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Topic: Glycosaminoglycan

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In the News (Sat 25 Feb 17)

  Glycosaminoglycan-synthetic polymer conjugates - Patent 5510418
The composition of claim 10, wherein the glycosaminoglycan is selected from the group consisting of hyaluronic acid, chondroitin sulfate A, chondroitin sulfate C, dermatan sulfate, heparin, keratan sulfate, keratosulfate, chitin, chitosan 1, chitosan 2, and derivatives thereof, and mixtures of these glycosaminoglycans or their derivatives.
By varying the chemical linkage between the glycosaminoglycan and the synthetic polymer, it is possible to vary the effect with respect to the release of the cytokine or growth factor.
In accordance with one method, (1) the hydrophilic synthetic polymer is activated, (2) the glycosaminoglycan is subjected to chemical modification by deacetylation and/or desulfation, and (3) the activated synthetic polymer is reacted with the chemically modified glycosaminoglycan.
www.freepatentsonline.com /5510418.html   (10892 words)

 Proteoglycan and Glycosaminoglycan Structure Laboratory
Research focuses on sequencing glycosaminoglycans using mass spectrometry and determining the domain structure and protein binding properties of these molecules.
esearch focuses on the functional implications of glycosaminoglycan structure and structural diversity.
Understanding of the molecular basis for glycosaminoglycan function entials the ability to rapidly correlate structure and protein binding activity.
www.bumc.bu.edu /Dept/Home.aspx?DepartmentID=386   (144 words)

 Arterial smooth muscle cell proteoglycans synthesized in the presence of glucosamine demonstrate reduced binding to LDL ...
The sulfate incorporation of the free glycosaminoglycans secreted into the culture medium was analyzed by CPC precipitation, and is expressed as a ratio of incorporated sulfate counts per microgram of cell protein.
Equal amounts of labeled glycosaminoglycans (approximately 1,500 dpm) synthesized under control conditions (open squares) or in the presence of 12 mM glucosamine (solid circles) were incubated with indicated concentrations of native human LDL under physiological conditions for 1 h.
Glycosaminoglycans that have been bound by LDL are retained at or near the origin whereas free glycosaminoglycans migrate into the gel.
www.jlr.org /cgi/content/full/43/1/149   (5375 words)

 Age-Related Changes in Populations of Aortic Glycosaminoglycans : Species With Low Affinity for Plasma Low-Density ...
The results in A are averages of two separate extractions of glycosaminoglycan and hexuronic acid estimation from aorta of the same individual.
The glycosaminoglycans were quantified by densitometry, and typical profiles for glycosaminoglycans extracted from aortas of young and old individuals are shown in B. C, Molecular weight of the dermatan sulfate+chondroitin 4/6-sulfate.
Densitometry of agarose gel electrophoresis of the glycosaminoglycans released from aortic proteoglycans.
atvb.ahajournals.org /cgi/content/full/18/4/604   (6414 words)

 Glycosaminoglycan model glass substrates and cancer cell interactions
Glycosaminoglycans were covalently bonded to previously silanized glass cover slips.
The static adhesion of three cancer cell lines to surfaces functionalized with glycosaminoglycans was performed and the possible involvement of heparanase in this process was analyzed.
Four different glycosaminoglycans (heparan sulfate, chondroitin sulfate A, chondroitin sulfate C and keratan sulfate) were deposited on glass surfaces that had been previously coated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxy-silane (APTES), and the substrates were used in static adhesion experiments.
www.nsti.org /Nanotech2006/showabstract.html?absno=722   (357 words)

 Method for the preparation of collagen-glycosaminoglycan composite materials - Patent 4448718
The present invention contemplates crosslinking collagen and glycosaminoglycan materials by forming an uncrosslinked composite material made from collagen and a glycosaminoglycan and exposing this uncrosslinked material to a gaseous aldehyde until a crosslinked product having an M.sub.c of from about 800 to about 60,000 is formed.
The addition of the glycosaminoglycan causes collagen to coprecipitate forming a tangled mass of collagen fibrils coated with the glycosaminoglycan.
Glycosaminoglycan (mucopolysaccharide) solutions were prepared from sodium heparin, hyaluronic acid and chondroitin 6-sulfate.
www.freepatentsonline.com /4448718.html   (5312 words)

