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Topic: Great Migration (African American)

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In the News (Thu 21 Mar 19)

  Great Migration (African American) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Although there was opposition to the movement of African Americans into cities that were predominantly white (for example, the riots in East Saint Louis, Illinois in 1917 and Detroit in 1943), the Great Migration provided unprecedented economic and educational opportunities for African Americans.
Furthermore, because of war needs and the rising population of African Americans in the industrial centers, in 1943 President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued Executive Order 8802, which banned racial discrimination in the workplace in all industries involved in the war effort, and paved the way for the American civil rights movement.
In the last two decades of the 20th century, a new movement of African Americans within the United States began, and has reached sufficient magnitude, to be termed by some as a second Great Migration.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Great_Migration_(African_American)   (923 words)

 Great Migration - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Great Migration is a term often used to describe the early medieval migrations of peoples in Europe.
The Great Migration may refer to the Winthrop Fleet of 1630; wherein 700 passengers migrated from England to Massachusetts Bay Colony in eleven ships.
The African American Great Migration was an important 20th century migration to the North in African-American history.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Great_Migration   (199 words)

 African American History - MSN Encarta
African American History or Black American History, a history of fl people in the United States from their arrival in the Americas in the 15th century until the present day.
Until the mid-20th century, the African American population was concentrated in the Southern states.
Africans were confined for two to three months in irons in the hold of a slave ship during the crossing of the Atlantic Ocean called the Middle Passage.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761595158/African_American_History.html   (809 words)

 Great Migration
The Great Migration, a long-term movement of African Americans from the South to the urban North, transformed Chicago and other northern cities between 1916 and 1970.
Despite the tensions between newcomers and “old settlers,” related to differences in age, region of origin, and class, the Great Migration established the foundation for fl political power, business enterprise, and union activism.
The Great Migration's impact on cultural life in Chicago is most evident in the southern influence on the Chicago Renaissance of the 1930s and 1940s, as well as blues music, cuisine, churches, and the numerous family and community associations that link Chicago with its southern hinterland—especially Mississippi.
www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org /pages/545.html   (576 words)

 American Experience | Fatal Flood | People & Events
Migration was also spurred on by the lack of educational opportunities in the Delta.
While the Percy family had ensured that African Americans in Washington County had access to decent education, this wasn't the case in the rest of the Delta.
The Great Migration of people was accompanied by a musical migration; Delta blues music travelled to Chicago and put down new roots in the city.
www.pbs.org /wgbh/amex/flood/peopleevents/e_sharecroppers.html   (705 words)

 Migrations: The African-American Mosaic (Library of Congress Exhibition)
Even by 1900, approximately 90 percent of all African- Americans still resided in the South.
The reasons for this "Great Migration," as it came to be called, are complex.
Between 1940 and 1970 continued migration transformed the country's African-American population from a predominately southern, rural group to a northern, urban one.
www.loc.gov /exhibits/african/afam008.html   (519 words)

 ARTSEDGE: The Great Migration
His parents were from the South and had migrated North during World War I. As an adult living in Harlem, he used his art to tell the stories of the African Americans who migrated North.
Then, when African Americans were migrating from the South to the North, they often carried few possessions with them on their trip because most were very poor and the trip was long.
This African tradition was brought to the Americas by fl slaves and carried on by African Americans.
artsedge.kennedy-center.org /content/2247   (2683 words)

 Migration and the African-American Family: Migration
Africans came to the North American colonies as a result of the trans-Atlantic slave trade.
A second forced migration occurred after the American Revolution, when thousands of African-American slaves were transported from older eastern areas of the United States to newer settlements.
Reaching its height in 1915, due to the industrial boom in the North, the Great Migration lasted until the onset of the Great Depression.
www.vmfa.state.va.us /hyman/hyman_migration1.html   (1672 words)

 African American Migration during the early 20th Century
Between 1910 and 1920, the African American population of Omaha doubled from around 5,000 to 10,315.
African Americans suffered under "Jim Crow" laws in the South that segregated schools, restaurants, hotels, railroad cars and even hospitals.
Thus, the migration of fls to Omaha and the hiring of fl workers created a source of friction in the labor market that was adding economic pressure to existing racial hostilities.
www.nebraskastudies.org /0700/stories/0701_0131.html   (712 words)

 A A World . Reference Room . Articles . The Great Migration | PBS
The Great Migration was the migration of thousands of African-Americans from the South to the North.
African Americans were looking to escape the problems of racism in the South and felt they could seek out better jobs and an overall better life in the North.
The Great Migration created the first large, urban fl communities in the North.
www.pbs.org /wnet/aaworld/reference/articles/great_migration.html   (348 words)

