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Topic: Grammatical particles

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 Grammatical particle   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
A particle is a word that is normally uninflected, and often has little clear meaning, but has an important function in a sentence or phrase, and is therefore called a function word.
Grammatical particles are particularly important in colloquial speech, which probably would not be able to convey many special shades of meaning without them.
In Japanese and Korean (which are unrelated languages but have almost identical grammars), particles are used to mark nouns according to their case or their role (subject, object, complement, or topic) in a sentence or clause.
www.encyclopedia-1.com /g/gr/grammatical_particle.html   (872 words)

 Grammatical particle - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In linguistics, the term particle is often employed as a useful catch-all lacking a strict definition.
In general, it is understood that particles are function words that tend to be uninflected, though the term may have a broader definition.
The term particle is often used in descriptions of Japanese and Korean, where they are used to mark nouns according to their case or their role (subject, object, complement, or topic) in a sentence or clause.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Grammatical_particle   (443 words)

 Grammatical particle -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
In general, it is understood that particles are (A word that is uninflected and serves a grammatical function but has little identifiable meaning) function words that tend to be (Click link for more info and facts about uninflected) uninflected, though the term may have a broader definition.
In fact these particles are simply ((linguistics) the placing of one linguistic element after another (as placing a modifier after the word that it modifies in a sentence or placing an affix after the base to which it is attached)) postpositions.
Under the strictest definition, which demands that a particle be an uninflected word, English deictics like this and that would not be classed as such (since they have plurals), and neither would (The group of languages derived from Latin) Romance articles (since they are inflected for number and gender).
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/g/gr/grammatical_particle.htm   (476 words)

 Adjective - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
In languages with grammatical genders, such as Latin, the gender of the adjective may indicate the gender of the implied noun; thus malus means the bad man; mala, the bad woman; malum, the bad thing.
These are formed in one of two ways: either by suffixes (big, bigger, biggest) or by the use of the grammatical particles more and most.
Grammatical prescriptivists frequently object to phrases such as more perfect, on the grounds that being perfect is a quality that by definition admits to no comparison.
www.butte-silverbow.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Adjective   (1125 words)

 Measure word - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Measure words, in linguistics, are words (or morphemes) that are used in combination with a numeral to indicate the count of nouns.
They are normal count nouns, not grammatical particles.
However, omitting the noun and preserving the measure word is grammatical and not uncommon to hear.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Measure_word   (725 words)

 kana chart (kanachart.com) - with hiragana, katakana, and kanji japanese symbols or characters
most of the particles used in japanese contain symbols that are also used in the formation of words, however there are a few symbols that are used only as particles or are pronounced differently, these we're noted on their charts (with links to this page) and will be explained further here.
the single symbol particle 'o' (the second 'o' on the hiragana 'a' chart) is known as an object marker, as it is used to join an action to an object's word.
another single symbol particle is 'wa', which is written like a hiragana 'ha', it is most commonly used to join a subject to a comment, similar to how 'is' is used in english, but it has many other uses.
www.kanachart.com /cgi-bin/index.pl?help&a&2   (181 words)

 Japanese grammar
Grammatically, Japanese is an SOV dependent-marking language, with verbs rigidly constrained to the sentence-final position.
There is a good reason for this: phonologically, the postpositional particles are part of the word they follow, and within a phrase the pitch accent can fall at-most once.
There are many such emphatic particles; some examples: ぜ (ze) and ぞ (zo) used by (young) males; な (na) used in macho speech instead of ne; わ (wa) used by females (and males in the Kansai region) like yo, etc. They are essentially limited to speech or transcribed dialogue.
www.arikah.com /encyclopedia/Japanese_grammar   (6175 words)

 [No title]
Grammatical particles include a core set of spatial postpositions; several kinds of conjunctions; general modifiers (adverbs or adjectives, according to context); pronouns; and suffixes.
Grammatical roles (case) are shown always by either a postposition, or a verb suffix.
The negative particle especially is often used ironically: twax-zox pxoq {diq-henx-van}, mq tu-i, max-loq hxy-i vax-onx-zox pxiqlm-gxiq-zxa tu-i.
www.mindspring.com /~jimhenry/gzb/grammar.txt   (2443 words)

