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# Topic: Greek numerals

 Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > Greek numerals Greek numerals are a system of representing numbers using letters of the Greek alphabet. The earliest system of numerals in Greek was acrophonic, operating much like Roman numerals with the following scheme: Ι = 1, Π = 5, Δ = 10, Η = 100, Χ = 1000, and Μ = 10000. This requires 27 letters, so the 24-letter Greek alphabet was extended by using three obsolete letters: digamma (ς) for 6, qoppa (ϙ;) for 90, and sampi (ϡ;) for 900. www.kids.net.au /encyclopedia-wiki/gr/Greek_numerals   (227 words)

 Greek numeration In classical times these numerals were written in upper case. These numerals are used much like the more familiar Roman numerals, but without the convention of subtracting the value of any numeral smaller than the one to its right. The numerals are written with the larger values to the left. www.sizes.com /numbers/greek_numeration.htm   (217 words)

 Chinese numerals: Definition and Links by Encyclopedian.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29) The numeral characters are tightly integrated into the language: Each numeral character has a phonetic value and a number is read by pronouncing each individual character it consists of, unlike e.g. Rod numerals are closely related to the counting rods and the abacus, which is why the numeric symbols for 1, 2, 3, 6, 7 and 8 in "Hual Ma3" system are represented in a similar way as on the abacus. Traditional Chinese numeric characters are recognized and used in Japan where they are used in much the same formal or decorative fashion that Roman Numerals are in Western cultures. www.encyclopedian.com /ch/Chinese-numeral.html   (1782 words)

 Egyptian Numbers But one thing it seems the ancient Greeks did not invent was the counting system on which many of their greatest thinkers based their pioneering calculations. New research suggests the Greeks borrowed their system known as alphabetic numerals from the Egyptians, and did not develop it themselves as was long believed. Greek merchants may have seen the demotic system in use in Egypt and adapted it for their own purposes. www.homestead.com /wysinger/egyptiannumbers.html   (432 words)

 Greek Classical Greek fell into disuse in western Europe in the Middle Ages, but remained known in the Byzantine Empire, and was reintroduced to the rest of Europe with the Fall of Constantinople and Greek migration to Italy. The bulk of Greek vocabulary evolved from the Proto-Greek, the ancestor of all Greek dialects. Greek is considered to be a Category II language in terms of difficulty for speakers of English. www.nvtc.gov /lotw/months/february/greek.html   (1163 words)

 Greek alphabet Information Besides writing modern Greek, today its letters are used as symbols in mathematics and science, particle names in physics, as names of stars, in the names of fraternities and sororities, in the naming of supernumerary tropical cyclones, and for other purposes. The Greek alphabet originated as a modification of the Phoenician alphabet and in turn gave rise to the Gothic, Glagolitic, Cyrillic, Coptic, and possibly the Armenian alphabets, as well as the Latin alphabet, as documented in History of the alphabet. During the Middle ages, the Greek scripts underwent changes paralleling those of the Roman alphabet: while the old forms were retained as a monumental script, uncial and eventually minuscule hands came to dominate. www.bookrags.com /wiki/Greek_alphabet   (2180 words)

 Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Greek numerals This requires 27 letters, so the 24-letter Greek alphabet was extended by using three obsolete letters: digamma (ϝ, also used are stigma ϛ or, in modern Greek, στ) for 6, qoppa (ϟ) for 90, and sampi (ϡ) for 900.. In his text The Sand Reckoner the natural philosopher Archimedes proposed advanced ways to name very high numbers, such as the number of grains of sand on a beach, and the number of grains of sand on all the beaches on all the worlds in the universe. Hellenistic astronomers extended alphabetic Greek numerals into a sexagesimal positional numbering system by limiting each position to a maximum value of 50 + 9 and including a special symbol for zero, which was also used alone like our modern zero, more than as a simple placeholder. www.reference.com /browse/wiki/Ionian_numerals   (717 words)

 Greek numerals - TheBestLinks.com - Ionic numeral system, Astronomer, Arabic numerals, Chinese numerals, ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29) In modern Greece, they are still in use for ordinal numbers, and in much the same situations as Roman numerals are in the west; for ordinary numbers, arabic numerals are used. This requires 27 letters, so the 24-letter Greek alphabet was extended by using three obsolete letters: digamma (ϝ;, also used are ς or στ) for 6, qoppa (ϟ;) for 90, and sampi (ϡ;) for 900. However, these positions were usually limited to the fractional part of a number (called minutes, seconds, thirds, fourths, etc.), but were not used for their integral part. www.thebestlinks.com /Ionic_numeral_system.html   (410 words)

