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Topic: Grammatical gender


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  Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Grammatical gender
In linguistics, grammatical genders, sometimes also called noun classes, are classes of nouns reflected in the behavior of associated words; every noun must belong to one of the classes and there should be very few which belong to several classes at once.
On the other hand, the correlation between grammatical gender and morphology is usually not perfect: problema "problem" is masculine in Spanish (this is for etymological reasons), and radio "radio station" is feminine (because it is a shortening of estación de radio, a phrase whose head is the feminine noun estación).
It is also noteworthy that, with few exceptions, the gender of an English pronoun coincides with the real gender of its referent, rather than with the grammatical gender of its antecedent, frequently different from the former in languages with true grammatical gender.
www.reference.com /browse/wiki/Grammatical_gender   (5058 words)

  
 What is Grammatical Gender?
Grammatical gender is a system in the grammar of some languages in which nouns are classified as belonging to a certain gender - often masculine, feminine, or neuter - and other parts of speech connected to the noun, such as adjectives or articles, must agree.
In such languages, grammatical gender is often more morphological - related to the sound of the word - than semantic - related to its meaning.
Grammatical gender, for the most part, follows enough basic patterns that one can make an educated guess as to the gender of an unknown word, but some degree of memorization is typically necessary.
www.wisegeek.com /what-is-grammatical-gender.htm   (415 words)

  
  LINGUIST List 7.537: Grammatical gender
And although the two are strongly interconnected, one cannot hope to elliminate the former by reforming social gender roles in real life, much less to achieve improvements in the latter by reforming language.
That grammatical gender and physiological sex are two distinct categories is true, but that is only one side of the medal.
Grammatically seen, German _Sekreta"rin_ is the feminine counterpart to masculine _Sekreta"r_ "secretary", but the former only refers to the lady sitting at the desk in the ante-room stenographing, typing, and handling the calender timetable and incoming calls etc., whereas the latter mainly refers to a relatively high-positioned executive.
linguistlist.org /issues/7/7-537.html   (1784 words)

  
  Science Fair Projects - Grammatical gender
In linguistics, grammatical genders, also called noun classes, are classes of nouns reflected in the behavior of associated words; every noun must belong to one of the classes and there should be very few which belong to several classes at once (Hockett 1958: 231).
English generally exhibits gender only in third-person singular pronouns (e.g., he, she, and it), with the masculine and feminine genders used only for persons or higher animals, sometimes objects in colloquial speech as in 'Isn't she a beauty?'.
Gendered pronouns vary considerably across languages: there are languages that have different pronouns in the third person only to differentiate between humans and inanimate objects, like Hungarian and Finnish.
www.all-science-fair-projects.com /science_fair_projects_encyclopedia/Noun_class   (2025 words)

  
  Grammatical gender - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Gendered pronouns and their corresponding inflections vary considerably across languages: there are languages that have different pronouns and inflections in the third person only to differentiate between humans and inanimate objects, like Hungarian and Finnish.
The noun lind (shield) is grammatically feminine, which forces the pronoun seo (the, that) and the adjectives brade (broad) and tilu (good) to appear in their feminine forms, as well as the pronoun hire (her), referring back to lind, which adopts the grammatical gender of the referent.
However, grammatical gender is equally a matter of convention even when it concerns human beings, as the overlap between grammatical gender and natural gender is not perfect.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Grammatical_gender   (3529 words)

  
 Gender - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
On the other side, in feminist theory, gender is used to refer solely to socially constructed differences between male and female behaviour, and the gender of a noun in many languages may have nothing to do with the concept described by it.
There is debate over to what extent gender is a social construct and to what extent it is a biological construct.
The gender of a connector is determined by the structure of its primary functional components, e.g., the conductors of an electrical connector, or the load-bearing parts of a fastener, and not by secondary features such as covers, shields or handles that may be installed for environmental protection, safe operation, etc.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Gender   (1857 words)

  
 Grammatical gender - LearnThis.Info Enclyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
In linguistics, grammatical genders, also called noun classes, are classes of nouns reflected in the behavior of associated words; every noun must belong to one of the classes and there should be very few which belong to several classes at once.
Grammatical gender is distinguished from natural gender by the fact that grammatical gender requires agreement between nouns and the forms of modifiers (demonstratives, articles, adjectives, etc.), and sometimes even verbs, used in a sentence, whereas natural gender does not (but see below for a full discussion).
Other languages may group genders differently: Czech further divides the masculine gender into animate and inanimate groups; the Nostratic language, a theoretical language that gave rise to the Indo-European languages and other language families, is believed by its proponents to have had human, animal, and object as grammatical genders.
encyclopedia.learnthis.info /g/gr/grammatical_gender.html   (1148 words)