 Faculty Profile
Glycosaminoglycans (below) were once thought to only serve structural roles, but are now beginning to be understood in terms of their crucial functions in mediating communication between a cell and its environment.
Recently, glycosaminoglycans have been shown to be essential to the function of the immune system, to be involved in the metastasis of many cancers, to be necessary for invasion of many viruses, and to be important in neuronal regeneration.
It is surprising given the successful clinical application of Heparin, a short chain glycosaminoglycan, and the large number of potential biological targets, that glycosaminoglycans drugs have not been widely pursued.
www.chem.utoronto.ca /peoples/faculty_profile.php?id=80   (391 words)

 In vitro intestinal degradation and absorption of a glycosaminoglycan drug, chondroitin sulfate
The glycosaminoglycan chondrotin sulfate, is an oral drug (Structum) used as a chondroprotective agent in several European countries.
By contrasts, following oral treatment of human volunteers with chondroitin sulfate, and analysis of serum glycosaminoglycans with the dimethylmethylene blue colorimetric method, Baici et al., (1992) considered that CS administrated orally to man was neither absorbed in an intact form, nor as a sulfated oligosaccharide fragment with a molecular mass exceeding about 1500.
Konador and Kawiak, (1977), observed no increase in the level of the bloodplasma glycosaminoglycans, in terms of uronic acid, after intragrastic introduction of CS to rabbits at the dose of 5g/kg.
www.virbac.at /fortiflex/studie.htm   (6077 words)

 The Use of Glycosaminoglycan Supplements (Glucosamine, Chondroitin) in Pets
Glycosaminoglycan supplements containing glucosamine and chondroitin are used in the management of degenerative arthritis.
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are the building blocks of cartilage and joint fluid.
It is thought that glucosamine also stimulate the secretion of glycosaminoglycans in the cartilage and chondroitin also inhibits the enzymes that destroy cartilage.
www.peteducation.com /article.cfm?cls=0&cat=1303&articleid=1423   (468 words)

 MedlinePlus Herbs and Supplements: Glucosamine
Glucosamine is commonly taken in combination with chondroitin, a glycosaminoglycan derived from articular cartilage.
Glycosaminoglycans that contain N-acetyl glucosamine constituents have been the focus of research leading to medical devices.
The evidence for the effect of glycosaminoglycan polysulphate is conflicting and merits further investigation.
www.nlm.nih.gov /medlineplus/druginfo/natural/patient-glucosamine.html   (4424 words)

 WSAVA 2001 - Managing Chronic Pain: Alternatives To The NSAIDs
Polysulfated glycosaminoglycan is related to the anti-clotting drug, heparin, and has some similar effects on blood clotting in horses.
Elmiron is an orally bioavailable pentosan that is thought to adhere to the bladder surface and supplement the natural glycosaminoglycan layer.
It is the predominant glycosaminoglycan found in joint cartilage and is a natural component of other tissues, including tendons, bone, vertebral discs, heart, and cornea.
www.vin.com /VINDBPub/SearchPB/Proceedings/PR05000/PR00190.htm   (1687 words)

 What is HCII?
Its activity is stimulated by the endogenous glycosaminoglycans heparin, heparan sulfate, and dermatan sulfate, as well as by various other natural and synthetic polyanions.
Although HCII and antithrombin both inhibit their target proteases by forming a stable bimolecular complex in which the protease is inactive, the mechanism by which glycosaminoglycans increase the rate of complex formation differs for the two inhibitors.
In the absence of a glycosaminoglycan, these variants are inhibited by HCII at rates similar to that of native thrombin, but the maximal rates of inhibition in the presence of a glycosaminoglycan are greatly reduced.
tollefsen.wustl.edu /projects/hcii/hcii.html   (2000 words)

