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Topic: Gregorian


  
 Gregorian calendar - Open Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
A modification of the Julian calendar, it was first proposed by Neapolitan doctor Aloysius Lilius, and promulgated by the eponymous Pope Gregory XIII on February 24, 1582 (Note: The papal bull Inter gravissimas was dated 1581, as the year was at that time taken to commence in March).
The motivation of the Catholic Church in adjusting the calendar was to have Easter celebrated at the time that had been agreed at the First Council of Nicaea in 325, ie.
Some Orthodox Christians may go so far as to identify themselves as Old Calendarist and assert that under the Julian Calendar the eternal liturgy in Heaven was reflected on earth by the liturgical calendar and that the change meant that Heaven and Earth would be out of tune.
open-encyclopedia.com /Gregorian_Calendar   (2224 words)

  
 CalendarHome.com - Gregorian calendar - Calendar Encyclopedia
It is a modification of the Julian calendar, was first proposed by Neapolitan doctor Aloysius Lilius, and adopted by Pope Gregory XIII on February 24, 1582 (the document was dated 1581 on account of the pope starting the year in March).
The Gregorian calendar also fixed the first day of the year as January 1, which was already the first day used in Italy, Germany, and other places, but not universally (England, for example, began the year on March 25).
The Gregorian calendar can be extended to dates preceding its official introduction, producing the Proleptic Gregorian Calendar.
encyclopedia.calendarhome.com /Gregorian_calendar.htm   (1101 words)

  
 Gregorian Chant: A Barometer of Religious Fervor
In fact, it does not seem too much to say that the status of the Gregorian Chant during the centuries may be considered a barometer indicating the state of religious fervor in the Catholic Church at the time.
It must be true art, for otherwise it will be impossible for it to exercise on the minds of those who listen to it that efficacy which the Church aims at obtaining in admitting into her Liturgy the art of musical sounds.
Furthermore, it was the monastic hearths that preserved and fed the sacred fire of Christian fervor; likewise it was the monastic homes of the sons of Benedict that preserved and fostered the sacred Chant, for without them the Chant would have been lost to the succeeding generations.
www.unavoce.org /chantbar.htm   (2915 words)

  
 ND brings Gregorian to speak - The Observer - News
Gregorian, president of the Carnegie Corporation and former president of Brown University and the New York Public Library, will be the principal graduation speaker.
Gregorian was born to Armenian parents in Tabriz, Iran.
Gregorian taught European and Middle Eastern history for eight years at San Francisco State College, the University of California at Los Angeles and the University of Texas.
www.ndsmcobserver.com /news/2005/05/13/News/Nd.Brings.Gregorian.To.Speak-951122.shtml   (502 words)

  
 The Gregorian Conversion   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The Gregorian calendar was designed to restore the spring equinox to the March 21 date that had been traditional since the Council of Nicaea (see Alexandrian Easter).
Although today we think of the Gregorian reform as a correction of the solar (Julian) calendar, at least as important to those who enacted the reform was the correction to the lunar calendar used to track the Easter months.
In attempts at calendar reform before the Gregorian, the lunar months were most frequently the target, probably because it was felt much easier to reform the part of the calendar only used by churchmen, rather than one deeply entrenched in civil life.
www.polysyllabic.com /GregConv.html   (1207 words)

  
 Gregorian Schola
Gregorian chant was for centuries the music of the Roman Catholic Church.
While Christian chanting developed from Hebrew chants, Gregorian chant, as we know it today, is the most notable contribution of the Catholic church to the musical tradition of the west.
The Gregorian Schola chants in Latin from the "square note" neum notation in the
comp.uark.edu /~rlee/chant.html   (678 words)

  
 CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Gregorian Chant
The name is often taken as synonymous with plain chant, comprising not only the Church music of the early Middle Ages, but also later compositions (elaborate melodies for the Ordinary of the Mass, sequences, etc.) written in a similar style down to the sixteenth century and even in modern times.
In a stricter sense Gregorian chant means that Roman form of early plain chant as distinguished from the Ambrosian, Galliean, and Mozarabic chants, which were akin to it, but were gradually supplanted by it from the eighth to the eleventh century.
The name Gregorian chant points to Gregory the Great (590-604), to whom a pretty constant tradition ascribes a certain final arrangement of the Roman chant.
www.newadvent.org /cathen/06779a.htm   (897 words)