 Chicago, Jazz, and the Great Migration
The role of the Great Migration of African-Americans to Chicago in the development of traditional fl gospel piano by Thomas A. Dorsey, circa 1930.
Census Maps of the Migration from the University of Illinois - Chicago.
Chicago and the Great Migration from the Northern Illinois University Library.
www.lib.uchicago.edu /e/su/cja/greatmigration.html   (1373 words)

Prior to the migration, hundreds of thousands of African American men and women living in the South were engaged in some form of agricultural production -- either as tenant-farmers or sharecroppers.
To assure that African Americans "stayed in their place" and would not openly protest these conditions, some white Southerners routinely used various forms of lynching.
African-Americans who traveled North during the Great Migration assumed that leaving the South meant leaving behind racial violence as well, but this was not the case.
ci.coe.uni.edu /facstaff/zeitz/museum/migrate.html   (1294 words)

 African American Religion, Pt. II: From the Civil War to the Great Migration, 1865-1920, The Nineteenth Century, ...
The Era of Emancipation posed distinctive religious challenges for northern and southern African Americans.
And for both, Emancipation promised a meeting between two African American religious traditions that had moved far apart, in terms of both theology and ritual, in the previous seventy years.
But an understanding of religious experience in this era must also be supplemented by the complexities of the many internal boundaries in African American life in both the north and south—class divisions, rural/urban differences, and gender issues that accompanied the dawn of freedom.
www.nhc.rtp.nc.us /tserve/nineteen/nkeyinfo/aarcwgm.htm   (578 words)

 Digital History
The largest was Harlem, in upper Manhattan, where 200,000 African Americans lived in a neighborhood that had been virtually all-white fifteen years before.
Ten African American soldiers were among the 70 fls lynched in 1919.
As early as the 1890s, W.E.B. Du Bois, Harvard's first African American Ph.D., began to trace fl culture in the United States to its African roots; Fisk University's Jubilee Singers introduced Negro spirituals to the general public; and the American Negro Academy, organized in 1897, promoted African American literature, arts, music, and history.
www.digitalhistory.uh.edu /database/article_display.cfm?HHID=443   (949 words)

 eCUIP : The Digital Library : Social Studies : The Great Migration
There are a lot of reasons for the Great Migration including poor agricultural conditions in the south and new labor opportunities in the north.
Historians, economists, and sociologists have attempted to quantify the factors that led to the Great Migration.
The Great Migration would lead millions of African Americans to migrate from the south to the north over a period of more than 50 years.
ecuip.lib.uchicago.edu /diglib/social/greatmigration/lecture.html   (734 words)

 Cities in Black History
Although the Great Migration slowed during the Depression, nearly one-fourth of all fls lived in the North or West by 1940.
While the Great Migration did not have much affect on Boston, the city has received substantial immigration from the Caribbean in recent decades.
The Great Migration increased Detroit's fl population from under 6,000 in 1910 to 120,000 in 1930.
www.factmonster.com /spot/bhmcities1.html   (1488 words)

By the 1960s, the "Great Migration" had moved half the African American population to the north.
They well reflect the experience of the Great Migration from the rural south to northern cities, which started on a large scale during World War I and continued through the 1960s.
There is a great many race people around here who desires to come north but have waited rather late to avoid car fare, which they have not got.
www.stolaf.edu /people/fitz/COURSES/Migration.htm   (1104 words)

 Fly Away - The Great Migration
Created by students in the NEH North by South seminar at Kenyon College, this web site is devoted to tracing the flight of African Americans from the Mississippi Delta to Chicago during two main periods of migration, from approximately 1916 to 1950.
Likewise, the Chicago Defender, an African American newspaper, published articles exposing the blatant racism of white southerners, political oppression, and the perpetual threat of lynching.
In African-influenced voodoo art, the bird is an emblem of the mind, symbolizing "ashe," or "the-power-to-make-things-happen." Encompassing all of these beliefs, The Great Migration became the first successful attempt of African Americans to collectively seize control over their destinies.
northbysouth.kenyon.edu /1999/flyaway/flyaway.htm   (480 words)

 98.01.05: A Film and Literature Study of The African - American Migration
My unit will cover the Black Migration from the 1870’s through the 1940’s, in effect spanning that period of time which is formative for not only understanding the modern Civil Rights movement and present day race relations, but also the integral dynamics of the urban landscape of America’s cities.
In short, the forces which stimulated the Great Migration were economic, political, and social, having roots in both class and race inequities which plagued the agrarian South.
Despite the positive effects of the Great Migration, there were also many negative factors which resulted from the relocation of Southern Blacks in the North.
www.yale.edu /ynhti/curriculum/units/1998/1/98.01.05.x.html   (6365 words)