 Question - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Indeed some expressions, such as "Would you pass the butter?", have the grammatical form of questions but function as requests for action, not for answers; these will be treated under request rather than here.
Questions have a number of secondary uses: They may be used ("Socratically") to guide the questioner along an avenue of research.
A grammatical particle (cf Japanese ka, Mandarin Chinese ma)
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Question   (853 words)

 Dunia - A World Language
There are a number of grammatical or structural words that are need to carry out the purposes that endings fulfill in languages that are not isolating.
The use of particles is generally governed by the principles of necessity and sufficiency, i.e.
Verbal particles include gou and yao to show past and future tense if this is not obvious from the context, le and zhe to show completed and continuous aspect and shou and cheng to show passive and medial voice.
www.langmaker.com /outpost/dunia.htm   (3593 words)

 Modal particle   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Modal particles (Modalpartikel in German) are always uninflected words similar to grammatical particles in English which are also uninflected.
Modal particles are much purer in that their only function is that of reflecting the mood or attitude of the speaker or narrator.
The way modal particles are used and when they are used, is very complex indeed, and it might be said that they form a kind of criterion of the speaker's grasp of the German colloquial[?].
www.eurofreehost.com /mo/Modal_particle.html   (265 words)

Particle physics is a branch of physics that studies the elementary constituents of matter and radiations, and the interactions between them.
All the particles observed to date have been catalogued in a quantum field theory called the Standard Model, which is often regarded as particle physics' best achievement to date.
Many of the particles that have been discovered and studied are actually not encountered naturally; they have to be produced during scattering processes in particle accelerators.
www.websters-online-dictionary.org /definition/PARTICLESS   (2560 words)

 J-List side blog: Japanese language overview: Grammar overview
One feature of Japanese are grammatical "particles" which "mark" parts of a sentence as the subject or topic, the predicate, the object, and so on.
This is the object particle, which denotes the object of a sentence.
These four particles are the "big six." There are a few others, including kara (from), made (to or until), to (a quote particle that puts the words in front of it in quotes, effectively), de (by means of), and so on.
www.peterpayne.net /2003/03/japanese-language-overview-grammar.html   (1705 words)

 Intro To Japanese Particles   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Particles are one or two hiragana characters that attach to the end of words to define what grammatical function the word is serving in the sentence.
Notice, Alice could also have answered with the topic particle to indicate that, speaking of Jim, she knows that he is a student (maybe not the student).
The が particle identifies a specific property of something while the は particle is a completely generic topic that can apply to anything.
www.extreme-guides.com /sup/7/9   (1146 words)

 Korean as standart language
Basically, grammatical particles are added to nominal and verbal stems in derivation and inflection.
Particles, which agglutinate one after another, can function as grammatical markers (case markers, connectives, etc.), and also express such socio-linguistic categories as “levels of speech” (which depend on relative social positions of the speaker and hearer).
Modern system of noun declension (with alternating particles i/ka for the subject case, dative case ending “ege”, etc.) and tense-indication system (past tense as adverbial participle ending and the verb “to be”) also formed at that period.
www.geocities.com /volodyatikhonov/korean.htm   (7440 words)

 Interlingua language, alphabet and pronunciation
The grammar of Interlingua is a minimum grammar for use of the international vocabulary of the dictionary as a language.
The idea of the grammar was that no grammatical feature of its contributing languages would be suppressed if it were found in all of the grammars of the contributing languages and was reflected in the forms of the international vocabulary.
Conversely, no grammatical feature was retained if it were missing from at least one of the contributing languages.
www.omniglot.com /writing/interlingua.htm   (1121 words)

 Keiko Haiku Rules
Both of these factors derive from the fact that the grammatical units in Japanese are largely independent, and are relatively free to move about within a sentence.
In the Japanese language, however, because of the presence of grammatical particles (joshi)*** that are suffixed to nouns and mark their syntactic relationships, word units become independent and can be moved about more freely within a sentence or a clause without affecting its meaning.
Moreover, in Japanese, some of the grammatical particles and the subject of a sentence can be omitted depending on the context, which gives the language further flexibility.
www.ahapoetry.com /keirule.htm   (2115 words)