 Bodybuilding Health & Fitness Forum - Iron for Life - Polysulfated Glycosaminoglycan / Adequan
Polysulfated glycosaminoglycan is a veterinary medicine that is used to treat degenerative joint conditions in animals such as degenerative and/or traumatic arthritis, ligament damage, and numerous other conditions (1).
It should be noted that polysulfated glycosaminoglycan is ineffective for treatment of acute trauma to joints, tendons or ligaments (2) and should not be used for treating such conditions.
From what is known about polysulfated glycosaminoglycan the usual veterinary practice is to administer the drug between every 2 to four days for a period of between four to six weeks for both dogs and horses, the primary animals that the drug is produced and marketed for (2, 3).
www.ironforlife.com /newpostinthread22904.html   (1154 words)

 Glycosaminoglycan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or mucopolysaccharides are long unbranched polysaccharides consisting of a repeating disaccharide unit.
This unit consists of an N-acetyl-hexosamine and a hexose or hexuronic acid, either or both of which may be sulfated.
Members of the glycosaminoglycan family vary in the type of hexosamine, hexose or hexuronic acid unit they contain (e.g.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Glycosaminoglycan   (158 words)

 Proteoglycans - Isolation of glycosaminoglycan chains
O-glycosidically linked glycosaminoglycans and oligosaccharides can be released from the protein core by alkaline borohydride treatment, sample incubated with 1 M Na-borohydride in 0.05 M NaOH at 45° C for 16 hours [Carlson, 1968].
Other glycosaminoglycans form xylitol in the reducing end, and these core monosaccharides can be determined from the acid hydrolysates by HPLC [Hardy et al, 1988].
With ion exchange chromatography the glycosaminoglycans are eluted at 2.5 M Na-acetate after elution of peptides and oligosaccharides at lower anion concentrations [de Luca et al, 1980].
www.uku.fi /laitokset/anat/PG/gag_isol.htm   (421 words)

 Glycosaminoglycan Distribution in Cartilage as Determined by Delayed Gadolinium-Enhanced MRI of Cartilage (dGEMRIC): ...
Glycosaminoglycan Distribution in Cartilage as Determined by Delayed Gadolinium-Enhanced MRI of Cartilage (dGEMRIC): Potential Clinical Applications -- Williams et al.
glycosaminoglycans are lost from the cartilage matrix, as occurs
agent in the cartilage and is proportional to the glycosaminoglycan
www.ajronline.org /cgi/content/full/182/1/167   (2824 words)

 Glycosaminoglycans   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
The naming of glycosaminoglycans and the oligosaccharides derived from them is done in a systematic manner.
The diverse nomenclature of the proteoglycan and glycosaminoglycan fields are examined.
It is the structural repository for all glycosaminoglycans and other glycoconjugates.
bssv01.lancs.ac.uk /gig/pages/gagpage.htm   (208 words)

 Chondroprotective Agents - The Merck Veterinary Manual
PSGAG is a semisynthetic glycosaminoglycan prepared from bovine tracheal cartilage and composed of a polymeric chain of repeating disaccharide units.
The primary glycosaminoglycan in PSGAG is chondroitin sulfate.
The compound is approved by the FDA for use as an oral capsule for the treatment of interstitial cystitis in humans.
www.merckvetmanual.com /mvm/htm/bc/191607.htm   (545 words)

 Proteoglycans Synthesized by Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells in the Presence of Transforming Growth Factor-{beta}1 Exhibit ...
S]SO Glycosaminoglycans were chemically released from the core proteins of the proteoglycans and analyzed for binding to LDL, as described in the legend to Figure 1.
The percent bound was calculated as a ratio of radioactivity retained at the origin vs total radioactivity in the lane.
The glycosaminoglycan chains were purified on DEAE-Sephacel columns and exchanged into HEPES buffer, and LDL binding was analyzed as described in the legend to Figure 1.
atvb.ahajournals.org /cgi/content/full/22/1/55   (3959 words)

 Maintenance of CD34 Expression During Proliferation of CD34+ Cord Blood Cells on Glycosaminoglycan Surfaces -- ...
Compartmentalization of a haematopoietic growth factor (GM-CSF) by glycosaminoglycans in the bone marrow microenvironment.
Glycosaminoglycan synthesis and the stimulation of haemopoiesis by beta-D-xylosides.
Application of selected cationic dyes for the semiquantitative estimation of glycosaminoglycans in histological sections of articular cartilage by microspectrophotometry.
stemcells.alphamedpress.org /cgi/content/full/17/5/295   (4463 words)

