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Topic: Government expenditure

In the News (Tue 23 Jul 19)

  Decentralizing Government - Finance & Development - September 1997
Government resources can be allocated most efficiently if responsibility for each type of public expenditure is given to the level of government that most closely represents the beneficiaries of these outlays.
The central government can influence how these goods and services are provided locally by setting policy guidelines for their delivery, by transferring resources to subnational governments to equalize their capacity to meet these guidelines, and by controlling ex post the level and quality of local services.
Even if the overall level of expenditure of subnational governments is constrained by limits on their taxing and borrowing powers, changes in the composition of their expenditures can affect overall demand and the balance of payments in ways that may defeat national stabilization objectives.
www.worldbank.org /fandd/english/0997/articles/050997.htm   (2732 words)

 Sourcebook - Appendix 1
The Federal Government expenditure data are for the fiscal year, which ends on September 30 of the year indicated; for example, 2001 data are for the period Oct. 1, 2000 to Sept. 30, 2001.
Neither in governments' basic accounting records (from which criminal justice expenditure figures are drawn) nor in the records of their general-coverage employee benefit systems is there usually any breakdown of amounts contributed in terms of the various agencies or functions involved.
Expenditure for interest on general debt, assistance and subsidies, and insurance benefits are not applied to specific functions because they are not ordinarily available on a functional basis from government financial reports.
www.albany.edu /sourcebook/app1.html   (4358 words)

 Classification Manual - Chapter 6: Overview of Government Finance Statistics
The income concept of "revenue," the outgo concept of "expenditure," and the concept of government indebtedness pertain to nearly all accounting funds and accounts and to all boards, commissions, and other agencies of a government, as established using the criteria discussed in Chapter 3.
Governments administer their finances through accounting devices called "funds" (not to be confused with the use of the term "funds" for monies).
Generally, monies received from other governments or individuals for transmittal to other governments or individuals are classified as agency receipts, and the corresponding payments as agency disbursements, if the intermediate government has no discretion in determining either the amounts of such payments or the recipients (see Note 4).
www.census.gov /govs/www/class_ch6.html   (4317 words)

 Portal - Central Government Operations
The sectorization of institutional units adopted for the compilation of the central government statistics is not enterely consistent with the recommendations of the GFSM 1986, (and, the autonomous institutions are not sectorized as recomended).
The harmonization of statistics on government (central and local) operations is complicated by the use of a simplified classification system by local governments.
Investment expenditures are classified according to the financing source (domestic or external) which is, in turn, classified within the external component as Loans and Grants.
www.ine.gov.mz /Ingles/metadados/fiscal_sector/fs_cgo   (1462 words)

 House of Commons - Procedure - Sixth Report
As we noted in our previous report, the House's power over expenditure is "if not a constitutional myth, very close to one".[6] The House and the Government would both gain from a system in which the House could engage directly in identifying priorities and examining the effectiveness of spending.
There is no reason why a committee should not "tag" a report relating to policy rather than expenditure, and given the limited time currently available for debates on select committee reports[7], and the practical impossibility of making any change to the Government's spending plans, every incentive for it to do so.
Committees frequently produce reports which criticise some aspect of Government policy; any threats to their independence as a result are rebuffed.[10] There is no reason why the Government should be more sensitive to reports on expenditure than it is to reports on policy.
www.publications.parliament.uk /pa/cm199899/cmselect/cmproced/295/29503.htm   (1676 words)

 How the Scope of Government Shapes the Wealth of Nations   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
However, govern­ment expenditures also are used in ways that retard growth, such as supporting regulatory policies that exert compliance costs far exceed­ing their budgets or the benefits resulting from their activities.
Although examples of OECD countries reducing government expenditures are few and far between, Gwartney, Holcombe, and Lawson examined the three instances of substantially reduced govern­ment expenditures among the OECD countries between 1960 and 1996: Ireland from 1986 to 1996, New Zealand from 1992 to 1996, and the United Kingdom from 1982 to 1989.
While it is impossible to provide unassailable evidence on the exact impact of government on economic growth, given the difficulty of isolating the impact of a single element of government on overall economic performance, the research and historical examples strongly imply that excessive government expenditures retard economic growth in developed and developing counties alike.
www.heritage.org /Research/TradeandForeignAid/hl925.cfm   (6516 words)

 Government Expenditure Revenue in Scotland 1997-1998: page 15   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
The differences between the GGNB and General Government Borrowing Requirement (GGBR), the old measure of borrowing of general government and the general government counterpart of the PSBR, are essentially of the same order.
It has estimated general government net borrowing, the main elements of which are set out in Sections 6 to 8 of the report.
Table 21 shows the previous practice in Government Expenditure and Revenue in Scotland of recording Scotland's receipts under EU programmes and a share of the UK net contribution.
www.scotland.gov.uk /library2/doc09/gers-15.asp?textonly=FALSE   (1404 words)