 Encyclopedia: Vietnamese language
Grammatical tense is a way languages express the time at which an event described by a sentence occurs.
Past tense is indicated by adding the particle đã, present progressive tense by the particle đang, and future tense is indicated by the particle sẽ.
The sentence: Grammatical person, in linguistics, is deictic reference to the participant role of a referent, such as the speaker, the addressee, and others.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Vietnamese-language   (5370 words)

 Jakarta 2000 tabs:   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
The discourse-related particles are used to link the clause in which they occur to another clause in the discourse.
The context-related particles link the clause to some aspect of the context, which may be another clause in the discourse, or an idea in the head of the speaker that is not expressed in words.
The addressee-related discourse particles are used to elicit a response from the addressee.
www.ling.udel.edu /pcole/MalayIndonesian4/Jakarta_Abstract_Booklet.htm   (6151 words)

 Academic Coronese - A brief primer
The ergative case indicates the agent of a verb, and the -m ergative particle indicates a pronoun as the agent.
Questions are formed using the interrogative particles, yes/no by appending the predicative interrogative particle, multiple-choice by prepending each of the choices (each being a lexical unit) with the optional interrogative particle and direct or indirect questions by starting the sentence with their respective particles.
The predicative particle may also be used — when it alone with its main word forms a whole sentence — to require a motivation of something.
www.orionsarm.com /linguistics/Coronese.html   (1613 words)

 LN 110 -- Course Management and Organization   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Grammatical morphemes are sometimes referred to as 'function words'.
'Grammatical morpheme' is a better term for the functions of language are expressed not only by words but by suffixes, prefixes, and unaccented particles, too.
Grammatical morphemes are those bits of linguistic sound which mark the grammatical categories of language (Tense, Number, Gender, Aspect), each of which has one or more functions (Past, Present, Future are functions of Tense; Singular and Plural are functions of Number).
www.departments.bucknell.edu /linguistics/lectures/gramorph.html   (147 words)

 Question article - Question information answer commands response research rhetorical Grammar - What-Means.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
In grammar, most languages distinguish interrogative sentences that put questions from declarative sentences that state propositions by syntax.
Some devices used by languages for marking questions include altered word order, the use of an interrogative mood or some other verb inflection such as the subjunctive mood, or the use of grammatical particles.
In languages written in the Latin alphabet, the question mark (or, in the case of Spanish, a pair of them) identifies questions.
www.what-means.com /encyclopedia/Question   (701 words)

This document is a brief bare-bones sketch of the fundamental grammatical processes of the language.
The grammatical portion of this description is organized by the major open stem classes of dapnant: Nominals and Verbs.
Essentially all roots fall into one of these two classes, plus a number of grammatical particles whose function is explained in the discussion of syntax.
cs-people.bu.edu /dgd/dapnant/intro.html   (648 words)

 Encyclopedia: German modal particle
German modal particles (Modalpartikel) are modal particles in German.
The only function German modal particles have is that of reflecting the mood or attitude of the speaker or narrator.
There are also other grammatical particles in German, similarly to other languages, which act as sentence connectors, sentence substitutes and interjections.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/German-modal-particle   (123 words)

 Brain activation of different grammatical processing in Japanese sentences :an event related fMRI study   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-06)
Five types of sentences that were contained a grammatical error and normal (well-formed) sentences were presented through a pair of headphone in random order.
Common activations during hearing different grammatically incorrect sentences were found in both the inferior frontal cortex and premotor area of the left hemisphere.
In other words, our results indicate a brain network exists for processing different grammatical processing of Japanese in the left frontal cortex, although the pattern of activation is different in relation to the specific syntactic processes. /hbm2003/abstract/abstract1348.htm   (431 words)

 Grammatical particle - Encyclopedia, History and Biography
Depending on its context, the meaning of the term may overlap with such notions as morpheme, marker or even adverb (another catch-all term).
Thai Particles (http://www.geocities.com/siamsmile365/thaiparticles/thaiparticles.htm) (Large list of Thai particles with explanations and example sentences).
The article about Grammatical particle contains information related to Grammatical particle, Resume of the different types of particle in English, Articles, infinitival, prepositional and adverbial particles, Interjections, sentence connectors and conjunctions and External links.
www.arikah.com /encyclopedia/Grammatical_particle   (496 words)

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