  
 Canticum Novum Choir
The chorus interprets this Gregorian chant, named for Pope Saint Gregory the Great, using the notation of the 11th century that consists of neumes or groups of notes arranged on staves of four lines.
It recognizes the rhythmic technique of the Abbey of Saint Peter of Solesmes, the institution to which Pope Saint Pius X entrusted the restoration of chant for the liturgy (1903).
Without doubt, Gregorian Chant was written for use in the Liturgy of the Church.
interletras.com /canticum/Eng/Canticum_ENG.htm   (348 words)

  
 Calendars and their History   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Use of the Gregorian calendar in the United States stems from an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom in 1751, which specified use of the Gregorian calendar in England and its colonies.
Because the purpose of the Gregorian calendar was to regulate the cycle of Christian holidays, its acceptance in the non-Christian world was initially not at issue.
Although the Gregorian calendar is used in the Peoples' Republic of China for administrative purposes, the traditional Chinese calendar is used for setting traditional festivals and for timing agricultural activities in the countryside.
astro.nmsu.edu /~lhuber/leaphist.html   (8496 words)

  
 Calendar Converter
The Gregorian calendar was proclaimed by Pope Gregory XIII and took effect in most Catholic states in 1582, in which October 4, 1582 of the Julian calendar was followed by October 15 in the new calendar, correcting for the accumulated discrepancy between the Julian calendar and the equinox as of that date.
The average length of a year in the Gregorian calendar is 365.2425 days compared to the actual solar tropical year (time from equinox to equinox) of 365.24219878 days, so the calendar accumulates one day of error with respect to the solar year about every 3300 years.
Since year 1 of the Indian calendar differs from year 1 of the Gregorian, to determine whether a year in the Indian calendar is a leap year, add 78 to the year of the Saka era then apply the Gregorian calendar rule to the sum.
www.fourmilab.ch /documents/calendar   (5229 words)

  
 Gregorian Chant tutorial -Theory and Technics
Gregorian Chant is written on staves of four lines.
In Gregorian chant the synthesis is carried out by means of three stages: elementary rhythms, groups and great rhythm.
Chironomy is the way that conductor uses to move his hands in order to show the rhythmic elements of the musical work and their different shades; the purpose of Chironomy is to achieve the most perfect interpretation.
interletras.com /canticum/Eng/index_tecnic_ENG.html   (321 words)

  
 DoveSong.com -- Plainsong   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Gregorian chant is the liturgical music that was sung in the Roman Catholic Church from the fifth or sixth centuries until the Second Vatican Council of 1962 - 1965 when it was removed from the church!
Gregorian chant was named for St. Gregory the Great who was pope from 690 to 604.
Polyphonic music was largely based on the melodies of Gregorian chant and compositions in the polyphonic style often replaced the original Gregorian compositions in services, while retaining the same words (as these were a part of the liturgy).
www.dovesong.com /positive_music/archives/plainsong/about_plainsong.asp   (499 words)

  
 Gregorian Association
Gregorian Chant was essentially a variant of the Roman chant, a foreign import subjected to local variation.
At the same, the Gregorian Association was founded in England, which promoted the use in the Church of England of chant books in English with a similar musical style, especially Thomas Helmore's The Psalter Noted and The Hymnal Noted, by the same author with translations by J. Neale (of "Good King Wenceslas" fame).
The Gregorian Association was at the forefront in encouraging the use of Gregorian melodies to English texts, both for the Mass and also for Anglican versions of the Divine Office.
www.beaufort.demon.co.uk /chant.htm   (3975 words)