 Greek Numbers and Arithmetic By the Alexandrian Age, the Greek Attic system of enumeration was being replaced by the Ionian or alphabetic numerals. The numerator was written with an overbar, the denominator with the diacritical mark. Numerous, similar, representations also have been used, with increasing sophistication with time. www.math.tamu.edu /~dallen/history/gr_count/gr_count.html   (383 words)

 Greek numbers We know that the ancient Greeks had a somewhat different idea because the numbers were used in slightly different forms depending to what the number referred. It is worth noting that the Greeks were one of the first to adopt a system of writing based on an alphabet. The Greek alphabet used to write words was taken over from the Phoenician system and was quite close to it. www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk /~history/HistTopics/Greek_numbers.html   (1648 words)

 Akolouthies Method in English This version is adapted for the WWW from the original Greek version by English transliteration for all Greek terms, and italicizing superscripted elements of the mnemonic abbreviations. Greek numerals are represented by arabic numerals followed by the apostrophe ('). Theotokion Not to be confused with the numeral 9 (theta with stroke for greek numeral indicator) which often occurs referring to the ninth ode of a canon. abacus.bates.edu /~rallison/AkolMethod.html   (4068 words)

 The Greek Alphabet and Isopsephia > Jesus8880 The Greeks were the first people to incorporate vowels into their alphabet. The Greek alphabet of today is identical to the one used since the eighth century BC by the Greek colony of Ionia in Asia Minor, now part of modern day Turkey. Like the Attic Greek numerals before it, the Ionic Greek alphabet incorporates factors of "10" in it's structure because the the first group of 8 letters represents ones (monads = 1-9), the next group of 8 letters represents tens (decads = 10-80), and the last group of 8 letters represents hundreds (hecatads = 100-800). www.jesus8880.com /chapters/gematria/greek-alphabet.htm   (649 words)

 SIX HUNDRED SIXTY-SIX BUT NOT 666 Against the Numerical Representation 666 Perhaps the most famous (or infamous) number in the entire Bible is the strange number six hundred sixty-six, the number of one of the beasts in the thirteenth chapter of the Book of Revelation. In Greek the equivalence of gematria is sometimes called isopsephia (from the words for "equal" and "count"[14]) since one of the uses was to make connections between two words or phrases which had equal numerical calculations[15]. This is the abbreviation for patros the Greek word for father (in genitive case), as in "the name of his father" (Rev 14:1). answering-islam.org.uk /Religions/Numerics/six.html   (4762 words)

 Greek numerals : Ionic numeral system The earliest system of numerals in Greek was acrophonic, operating much like Roman numerals with the following scheme: Ι = 1, Π = 5, Δ = 10, Η = 100, Χ = 1000, and Μ = 10000. This requires 27 letters, so the 24-letter Greek alphabet was extended by using three obsolete letters: digamma (ς) for 6, qoppa (ϙ;) for 90, and sampi (ϡ;) for 900. See also: Numeral system, Arabic numerals, Armenian numerals, Babylonian numerals, Chinese numerals, Greek numerals, Hebrew numerals, Indian numerals, Mayan numerals, Roman numerals. www.mik.fastload.org /io/Ionic_numeral_system.html   (241 words)

 Units: Roman and "Arabic" Numerals The modern system of numeration is based on place value, with the same symbol, such as 4, taking on different meaning (4, 40, 400, etc.) depending on its location within the representation of the number. The numerals actually used in Arabic script, the true Arabic numerals, are of different forms; see Islamicity.com for a more complete discussion. Greek Numeration, by Alan J. Cain, illustrates how Roman numeration is parallel in many ways to the Attic Greek notation. www.unc.edu /~rowlett/units/roman.html   (1003 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29) Although the numbers for the areas were written in Arabic numerals, the labels beside the names of the regions used Greek letters: alpha, beta, etc. Interestingly, at the sixth location the two greek letters (sigma) and (tau) were used, obviously from the old stigma. Until the Greek NT was first printed in the early 16th century, each copy of each book in the NT was written by hand. This is the abbreviation for patros the Greek word for father (in genitive case), as in "the name of his father" (Rev 14:1). geneva.rutgers.edu /src/faq/666.txt   (3089 words)

