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Topic: Gravitational constant

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  Gravitational Potential Energy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Gravitational potential energy is energy an object possesses because of its position in a gravitational field.
The general expression for gravitational potential energy arises from the law of gravity and is equal to the work done against gravity to bring a mass to a given point in space.
This is the form for the gravitational potential energy which is most useful for calculating the escape velocity from the earth's gravity.
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/gpot.html   (348 words)

 Gravitational constant - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
According to the law of universal gravitation, the attractive force between two bodies is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
The gravitational constant is a physical constant which appears in Newton's law of universal gravitation and in Einstein's theory of general relativity.
However, these dimensions have fundamental significance in terms of Planck units: when expressed in SI units, the gravitational constant is dimensionally and numerically equal to the cube of the Planck length divided by the Planck mass and by the square of Planck time.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Gravitational_constant   (820 words)

 Weight Equation
The gravitational force is a field force; the source of the force does not have to be in physical contact with the object.
Scientists have combined the universal gravitational constant, the mass of the earth, and the square of the radius of the earth to form the gravitational acceleration, g.
Since the gravitational constant (g) depends on the square of the distance from the center of the earth, the weight of an object decreases with altitude.
www.lerc.nasa.gov /WWW/K-12/airplane/wteq.html   (579 words)

 Weight Equation
Scientists have combined the universal gravitational constant, the mass of the Earth, and the square of the radius of the Earth to form the gravitational acceleration, ge.
The gravitational constant g depends on the mass of the planet and on the radius of the planet.
Since the gravitational constant ge depends on the square of the distance from the center of the Earth, the weight of an object decreases with altitude.
exploration.grc.nasa.gov /education/rocket/wteq.html   (696 words)

 Rupert Sheldrake Online
Gravitational and electromagnetic fields, atoms, galaxies and stars are governed by archaic habits, dating back to the earliest periods in the history of the universe.
Planck's constant, h, is a fundamental feature of quantum physics and relates the frequency of a radiation, v, with its quantum of energy, E, according to the formula E=hv.
Several cosmologists have speculated that the fine-structure constant might vary with the age of the universe, and attempts have been made to check this possibility by analyzing the light from stars and quasars, assuming that their distance is proportional to the red-shift of their light.
www.sheldrake.org /experiments/constants   (5719 words)

 Extended Definitions: Gravitational Constant, "g"
Conventional theories would define the gravitational constant as determining the amount of gravity produced between two masses a given distance apart.
The greater the gravitational constant, the greater the gravitational pull.
The C-R theory proposes that, instead of the gravitational constant, it is the amount of de-activation of real time which affects the gravitational pull.
www.geocities.com /recycling_universe/ed_gravitationalconstant.htm   (167 words)

 Zoom Astronomy Glossary: G
G is Newton's gravitational constant (also called the universal gravitational constant), a fundamental constant of nature that determines the strength of the force of the gravitational interaction between objects.
A gravitational lens is a massive object in space (like a galaxy) that warps space and bends light that passes by it, due to the gravitational forces of the massive object.
Gravitational lensing is the displacement of light due to the warping of space by a gravitational lens (a massive object in space that bends light that passes by it, due to the gravitational forces).
www.enchantedlearning.com /subjects/astronomy/glossary/indexg.shtml   (3017 words)

 Gravitational constant   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
, the gravitational constant, the universal gravitational constant, or Newton's constant.
The gravitational constant is a fundamental physical constant which appears in Newtons law of universal gravitation and in Einsteins theory of general relativity.
By combining the gravitational constant with Planck's constant and the speed of light in vacuum, it is possible to create a system of units known as Planck units.
gravitational-constant.kiwiki.homeip.net   (661 words)

 MEASURING THE GRAVITATIONAL CONSTANT, G   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Since the treatment of gravitation usually occurs in the middle of the first semester, shortly after the students have finally begun to appreciate the phenomenological approach to physics instruction, the traditional treatment runs contrary to the phenomenological teaching philosophy.
An alternative strategy which is consistent with the phenomenological approach would be to provide at least a demonstration of the universality of Newtonian gravitation by showing that objects of ordinary mass do in fact attract one another with a force which cannot be attributed to other causes.
It should be possible to extend the demonstration to include actual measurement of the gravitational constant, though this could (and perhaps should) be reserved for advanced students or special projects.
www.iit.edu /~smile/ph8615.html   (599 words)

