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Topic: Guanine

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  Guanine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Guanine is one of the five main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA; the others being adenine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil.
Guanine has a group at C-6 that acts as the hydrogen acceptor, while the group at N-1 and the amino group at C-2 acts as the hydrogen donors.
The first isolation of guanine was reported in 1844 from the excreta of sea birds, known as guano, which was used as a source of fertilizer.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Guanine   (615 words)

 Guanine - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography
Guanine is one of the five main nucleobases found in nucleic acids (e.g.
Guanine is a purine derivative, and in Watson-Crick base pairing forms three hydrogen bonds with cytosine.
Guanine is also the name of a white amorphous substance found in the scales of certain fishes, the guano of sea-birds, and the liver and pancreas of mammals.
www.arikah.com /encyclopedia/Guanine   (187 words)

 AllRefer.com - guanine (Biochemistry) - Encyclopedia
The accepted structure of the guanine molecule was proposed in 1875, and the compound was first synthesized in 1900.
When combined with the sugar ribose in a glycosidic linkage, guanine forms a derivative called guanosine (a nucleoside), which in turn can be phosphorylated with from one to three phosphoric acid groups, yielding the three nucleotides GMP (guanosine monophosphate), GDP (guanosine diphosphate), and GTP (guanosine triphosphate).
Guanine is said to account for the iridescence of fish scales and the white, shiny appearance of the skin of many amphibians and reptiles.
reference.allrefer.com /encyclopedia/G/guanine.html   (317 words)

Described as a bound nucleotide, it differs from free nucleotides such as ATP and GTP in that it exists as a part of a polynucleotide, instead of a single molecule extant in the cell.
Guanine thus serves as a constituent element of both DNA and RNA.
Guanine differs in its molecular structure from cytosine, the pyrimidine based nucleotide with which it forms a Watson-Crick complementary base pair, in that it incorporates an oxygen atom and has differently configured double nitrogen ring.
www.iscid.org /encyclopedia/Guanine   (129 words)

 An intermolecular base triple as the basis of ligand specificity and affinity in the guanine- and adenine-sensing ...
Guanine binding to the aptamer domain of the guanine-responsive riboswitch derived from the 5' UTR of xpt-pbuX-mRNA in B.
The correlation between the guanine N3 nitrogen and a uridine H3N3 imino group of the RNA is highlighted with a red box.
The correlation between the guanine N3 nitrogen and a uridine H3N3 imino group of the RNA observed in A is absent.
www.pnas.org /cgi/content/full/102/5/1372   (4182 words)

Guanine is a purine derivative and in Watson-Crick base pairing forms hydrogen bonds with cytosine.
In nucleosides and nucleotides, guanine is linked to the sugar moiety via a covalent bond between nitrogen #9 of guanine and carbon #1 of the sugar.
Guanine nucleotide binding proteins are glycoproteins anchored on the cytoplasmic cell membrane.
www.greatvistachemicals.com /proteins-sugars-nucleotides/guanine.html   (368 words)

 The Caulobacter crescentus CgtA Protein Displays Unusual Guanine Nucleotide Binding and Exchange Properties -- Lin et ...
The affinity of CgtA for guanine nucleotides at 30°C was determined by an equilibrium centrifugal ultrafiltration assay (35).
in fluorescence of the guanine nucleotide analogs, mant-GTP and
The guanine nucleotide occupancy of GTP-binding proteins is determined by the affinity of the protein for guanine nucleotides
jb.asm.org /cgi/content/full/181/18/5825   (6489 words)

 Code of Federal Regulations: 21 CFR 73.1329 - Guanine
The guanine content will vary from 75 to 97 percent, and the hypoxanthine will vary from 3 to 25 percent, depending on the particular fish and tissue from which the crystals are derived.
The color additive guanine shall conform to the following specifications and shall be free from impurities other than those named to the extent that such other impurities may be avoided by good manufacturing practice: Guanine, not less than 75 percent.
Guanine is safe for use in coloring externally applied drugs, including those intended for use in the area of the eye, in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice.
vm.cfsan.fda.gov /~lrd/cf731329.html   (385 words)

 infinityblog : unraveling the Eternal Golden Braid   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-08-20)
They discovered that four major regions in the potential domain responded to the presence of guanine, hypoxanthine and xanthine (the latter two being guanine analogs) but not to adenine, which suggested that the region was capable of allosteric binding specific to guanine and could distinguish its substrate from adenine (results in figure 2).
The second assay repeated the in-line probe with different concentrations of guanine and found that increasing the guanine concentration led to a progressive increase in the amount of RNA experiencing structural change (results in figure 3).
The effects of guanine, xanthine and hypoxanthine were compared, and all three were able to reduce reporter gene expression, with guanine being the most effective substrate (results in figure 6C).
blogs.law.harvard.edu /infinityblog/2004/11/17   (1264 words)