 ipedia.com: Roman numeral Article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29) The system of Roman numerals is a numeral system originating in ancient Rome. Roman numerals remained in common use until about the 14th century, when they were replaced by Arabic numerals (thought to have been introduced to Europe by Arab traders around the 11th century). Due to the use of alphabetic symbols in Roman numerals, the Roman system could also be used to write chronograms, sentences or inscriptions in which the capital letters stand for a particular date. www.ipedia.com /roman_numeral.html   (951 words)

 arab számok As the name 'alphabetical' suggests the numerals are based on giving values to the letters of the alphabet. It is worth noting that the Greeks were one of the first to adopt a system of writing based on an alphabet. The Greek alphabet used to write words was taken over from the Phoenician system and was quite close to it. idi.ptmik.hu /IDI/Mathematics/szamok/4.htm   (358 words)

 Math Lair - Greek Attic Numerals   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29) The Attic (or Herodianic) system of numerals was the first system used in ancient Greece. The number 1 was represented by a vertical bar, but the other five symbols were Greek letters. There is no "standard" way of writing fractions with this numeral system, as this system was typically not used for representing fractions. www.stormloader.com /ajy/attic.html   (224 words)

 Episemon — FactMonster.com The reason is this: The Greek letters were used for numerals, and were ranged in three columns of nine figures each; but 24 letters will not divide by 9, so the 3 symbols, episemon, koppa, and sampi were added to make up 3 × 9. Episemon - Episemon in Greek numerals, is a sign standing for a numeral. Numerals - Numerals All our numerals and ordinals up to a million (with one exception) are Anglo-Saxon. www.factmonster.com /dictionary/brewers/episemon.html   (295 words)

 Names of Ethiopic Digits The Ethiopic zero numerals were mapped to the zero positions or ASCII 048 in ModEth and EthioWord and were added for their mathematical uses and to make the sets complete. Their positions in the GeezEdit fonts have continued to be arbitrary, mainly because priority was given to the Arabic numerals and due to lack of interest in using the Ethiopic zeros. The longevity of the Geez numerals may also have been because their major problem is still the absence of zero, if we compare them with others like the Roman numerals, acrophonic Greek and Babylonian cuneiforms. www.ethiopic.com /ETHIOPIC/numerals.htm   (934 words)

 The Hellenophile New research suggests that a Greek number system in use from antiquity throught the end of the Byzantine empire may not have been developed by Greeks as thought, but by Egyptians, and the innovation was carried to Greece by traders. The Greek government has said that security contingents brought by individual teams, while permitted, will not be able to carry weapons. Greek government ministers said Thursday it was standard practice for Olympic teams to be accompanied by their own security officials, adding, however, that the latter would be subject to Greek law. blogs.salon.com /0001147/categories/theHellenophile/2003/09/16.html   (390 words)

 Ancient Greek Number Codes   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29) Numerals of two types were used on Greek inscriptions. Acrophonic numerals, which were never used as ordinals, were used to denote cardinal numbers and units of value, weight and measure. The alphabetic system was used for ordinal as well as cardinal numerals, for dates (day of month; length of time), for money, for distances, and as numeral adjectives (first, second, etc.). www.fargonasphere.com /piso/numcode.html   (310 words)

 Hebrew, Greek, Slavonic Numbers   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29) Hebrew numerals 15 and 16 are non-standard to avoid resemblance to the Holy Name Greek numeral for 6 is sigma-tau ligature which resembles by shape an obsolete letter vau or digamma; it can also be written as two separate letters sigma and tau Slavonic numerals for 6, 90 and 900 are letters which are not present in the Greek alphabet alphaom.tripod.com /misc/numeri.htm   (172 words)

 greek numerals   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-29) Greek numerals are a bit more complicated than Roman. First is the Acrophonic - this is type of Greek numerals that were used in ancient Greece up to Roman times (100 BC). This was later replaced by the Alphabetic numerals - where 27 letters and their combinations stood for all numbers. www.mathsisgoodforyou.com /numerals/greeknums.htm   (159 words)

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