 Interstitial Cystitis: Urgency and Frequency Syndrome - October 1, 2001 - American Family Physician
The more severe form of the disease (in about 10 percent of patients) involves Hunner's ulcers, which are lesions that involve all of the layers of the bladder wall and appear as brownish-red patches on the bladder mucosa.
One common etiologic theory of interstitial cystitis is a defect in the glycosaminoglycan component of the mucin layer that covers and protects the urothelium.
The glycosaminoglycan hypothesis is the basis for treating interstitial cystitis with glycosaminoglycan "replacements," such as sodium pentosan polysulfate (an exogenous, oral glycosaminoglycan) and heparin or hyaluronic acid administered intravesically.
www.aafp.org /afp/20011001/1199.html   (3440 words)

 [Frontiers in Bioscience 3, d604-615, July 1, 1998]
Although an increase in the proportion of hyaluronan to other glycosaminoglycans is common to most solid human tumors (as compared to the uninvolved normal tissue), there are notable exceptions.
Panel B represents an idealized cartoon of the interactions that are occurring in panels A, C and D. Thus, a somewhat generalized conclusion can be made that hyaluronan is elevated in most solid tumor tissues, at least with respect to comparable normal tissues.
The particular tumor-association glycosaminoglycan composition may be dependent on the particular host connective tissue in which the tumor resides (especially if the source of the glycosaminoglycan is the host connective tissue cells).
www.bioscience.org /1998/v3/d/knudson/3.htm   (2092 words)

 Glycosaminoglycan   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-03)
One principal family of proteins in the basal lamina are the glycosaminoglycans (GAG).
The breakdown of the basal lamina by these glycosaminoglycans may allow for the continued development of epithelial branching.
If the basal lamina is selectively removed from the surface of the epithelium, the epithelial cells could then continue to proliferate to expand the developing glands (Gilbert, 1994).
www.sccs.swarthmore.edu /users/99/gordon/glycosaminoglycan.html   (293 words)

 sqv-3, -7, and -8, a set of genes affecting morphogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans, encode enzymes required for ...
Heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate are the major glycosaminoglycans found on vertebrate and invertebrate proteoglycans.
The radioactive glycosaminoglycans were isolated, and samples were analyzed by anion exchange HPLC as described (27).
glycosaminoglycan synthesis, it is not surprising that animals
www.pnas.org /cgi/content/full/97/20/10838   (4164 words)

 Arthritis Research & Therapy | Full text | Differential recovery of glycosaminoglycan after IL-1-induced ...
Prior studies have shown that chondrocytes in trypsin-depleted young bovine articular cartilage can replenish tissue glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and that the rate of replenishment is relatively uniform throughout the tissue, suggesting that all chondrocytes have similar capacity for repair.
In the present study we used the characteristic heterogeneous distribution of matrix depletion in response to IL-1 exposure in order to investigate whether the severity of depletion influenced the rate of GAG replenishment.
Bashir A, Gray ML, Boutin RD, Burstein D: Glycosaminoglycan in articular cartilage: in vivo assessment with delayed Gd(DTPA)(2-)-enhanced MR imaging.
arthritis-research.com /content/5/2/R97   (5454 words)

 Polysulfated Glycosaminoglycan (Adequan®)
Polysulfated glycosaminoglycans, also known as PSGAG, belong to a class of drugs known as cartilage protective agents.
PSGAG is used to treat traumatic and non-infectious joint abnormalities and arthritis associated with joint stiffness and limping.
Polysulfated glycosaminoglycans should not be used in animals with known hypersensitivity or
www.petplace.com /drug-library/polysulfated-glycosaminoglycan-adequan/page1.aspx   (636 words)

 Binding of Interleukin-8 to Heparan Sulfate and Chondroitin Sulfate in Lung Tissue -- Frevert et al. 28 (4): 464 -- ...
Identification of a glycosaminoglycan binding surface on human interleukin-8.
Glycosaminoglycans interact selectively with chemokines and modulate receptor binding and cellular responses.
Glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis in the isolated perfused rat lung.
ajrcmb.atsjournals.org /cgi/content/full/28/4/464   (5386 words)

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