  
 Ratio Studiorum   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Gregorian chant is one of the many traditions of liturgical song that developed in the Christian church during the medieval period, and undoubtedly the most renowned (though few people really know it well) of the chant traditions that are still in use today.
Despite the over-enthusiastic claims of some, Gregorian chant as we know it has little in common with the chant that is heard in synagogues today or that can be recovered historically by scholars.
In the Latin West, this was part of the effort known as the Carolingian Renaissance, in which Pepin and his son Charlemagne, kings of the Franks, imposed on all their subjects (in the region that is now France and Germany) a homogenized liturgy derived from the local rite of Rome.
www.music.princeton.edu /chant_html/what.html   (2416 words)

  
 Classical Net Review - Chant - Immortal Gregorian
Despite the precepts of Vatican liturgists, it was performed throughout the world unharmonized, harmonized with tonal or modal or Debussy-like accompaniments, in various rhythms, in no rhythms at all, by men, by women, by boys, by girls, and by everybody all together.
Gregorian chant has recently become a commercial success, and record companies are releasing or re-releasing their archival material to ride the crest of the wave.
The current Gregorian furor is therefore not so surprising--nor is it surprising that it was initiated by a disc distinguished for neither scholarship nor performance.
www.classical.net /music/recs/reviews/s/stu22012a.html   (708 words)

  
 Mystical-WWW : Gregorian Chant
Taken from 'Gregorian Chant', a recording of 'The Monastic Choir of the Abbey of St. Pierre de Solesmes', adapted from the note by Robert Hartford, Double CD MUCD9516, 1996 Start Entertainments Ltd, London.
It may be that its serenity serves to counter the stress and strain of everyday life at the end of the second millennium; in a perpetually changing and often perplexing world the slow and inevitable progress of this music acts as a reminder of things eternal.
'Gregorian Chant can be traced in documents as far back as the 11th-century and, on oral tradition, some 300 years earlier.
www.mystical-www.co.uk /gregor.htm   (423 words)

  
 Gregorian chant on the net
The academy favorises the foundation of gregorian choirs and the study of gregorian chant.
The Stamford Schola Gregoriana is a non-profit organization which works to promote Gregorian chant and choral polyphony of the 16th Century, and is also the name of the schola of male singers which sings regularly at the Church of St. John the Evangelist in Stamford, CT. Founded in 2001 by Scott Turkington.
In reaction to the suppression of gregorian chant by the Second Vatican Council in favour of hymns in the native (Dutch) language, the choir of the St. Luke parish in Tilburg established a schola in 1969.
www.schuyesmans.be /gregoriaans/EN/ENnet.htm   (5288 words)

  
 Canto Gregoriano and Frock Rock: EMI and the Popularisation of Gregorian Chant   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Gregorian chant is the original mystical minimalism, with its spare, repetitious, mesmerising settings of liturgical texts, but it is subtler and, in its understated way, perhaps ultimately more powerful.
With Gregorian chant, the concept of pure spiritual fulfilment in an ancient tradition of simplified beauty is easily understood within this context.
While they accepted that Gregorian chant itself is within the public domain, they believed that their arrangements and direction played a vital role in the recordings’ success.
www.musicjournal.org /01gregorian.html   (3152 words)

  
 Toke Nørby. The Perpetual Calendar
The Gregorian or New Style Calendar was introduced in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania by Steponas Batoras, Grand Duke of Lithuania on 21 January 1584, soon after the calendar reform of Pope Gregory XIII, and replaced the prevailing Julian or Old Style Calendar (9).
The Gregorian calendar was still in force in the southern Lithuania, the region called Uznemune or Suduva as it in 1795 was given to the German Prussia.
Of course the discrepancy continued but in 1917 the first step was taken to introduce the Gregorian Calendar as the beginning of the year was moved to 1917.03.01 GR leaving out the Days 16-29 February 1916 and the final adjustment was made when they changed the beginning of the year to 1918.01.01 (12).
www.norbyhus.dk /calendar.html   (8071 words)