  
 Grammatical gender - Encyclopedia.WorldSearch   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
In linguistics, grammatical genders, also called noun classes, are classes of nouns reflected in the behavior of associated words; every noun must belong to one of the classes and there should be very few which belong to several classes at once (Hockett 1958: 231).
English generally exhibits gender only in third-person singular pronouns (e.g., he, she, and it), with the masculine and feminine genders used only for persons or higher animals, sometimes objects in colloquial speech as in 'Isn't she a beauty?'.
Gendered pronouns vary considerably across languages: there are languages that have different pronouns in the third person only to differentiate between humans and inanimate objects, like Hungarian and Finnish.
encyclopedia.worldsearch.com /grammatical_gender.htm   (1805 words)

  
 News | Gainesville.com | The Gainesville Sun | Gainesville, Fla.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
The gender of the subject is marked on the pronoun; "he" is of the masculine gender (male human) while "she" is of the feminine gender (female human), and on the possessive adjective, "his" or "her".
By extension, the term grammatical gender is also used for the expression of other types of natural, individual characteristics (such as animacy) by inflecting words, although some authors prefer the term "noun classes" when none of the inflections in a language relate to gender.
On the other hand, the correlation between grammatical gender and morphology is usually not perfect: problema (problem) is masculine in Spanish (though this is for etymological reasons), and radio (radio station) is feminine (because it's a shortening of estación de radio, a phrase whose head is the feminine noun estación).
www.gainesville.com /apps/pbcs.dll/section?category=NEWS&template=wiki&text=masculine_gender   (4503 words)

  
 Grammatical gender
Grammatical genders are classes of nouns reflected in the behavior of associated words.
Other languages may group genders differently: Czech further divides the masculine gender into animate and inanimate groups; the Nostratic language, a theoretical language that gave rise to the Indo-European languages and other language families, is believed by its proponents to have had human, animal, and object as grammatical genders.
Also not to be confused with grammatical gender are the variety of gender-describing common names some tribal languages have for intersexuals.
www.fact-index.com /g/gr/grammatical_gender.html   (817 words)

  
 Noun: Gender: Grammatical gender
Grammatical gender is much more important in German morphology and syntax than natural gender.
The agreement in gender between nouns and other elements in a sentence is always based on grammatical gender.
The grammatical gender of nouns referring to persons or animals is often – but not always – identical with the natural gender (see Natural gender).
www.canoo.net /services/OnlineGrammar/Wort/Nomen/Genus/Grammatisch.html?MenuId=Word1201&lang=en&darj=1   (150 words)

  
 Gender - CDLI Wiki   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Grammatical gender is a way of describing classes of nouns within a language that code a variety of information such as animacy and participate in morphosyntactic phenomena such as agreement.
Gender is not marked directly on the noun, but only surfaces in cross-reference, in pronouns, which are dominated by animates, and verbal concord" (Michalowski 2004, 35).
Perhaps more importantly, however, grammatical gender occupies a place within an animacy hierarchy or, to be more precise, a hierarchy of inherent lexical content.
cdli.ucla.edu:16080 /wiki/index.php/Gender   (343 words)

  
 Wikinfo | Grammatical gender   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Grammatical genders are classes of nouns reflected in the behavior of associated words.
All nouns belong to a specific gender, which affects the inflection of the word and, usually, adjectives that modify it.
Even if a language has no concept of gender in nouns, personal pronouns often have different forms based on the natural gender of the reference, but this is not the same concept.
www.wikinfo.org /wiki.php?title=Grammatical_gender   (873 words)

  
 GRAMMATICAL GENDER FACTS AND INFORMATION   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Gendered pronouns and their corresponding inflections vary considerably across languages: there are languages that have different pronouns and inflections in the third person only to differentiate between humans and inanimate objects, like Hungarian and Finnish.
The noun ''lind'' (shield) is grammatically feminine, which forces the pronoun ''seo'' (the, that) and the adjectives ''brade'' (broad) and ''tilu'' (good) to appear in their feminine forms, as well as the pronoun ''hire'' (her), referring back to ''lind'', which adopts the grammatical gender of the referent.
The only trace of grammatical gender left in modern English are some pronouns, such as ''he'', ''she'', ''it'', which tend to represent natural gender.
www.galerienyc.com /grammatical_gender   (3398 words)