 Jazz and the Great Migration resources for teachers
This web page is a resource for teachers who are planning a unit on the Great Migration, or are supervising History Fair projects on Migration-related topics such as how jazz came to Chicago.
Felicia R. McKinnon's "A Film and Literature Study of The African - American Migration" from the Yale-New Haven Teachers Institute.
Great Migrations Resource Page and Census Maps [scroll down] from the University of Illinois - Chicago.
www.lib.uchicago.edu /e/su/cja/migrationteach.html   (330 words)

 ADAH: Alabama Moments (The Great Migration--Bibliography)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Andrews, W. "The Causes of Black Migration from the South." The Journal of Negro History 63 (Fall 1978).
This narrative history is an excellent source because it involves the reader, making migration history tangible.
This is an excellent resource for understanding the geographic patterns of African-American migration and the resulting change in the demography of the United States.
www.alabamamoments.state.al.us /sec47bib.html   (175 words)

 From VOICES: The Great Migration
"The Great Migration" exhibition documents the experiences of fifteen African American men and women who eventually settled in Yonkers, the largest city in Westchester County.
From 1930 through the 1960s, millions of African Americans left their family homesteads in the rural South in search of better economic, educational, and social opportunities in the North.
Many African Americans personally witnessed brutal lynchings and beatings, along with "ordinary" acts of oppression, such as nighttime attacks by dogs, and policemen who failed to protect them.
www.nyfolklore.org /pubs/voicjl28-1-2/migrate.html   (539 words)

 The Great Migration: The Evolution of African American Art, 1790-1945
"The Great Migration: The Evolution of African American Art, 1790-1945" traces the development of African American art from late 18th-century portraits and l9th-century landscapes to 20th-century paintings and prints that illustrate issues related to cultural heritage and racial equality.
The earliest documented African American professional painter, little is known about Johnston's life except that he was born a slave and gained his freedom by 1796.
Hundreds of thousands of African Americans migrated from the rural, mostly agricultural South to the urban industrialized North from 1913 to 1946.
www.tfaoi.com /aa/1aa/1aa565.htm   (758 words)

 H102 Lecture 09: The Great Migration: Blacks in White America
Beginning in the 1890s and lasting well into the 1970s, a "Great Migration" of southern fls to the West and North changed the demographic structure of the nation.
Ridiculed, rejected, and often left without a clear sense of self, fl Americans have often had to exist to a world where the rules are made by white Americans.
Large cities emerged across the continent, railroads made transportation cheaper and more reliable, businessmen and laborers struggled to shape American capitalism, and immigration and migration forced Americans to reconsider their definition of who exactly was an "American." This turmoil, however, was not simply confined to the East or North, or even to urban centers.
us.history.wisc.edu /hist102/lectures/lecture09.html   (1767 words)

 African American - Homework Center - Multnomah County Library
Brief American history of Africans from 1450 to 1865.
Learn about the "thirteen defining migrations that formed and transformed African America," including the transatlantic slave trade, the Great Migration, the return to the American South, and Haitian and African immigration in the 20th century.
African American soldiers during the civil war, with links to photographs and descriptions.
www.multcolib.org /homework/aframhc.html   (760 words)

 Chicago: Destination for the Great Migration: The African-American Mosaic (Library of Congress Exhibition)
Chicago: Destination for the Great Migration: The African-American Mosaic (Library of Congress Exhibition)
The Chicago Defender was a remarkably successful in encouraging fls to migrate from the South to Chicago, often listing names of churches and other organizations to whom they could write for help.
As a result, thousands of prospective migrants wrote letters to fl churches, such as the Bethlehem Baptist Association in Chicago, Illinois, which assumed the task of helping fl migrants find housing and employment.
www.loc.gov /exhibits/african/afam011.html   (694 words)

 Prof part of African-American migration project
As the book states, the Great Migration south to north from 1916-30 was a “watershed in the history of African Americans.
In her essay, Marks writes, "Migrants of the Great Migration were representatives of a fledgling class of artisans and urban nonagricultural laborers, as well as farm owners and tenants, who had been disadvantaged by economic conditions in the South and drawn to opportunities in the North.
She concludes, “the Great Migration was about migrants starting over and making sacrifices for future generations whom they would probably never see.
www.udel.edu /PR/UDaily/2005/mar/marks042605.html   (475 words)

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