 IMF Pamphlet Series - No. 48 - Unproductive Public Expenditures: A Pragmatic Approach To Policy Analysis - Appendix: ...
Data for the central government and the general government in Tables A1 and A2 are thus not strictly comparable because the sample countries and sample years differ.
The change in the expenditure composition resulting from extending the coverage from the central government to the general government is shown in Tables A2 and A3, both of which are based on the same set of countries and years.
For each expenditure component, the ratio of expenditure to GDP for the general government should exceed that for the central government.
www.imf.org /external/pubs/ft/pam/pam48/pam4805.htm   (1009 words)

 Expenditure on national projects blamed for Barbados' widening deficit - JAMAICAOBSERVER.COM
Government expenditure was leaping ahead of its revenue.
Commenting on the government having to go before Parliament for its seal of approval for this expenditure, Mr Estwick said, "Government expenditure was leaping ahead of its revenue.
Mr Estwick maintains that the government was short-sighted in switching debts to statutory bodies and guaranteeing debts for boards and this has led to its escalating debt burden.
www.jamaicaobserver.com /magazines/Business/html/20050908T220000-0500_87920_OBS_EXPENDITURE_ON_NATIONAL_PROJECTS_BLAMED_FOR_BARBADOS__WIDENING_DEFICIT.asp   (589 words)

 Government Expenditure [Virtual Economy]
Government expenditure in the UK for 2001/2002 is expected to be £394bn.
Seen like this, the importance of government expenditure to the economy is very clear.
Adjusting the level of government expenditure is a key part of the government's fiscal policy
www.bized.ac.uk /virtual/economy/policy/tools/government   (151 words)

 Learning Resources: Government Deficits and Debt
Governments reacted to the growing debt concerns by imposing a process of restructuring designed to reduce government spending.
Government spending fell very little but revenues rose dramatically as the recession ended and Canada’s economy improved, providing a larger tax base.
Provincial governments argued that the federal government was trying to solve deficit problems at their expense.
www.statcan.ca /english/kits/defic1.htm   (659 words)

 Linkages Between Government Spending, Growth, and Poverty in Rural India
These expenditures (Figure 1) have contributed to the dramatic improvement in the country’s food security situation since the mid-1960s and to a steady decline in the incidence of rural poverty.
When government expenditures are ranked according to their effectiveness, the results are striking.
According to this research, additional government expenditures on soil and water conservation and health have small effects on rural poverty, and the impact of health spending is statistically insignificant.
www.ifpri.org /pubs/abstract/abstr110.htm   (1416 words)

 Supplement to "The Impact of Government Spending on Economic Growth"   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
A JEC paper concluded: “[G]overnment expenditures of 20 percent of GDP are associated with a decade-long average annual growth rate of approximately 5 percent, while government expenditures of about 45 percent are associated with only half as much economic growth.
Even the OECD recognized that government spending could exceed an optimal size: “The main conclusion from the literature is that there may be both a ‘size’ effect of government intervention as well as specific effects stemming from the financing and composition of public expenditure.
With a wealth of evidence that government is too big and that it spends too much, it should come as no surprise that scholars also have discovered that the fundamental differences between private markets and political decision-making may explain in part why federal spending undermines economic performance.
www.heritage.org /Research/Budget/bg1831_suppl.cfm   (9405 words)

 WHO | Health systems statistics
Total health expenditure is the sum of general government expenditure on health and private expenditure on health in a given year (in international dollars).
This corresponds to the total sum of expenditure (consumption and investment) of the private and government agents of the economy during the reference year.
Estimates for total health expenditure per capita are based on NHA or multiple other sources provided to WHO and partners by the countries or publicly available.
www.who.int /healthinfo/statistics/indhealthexpenditure/en   (501 words)

 SSRN-Productive Government Expenditure in Monetary Business Cycle Models by Ludger Linnemann, Andreas Schabert
In particular, it is shown that government expenditures can cause a rise in private consumption, real wages, and employment if the government share is not too large and public finance does not solely rely on distortionary taxation.
When government expenditures are partially financed by public debt, unit labor costs fall in response to a fiscal expansion, such that inflation tends to decline.
The interaction between monetary and fiscal policy is thus decisive for the short-run macroeconomic effects of government expenditure shocks.
papers.ssrn.com /soL3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=738385   (334 words)

 The efficiency of government expenditure : experiences from Africa
The results of the FDH analysis reveal wide- ranging differences in the efficiency of government spending on education and health in Africa.
The results suggest that the productivity of government spending on education and health has improved over time in Africa, although the average level of efficiency has declined in comparison with Asia and the Western Hemisphere.
The observed inefficiencies in countries in Africa seem unrelated to the level of private spending, but may be connected to the share of government wages in total spending.
www.eldis.org /static/DOC4740.htm   (268 words)