The release of the new 2002 NIST fundamental physical constants has vindicated a discovery made last year that shows the electron as a function of the gravitational constant.
Gravitational Constant II The connection of the electron to the gravitational constant -Gn- is through the density of the electron itself.
This density of the electron is related to the amplitude of an electron to emit or absorb a photon or the fine-structure constant through the elementary charge of the electron....
www.gnostics.com /numbersII.html   (811 words)

 Determination of the gravitational constant G by means of a beam balance
Using one of the world’s most precise beam balances, the weight difference of two test masses is changed by the gravitational force of two movable tanks filled with a liquid of known density and measured with a sensitivity of 10-11.
Since the field masses are moved such that the test masses are at an extremum, the gravitational force acting on a test mass is to first order independent of the test mass position, reducing the required accuracy of the distances between the field and test masses.
The amplitude of the gravitational signal is now 785mg, and a portion of the data for the modulated weight difference is plotted in Figure 4.
www.europhysicsnews.com /full/04/article6/article6.html   (1827 words)

 Wikinfo | Gaussian gravitational constant   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Carl Friedrich Gauss expressed the gravitational constant in units of the solar system rather than SI units.
The day defined by this constant was later understood as the basis of the rate of Ephemeris Time, and in modern usage this day is understood to be measured in units of Barycentric Dynamical Time (TDB).
1/86400 of the day defined by this constant was known as the ephemeris second, and the length of the ephemeris second as measured by clocks on the surface of the earth was adopted as the SI second.
www.wikinfo.org /wiki.php?title=Gaussian_gravitational_constant   (354 words)

 universal gravitational constant—by Miles Mathis
It occurred to me some time ago that the Universal Gravitational Constant—usually signified by the variable G—might be the key to unlocking the secret to gravity, among other things.
All the known concepts are assigned variables and the unknowns are lumped together in a constant.
This causes further problems due to the fact that the objects' gravitational strengths are determined by their masses, and all mass cannot be found at a point.
geocities.com /mileswmathis/ug.html   (2914 words)

 Coupling Constants for the Fundamental Forces   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
In obtaining a coupling constant for the strong interaction, say in comparison to the electromagnetic force, it must be recognized that they are very different in nature.
This coupling constant is also called the "fine structure constant" since it shows up in the description of the fine structure of atomic spectra.
The lifetime of a particle is proportional to the inverse square of the coupling constant of the force which causes the decay.
hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu /hbase/forces/couple.html   (595 words)

 Introduction to the constants for nonexperts 1920­1940
The universal, or Newtonian (after Isaac Newton), gravitational constant (G) is the constant of proportionality in the equation relating the gravitational force between two separated bodies to their respective masses.
In 1854 another astronomer, George Biddell Airy, of England, measured the gravitational constant by comparing the period of a pendulum's swing at the Earth's surface and at the bottom of a mine shaft of known depth.
The second general class of experiment for determining the gravitational constant, a significantly more accurate one, consists of measuring the gravitational force attracting two masses in the laboratory.
physics.nist.gov /cuu/Constants/historical2.html   (672 words)

 The Big Bang!
Given that light obeys gravity, the Michelson-Morley experiment which was conducted deep in the earth’s gravitational field, is shown to be an inherently invalid test of the earth's drift through an ether and to not be relevant to rod length considerations.
Gravity is posited to be the result of masses acting as sinks of a spatial fabric in which a condensation or an absorption of the spatial medium causes a depletion or thinning resulting in a gradient in the density of the spatial fabric near the mass.
The gravitational redshift is regarded as a special case of the velocity redshift.
www.olypen.com /hcwarren   (3108 words)

The strength of the gravitational force depends on the value of G. The value of the gravitational constant can be determined using the Cavendish apparatus.
This, combined with the measured torsion constant, is sufficient to determine the torque [tau] acting on the torsion balance due to the gravitational force.
In the gravitational field it is convenient to define the zero potential energy configuration to be one in which the two particles are separated by a large distance (infinity).
teacher.pas.rochester.edu /phy121/LectureNotes/Chapter14/Chapter14.html   (2286 words)