  
 Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for Grammatical   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
A term referring to grammatical GENDER in nouns and related words, contrasting with masculine and feminine in languages that have three genders such as GERMAN and LATIN.
A grammatical category used in describing parts of speech that show contrasts of PLURAL, SINGULAR, dual, etc. In English, the number system is basically a two-term contrast of singular and plural, shown in nouns and some pronouns and determiners, and to some extent in verbs.
PARTICIPLE In grammatical description, the term for two non-finite VERB forms, the -ing participle (known traditionally as the present participle) and the -ed participle (known traditionally as the past participle or passive participle).The -ing (present) participle This verb form ends with the...
www.encyclopedia.com /SearchResults.aspx?Q=Grammatical&StartAt=11   (928 words)

  
 Home
Non-linguistically, gender is defined as 'a reflection of the sex of an object as either male or female.' This is also popularly known as 'natural gender' or 'referential gender' or simply 'the sex of the object' (Baron, 1986; Ervin, 1962; Fodor, 1959).
In addition to their grammatical functions, they explicitly identify an object as either male (in the case of he except where the pronoun functions as an epicene pronoun), or female (in the case of she) or unmarked for 'natural gender' (in the case of it).
Baron (1986) notes that it is because of the close relationship between grammatical gender and 'natural gender' in English, that English lexicographers and grammarians in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries defined gender simply as 'the distinction of sex' and described four principal methods of distinguishing sex in the English noun system.
www.uga.edu /~womanist/moshi2.1.htm   (9059 words)

  
 Tromsø Gender talk
Gender in Modern English has to be understood in the context of (i) a theory of gender, and (ii) the relevant facts about the history of the language.
To reiterate: Natural gender is not the lack of a system of grammatical gender; it is simply a system in which there are essentially no relevant morphophonetic features, and the only relevant semantic features are based on biology.
Indeed, we are suggesting that the emergence of neuter as the default in OE is not a response to the loss of morphology, in contrast to the emergence of masculine as the default in Germanic several hundred years earlier.
www.hum.uit.no /a/rice/Current_projects/EnglishGender   (2852 words)

  
 English and Gender(s) | Antimoon Forum   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-02)
Whatever function grammatical gender might have had it clearly has no use today as there is a tendency to lose it as languages develop and become more advanced.
The presence (or absence) of grammatical gender in a given language provides no indication of whether that language is "advanced" or not - whatever "advanced" is supposed to mean.
But they probably dropped the grammatical gender in their language when they started trading with the Britons, to make it easier for the Britons to learn the Anglo-Saxon language so that both sets of people could understand each other.
www.antimoon.com /forum/t531-135.htm   (571 words)

  
 LINGUIST List 7.531: Grammatical gender and feminism, Gender switching
The category of gender is connected with the grammatical category animateness/unanimateness (about it already was marked in discussion on example of italian language and see 'The Gender-Animacy Hypothesis' JSL 3(1): 13-58, 1995).
about gender switching, which i am calling cross-addressing in a paper that i will be givning at the colloquium on arabic grammar and linguistics at university of edinburgh in august, it is found in egyptain colloquial arabic, or at least in the cairene varieities, probably elsewhere in egypt too.
reverse gender reference is used in addressing children of either sex and it is used among adults as a means of establishing, mmaintaining and expressing initmacy; in protecting or concealing the identity of the referee or the referent; in banter with same-sex cohorts; and in coarse joking about members of the opposite sex.
www.ling.ed.ac.uk /linguist/issues/7/7-531.html   (822 words)

  
 Gender and Language
Grammatical gender is not a logical necessity in a language.
Romanian is the only one among the Romance languages that has a "neuter" gender for nouns, but it is so called only for lack of a better word: "neuter" nouns behave as masculine in the singular and as feminine in the plural.
Grammatical gender, like many other grammatical concepts such as singular-plural, definite-indefinite, or past-present, is not a logical necessity in a language, and billions of people easily survive and communicate without it.
www.accurapid.com /journal/40gender.htm   (1279 words)

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