  
 OSB. Gen. Topics. Gregorian Chant Bibliography and Websites.
Selections Title: The Gregorian missal for Sundays / notated in Gregorian chant by the monks of Solesmes.
Title: Gregorian chant experience / sing and meditate with Noirin Ni Riain ; scribe, Kevin Healy ; overture, by Sinead O Connor ; foreword, by Austin Flannery ; chant and prayer, by PLacid [sic] Murray.
Summary: The traditional chants performed by Benedictine Monks are brought together with inspirational sights that awaken the senses, release anxiety and instill a state of peacefulness.
www.osb.org /gen/topics/chantbib.html   (1038 words)

  
 Learn more about Gregorian Calendar in the online encyclopedia.   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Learn more about Gregorian Calendar in the online encyclopedia.
The Gregorian Calendar, a modification of the Julian calendar, was first proposed by Neapolitan doctor Aloysius Lilius, and adopted by Pope Gregory XIII on February 24, 1582 (the document was dated 1581 on account of the pope starting the year in March).
The mean year in the Julian Calendar had exactly 365.25 days, but the mean tropical year duration is approximately 365.2422.
www.onlineencyclopedia.org /g/gr/gregorian_calendar.html   (1057 words)

  
 Gregorian Chant Notation
his is a description of the traditional Gregorian Chant notation, so that anyone will be able to read the notation and sing it.
Gregorian Chant has no meter at all, though it does have a slight rhythm of groups of 2 or 3 notes.
Here are some examples of Chant written in neumes and written in modern notation, to compare them.
lphrc.org /Chant/index.html   (571 words)

  
 Gregorian Chant: Archaic Relic or Relevant Revelation? Article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
This chant, written in rhymed accentual rhythm by St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274); is considered the most beautiful of Aquinas' hymns and one of the great seven hymns of the Church.
According to his theory, there are two kinds of sound: there are "discharge" sounds (those which tire, fatigue and drain the listener) and "charge" sounds (those which give energy, life and health).
According to Dr. Tomatis, Gregorian chant may be the most potent sound to promote strength and vitality.
chant.freeservers.com   (1459 words)

  
 Musical Forms - Plainchant
As political and liturgical unification began under Carolingian rule in the mid-8th century, all the local Latin musical rites except the Ambrosian were suppressed in favour of the Gregorian.
The Byzantine modal theory «Oktoechos» developed with a symmetrical arrangement of eight modes and was adopted by the Gregorian repertory in the late 8th century.
In the Gregorian tradition tonaries from the 9th century onwards listed melodies by mode, imposing the modal system only after the repertory had been fixed.
w3.rz-berlin.mpg.de /cmp/g_plainchant.html   (643 words)

  
 Old Style and New Style Dates
The Swedes finally settled for the Gregorian calendar in 1753 omitting the eleven days from 18th to the end of February of that year.
In Britain the Gregorian calendar was not adopted until 1752, and the start of year date was changed to 1st January by the same Act of Parliament.
China started to use the Gregorian calendar for official and business purposes in 1912, but the traditional Chinese lunar calendar continues to be used for most personal matters, such as the celebration of birthdays and festivals, for agricultural purposes in many rural areas, and for deciding when to celebrate the Chinese New Year.
www.genfair.com /dates.htm   (2490 words)

  
 Assumption Schola Gregoriana: Traditional Chant for Today's Worship!   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Vatican Council II stated in the Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy that “The treasure of sacred music is to be preserved and fostered with great care.” (SC 114) and that “the Church acknowledges Gregorian chant as specially suited to the Roman liturgy.” (SC 116).
The choir will be made up of lay or religious men and women who volunteer their time to learn and perform Gregorian chant.
Lamothe also teaches Gregorian chant to undergraduates at Assumption and under his direction, chants are often part of the tour programs of the Assumption College Chorale.
geocities.com /assumptionschola   (2954 words)

  
 The Jewish/Civil Calendar Program -- Info
All civil dates are according to the Gregorian Calendar which first came into use in 1582 and was accepted in different places at different times.
At the present time the Julian calendar is 13 days behind the Gregorian Calendar, so that January 20 1990 in our reckoning is January 7 in the Julian Calendar.
In the centuries before the current era the calendar then in use was intercalated erratically by the Romans, so a simple subtraction is not possible.
www.uwm.edu /~corre/calendar.html   (1126 words)

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