 Government Expenditure Worksheet - How Much? [Virtual Economy]
The level of government expenditure is a key component of aggregate demand
Any deliberate changes in the level of government expenditure in a Budget will therefore have a big effect on aggregate demand.
Not all economists believe that the government should actively seek to manage the level of demand in the economy.
www.bized.ac.uk /virtual/economy/policy/tools/government/gexpws1.htm   (415 words)

The third criterion for public expenditure, as mentioned in the review of government expenditure, is to examine the impact of alternative expenditure allocations on the poor.
The analysis links information provided by the public sector (estimated from the government’s fiscal accounts) about the subsidy for different kinds of education with the distributional profile of utilization of public schools (obtained from households through a multipurpose survey such as the Living Standards Measurement Survey).
A recent review of benefit incidence analysis in education by van de Walle and Nead (1995) concludes that, while education sector expenditures vary in their incidence according to the level of service, primary and secondary education are usually more pro-poor than university/higher education (see Table 3).
www1.worldbank.org /education/economicsed/finance/public/ben_inc.htm   (598 words)

 Crowding-Out and Crowding-In Effects of the Components of Government Expenditure
We examine the effects of disaggregated government expenditure on investment using fixed- and random-effect methods.
Using the government budget constraint, we explore the effects of tax- and debt-financed expenditure for the full sample, and for sub-samples of developed and developing countries.
Expenditure on social security and welfare reduces investment in all samples while expenditure on transport and communication induces private investment in developing countries.
ideas.repec.org /p/uct/uconnp/1999-02.html   (792 words)

Chapter 3, "Fiscal Autonomy of Non-Central Government and the Problem of Public-Spending Growth," is concerned with the fiscal relationships between the different levels of government.
Bruno Frey begins Part II by asking "Are There Natural Limits to the Growth of Government?" His Chapter 6 contributes importantly to an answer by employing the Laffer Curve to establish parallels between the economics of taxation and the economics of regulation.
Public Choice theorists are more likely to take for granted that the need for essential government services (if any) is the only justification for government spending, that taxes should pay for these services, and that the monetary authority should match the rate of monetary growth to the market-determined rate of real economic growth.
www.auburn.edu /~garriro/r7forte.htm   (1186 words)

 Does the US government hedge against government expenditure risk?
Standard theory prescribes that the government hedge against shocks to its expenditures by generating total debt portfolio returns with a negative beta on government expenditure innovations.
We identify exogenous innovations to government expenditures using standard VAR methodology and compute the beta of total government debt returns with respect to these government expenditure innovations.
We use the stock returns for firms in the defense industry and the returns for other government contractors to extract information about the size and persistence of the shocks to government expenditures.
ideas.repec.org /p/red/sed004/48.html   (346 words)

 The Government's Expenditure Plans 1999-00 to 2001-02   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
The main purposes of the Secretariat are to work alongside the departments with lead responsibility for each element in the Government's constitutional reform programme and to service the collective decision making necessary to deliver the Government's objectives in the order of priority and to the timetable set by ministers within the lifetime of a Parliament.
This is consistent with the Government's objective of ensuring that the women's agenda is at the heart of government and emphasises the Unit's pan-government vision.
The Unit seeks to ensure that the Government applies the principles of good regulation to proposed legislation, and that it carries out proper amendments of the appropriateness, likely effectiveness, and the benefits and costs of proposed legislation, so that regulations are only made where necessary.
www.archive.official-documents.co.uk /document/cm42/4221/4221-02.htm   (5481 words)

 UNPAN Statistical Database
Government Consumption as a Percentage of GDP, 1990, 1996, 2000
Central Government Expenditure as a Percentage of GDP, 1990-1995 and 1996-2002
Ratio of Local to Central Government Expenditure on Education.
www.unpan.org /statistical_database-publicsector.asp   (479 words)

 United Nations Statistics Division - Classifications Registry
The government finance statistics system of classifications comprises eleven classifications used in the compilation of data on the operations of general government and nonfinancial public enterprises.
The expenditure classification categories of GFS Table C., Economic Classification of Government Expenditure and Lending minus Repayments, reflect the definitions of the SNA Income and Outlay, and Capital Accumulation Accounts.
The hierarchical structure of the six statements follows the structure of the general government classification Tables A-E to facilitate the consolidation of data for the nonfinancial public sector.
unstats.un.org /unsd/cr/family2.asp?Cl=218   (1478 words)

 State and Local Government Resource Expenditure   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-12)
To compare the latter, we started with the total amount of spending by state governments in 2001, as calculated by the National Association of State Budget Officers (www.nasbo.org).
This is the approach taken when calculating the consumer price index, and the well-known state level cost-of-living indexes published by the American Federation of Teachers.
Moreover, unlike the consumer basket (which, for example, gives a high weight to housing), many of the items in the state and local government basket (say, computers or office supplies) probably have the same or very similar prices across states.
www.ripolicyanalysis.org /StandLocResourceExpend.html   (570 words)

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