 Sir Isaac Newton: The Universal Law of Gravitation
The constant of proportionality G is known as the universal gravitational constant.
It is termed a "universal constant" because it is thought to be the same at all places and all times, and thus universally characterizes the intrinsic strength of the gravitational force.
Thus, the weight of an object of mass m at the surface of the Earth is obtained by multiplying the mass m by the acceleration due to gravity, g, at the surface of the Earth.
csep10.phys.utk.edu /astr161/lect/history/newtongrav.html   (1830 words)

 A New Method of Calculating Gravity without the Gravitational Constant.
Abstract: By using the Space Constant Equation it is possible to accurately calculate the gravitational force of any celestial body and the "fudge factor" of the gravitational constant is able to be discarded forever.
It is readily apparent that the current gravitational constant is not a tangible physical concept as demonstrated by its units of measure which are currently mandatory for the law of universal gravitation to yield the correct units for force.
It is a constant that grossly works in most instances but yet we have no understanding of why.
www.journaloftheoretics.com /Articles/1-2/Gravitational_Constant.htm   (357 words)

Constants that aren't dimensionless can be regarded as relating one sort of unit to another.
The electromagnetic coupling constant is just another name for the fine structure constant; it describes the strength of the electromagnetic field.
Instead of the electromagnetic coupling constant together with the masses of the W, Z, and Higgs, we could have used 4 other constants: the U(1) coupling constant, the SU(2) coupling constant, the mass of the Higgs, and the expectation value of the Higgs field.
math.ucr.edu /home/baez/constants.html   (1705 words)

 Potential Solutions to Many of the Mysteries in Astrophysics and the Universe
The Hubble constant was introduced to describe the ratio of the velocity to the red shift of stars, and was then used to calculate the distance too the far galaxies.
where M is the attracting mass, m is the rotating mass, Gn is Newton's gravitational constant, r is the radius of rotation, and A is a coefficient in the first term in the series expansion of the gravitational force.
The potential energy well for a photon leaving the gravitation well of a star or galaxy and traveling a distance r is given by the integral of the attractive force to the distance r.
inventing-solutions.com /new-universe.htm   (4341 words)

 Gravity and antigravity (1)
Newton’s universal law of gravitation states that the gravitational force between two bodies is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
However, he recognized that gravitational fields were present in all regions of space, and for a time he spoke of a ‘gravitational ether’, but he reduced it to an empty abstraction by denying it any energetic properties.
A particle’s gravitational and electromagnetic fields are said to result from the fluxes of different kinds of etheric particles, or etherons, across their boundaries, and the resulting etheron concentration gradients.
ourworld.compuserve.com /homepages/dp5/gravity.htm   (10737 words)

 Gravitational Constant : Variations in Gravitational Constant G
This is a photograph of a simple big G apparatus used to indirectly determine the value for G. The value of the fundamental constant G has been of great interest for physicists for over 300 years and it has the longest history of measurements after the speed of light.
Atomic constants seemed to Dirac to be more stable, so he chose the variation of G as 1/T, in other words, the gravitational force weakening as the universe expands.
Gravitational constant G is always measured indirectly, with the false assumption that the masses (both of the equipment and that of earth) are constant.
www.blazelabs.com /f-u-massvariation.asp   (9188 words)

 Laboratory Experiments: A 14 ppm G measurement, a new sub-mm gravity constraint, and other news from MG9
The turntable is first rotated at a constant rate so that the pendulum experiences a sinusoidal torque due to the gravitational interaction with the attractor masses.
The resulting angular acceleration of the turntable, which is now equal to the gravitational angular acceleration of the pendulum, is determined from the second time-derivative of the turntable angle readout.
The gravitational torque on the pendulum is dominantly determined by the ratio of its quadrupole moment to moment of inertia - a ratio which is independent of the shape and mass distribution of the pendulum in the limit that it has negligible width.
www.phys.lsu.edu /mog/mog16/node8.html   (1726 words)

 Is the Gravitational Constant constant? - Bad Astronomy and Universe Today Forum
In terms of practical application of the relationships, it is easiest to use them assuming that it is the gravitational constant that varies with the passage of time.
In actuality this is misleading since the gravitational constant is constant, it is only because of a uniform expansion of space time that the effect of gravity changes with the passage of time.
As well as an enlightening journey through the great physicists' lives and work, it considers the idea of a variable gravitational constant- unfortunately, such ideas were contemplated during the early to mid 20th century and found to be incompatable with what we see in the universe.
www.bautforum.com /showthread.php?t=8480   (3604 words)

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