen branching enzyme.
jb.asm.org /cgi/content/full/183/3/821   (5840 words)

 Lactic Acid
The glucose paradox hypothesis suggests that when you ingest dietary carbohydrate, instead of it entering the liver and being converted to glycogen, it may actually bypass the liver, enter the circulatory system and be converted to lactic acid (in tissues such as skeletal muscle).
Consequently, the lactate produced returns to the circulatory system and is converted into glycogen in the liver.
When you eat carbohydrates, it is stored in your liver and muscles as glycogen, however, the amount stored in your muscles is less than 400 grams.
tkdtutor.com /11Training/LacticAcid.htm   (1556 words)

 Case Report: Liver Glycogen Synthase Deficiency{---}A Cause of Ketotic Hypoglycemia -- Rutledge et al. 108 (2): 495 -- ...
Glycogen synthase deficiency should be considered in patients with ketotic hypoglycemia and normal liver size.
A diagnosis of liver glycogen synthase deficiency should be considered in a child presenting with ketotic hypoglycemia.
Spencer-Peet J Erythrocyte glycogen synthetase in glycogen storage deficiency resulting from the absence of this enzyme from liver.
pediatrics.aappublications.org /cgi/content/full/108/2/495   (1008 words)

 Bodybuilding.com - Ian Matthews - Glycogen Supercompensation.
Glycogen supercompensation is when your muscles are able to hold a greater amount of glycogen than they normally would be able to.
Glycogen is further depleted through working out since it is the body's preferred source of energy.
Glycogen normally draws water into the muscle, so if carbohydrates are consumed without excess water, water from underneath the skin will be pulled into the muscle.
www.bodybuilding.com /fun/ian4.htm   (675 words)

Glycogen releases glucose (sugar) into the blood when needed by cells, and is the chief source of stored fuel in the body.Glycogen storage disease A group of inherited metabolic disorders involving the enzymes responsible for the synthesis and breakdown of glycogen.
Glycogen storage disorder - Type Ia (GSDIa) is caused when the body is missing an enzyme that is needed by the liver to convert sugar from its storage form (glycogen) to the form that can be used by the body to produce energy (glucose).
Glycogen Storage Disease I is a deficiency of the enzyme glucose -6 -phosphatase which helps in maintaining a normal blood glucose (sugar concentration) during fasting.
www.webspawner.com /users/joseadaligonzalez   (2189 words)

 Glycogen Metabolism
One of the major kinases active on synthase is synthase-phosphorylase kinase; the same enzyme that phosphorylates glycogen phosphorylase.
For example, Type I glycogen storage disease (von Gierke's disease) is attributed to lack of glucose-6-phosphatase.
Several glycogenoses are the result of deficiencies in enzymes of glycolysis whose symptoms and signs are similar to those seen in type V glycogen storage disease.
www.indstate.edu /thcme/mwking/glycogen.html   (2825 words)

 Central Role for Protein Targeting to Glycogen in the Maintenance of Cellular Glycogen Stores in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes -- ...
The activation of glycogen synthase by insulin switches from kinase inhibition to phosphatase activation during adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells.
The role of glucose metabolites in the activation and translocation of glycogen synthase by insulin in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
The level of the glycogen targetting regulatory subunit R5 of protein phosphatase 1 is decreased in the livers of insulin-dependent diabetic rats and starved rats.
mcb.asm.org /cgi/content/full/26/1/334   (6012 words)

 Structure of glycogen
This page discusses the structure of glycogen and is one of a series that discuss common errors in current textbooks of biochemistry.
In addition it is worth noting the molecule of glycogenin, a protein that acts as a primer, at the centre of the structure.
If the average chain length were much greater or much shorter, glycogen would not be as efficient a vehicle for energy storage and release on demand.
bip.cnrs-mrs.fr /bip10/glycogen.htm   (871 words)

Glycogen = Polymer of glucose with α; (1 --> 4) linkage for the linear chain and, for every 8-14 residues, α (1 --> 6) linkage for a branch (Fig.
For each cycle, the glucose unit that is released must be at least 5 units from a branch point.
Only the T form of phosphorylase b can be phosphorylated, resulting in the transformation to phosphorylase a in the T, and in turn, the R conformation.
www.bchs.uh.edu /~dtu/Glycogen.htm   (338 words)

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