Guanosine Triphosphate (GTP) : a nucleotide composed of guanine, the sugar ribose, and three phosphate groups; the source of the guanosine found in RNA and also involved in many cellular processes, including microtubule assembly, protein synthesis, and cell signaling, due to the energy it releases upon removal of its terminal phosphate group (yielding GDP).
The ratio of GTP to ATP is maintained by the reversible transfer of phosphate catalyzed by GDP kinase.
In addition to adenine and guanine, a group of chemical compounds called purine base include hypoxanthine (6-oxypurine), xanthine (2,6-dioxypurine), uric acid (2,6,8-trioxypurine), and theobromine (3,7-dimethyl xanthine).
www.chemicalland21.com /lifescience/phar/GUANINE.htm   (835 words)

 Guanine definition - Medical Dictionary definitions of popular medical terms
Guanine: One of the four bases in DNA that make up the letters ATGC.
Guanine always pairs with cytosine to form the base pair G-C (guanine-cytosine) in the DNA.
Guanine is also one of the four bases in RNA.
www.medterms.com /script/main/art.asp?articlekey=3639   (105 words)

 Formation and properties of hairpin and tetraplex structures of guanine-rich regulatory sequences of muscle-specific ...
The position of each guanine in the sequence is marked in the phosphor image of the gel and DMS modified, pyrrolidine hydrolyzed residues are circled.
P-labeled single-stranded integrin 29 DNA oligomer and its G'2 bimolecular tetraplex complex with unlabeled integrin 26 DNA were exposed to 0.75% DMS at 20°C for the specified periods of time and hydrolyzed by 2.0 M pyrrolidine as described in Materials and Methods and in the legend to Figure 3.
The circled 3' guanine residue of integrin 26 DNA in its tetraplex complex with integrin 29 DNA was sensitive to DMS modification.
nar.oxfordjournals.org /cgi/content/full/33/9/2887   (7855 words)

 Medical Dictionary: Guanine - WrongDiagnosis.com
Guanine : 2\-amino\-6\-hydroxypurine; one of the 5 major bases (with adenine, thymine, cytosine, and uracil) found in nucleic acids.
Guanine (organ): guanine is the "G" in the quarternary code of DNA, which includes adenosine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), thymine (T).
Any gene is coded using sequences of ACGT chemicals in DNA, and RNA uses ACGU.
www.wrongdiagnosis.com /medical/guanine.htm   (178 words)

 Telomeric DNA dimerizes by formation of guanine tetrads between hairpin loops
The guanine-rich strand is always oriented in a 5'−3' direction towards the end of the chromosome and is extended to produce a 3' overhang of about two repeating units in species where the telomeric terminus is known
This salt-dependent dimerization is mediated entirely by the 3'-terminal telomeric overhang (TT-GGGGTTGGGG) and produces complexes in which the N7 position of every guanine in the overhangs is chemically inaccessible.
These novel hairpin dimers may be important in telomere association and recombination and could also provide a general mechanism for pairing two double helices in other recombinational processes.
www.nature.com /nature/journal/v342/n6251/abs/342825a0.html;jsessionid=7055838A999833EB855D42B1E2CE1542   (478 words)

 For Biol 461: Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase
The gene coding for HGPRT, or Hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase is found on the long arm of the X chromosome, q26-q27.2.
Novel nonsense mutation in the hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene and nonrandom X-inactivation causing Lesch-Nyhan syndrome in a female patient.
Postnatal expression of hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase in the mouse brain.
publish.uwo.ca /~amerkxja/biology/hgprt.html   (1851 words)

Guanine is one of the four bases which form pairs to make up the rungs of the DNA helix
Guanine (G) forms a pair with a base called Cytosine (C)
Guanine also plays a role in biochemical pathways, including that of Gq activation of Phospholipase C
www.ch.cam.ac.uk /magnus/molecules/guanine.html   (81 words)

 Formation Pathways of a Guanine-Quadruplex DNA Revealed by Molecular Dynamics and Thermodynamic Analysis of the ...
Guanine quadruplexes are stabilized by quartet layers of Hoogsteen
and intermolecular conformers of guanine quadruplex DNA and
This structure is stabilized by four stacked guanine quartet layers (left) and has all strands oriented in parallel (arrows) (right) with all anti glycosidic bonds.
www.biophysj.org /cgi/content/full/85/3/1787   (7693 words)

 Mechanism of Assembly of the Bis(Molybdopterin Guanine Dinucleotide)Molybdenum Cofactor in Rhodobacter sphaeroides ...
Mechanism of Assembly of the Bis(Molybdopterin Guanine Dinucleotide)Molybdenum Cofactor in Rhodobacter sphaeroides Dimethyl Sulfoxide Reductase -- Temple and Rajagopalan 275 (51): 40202 -- Journal of Biological Chemistry
Guanine nucleotides were extracted from purified DMSOR by boiling
guanine moieties are obviously present as indicated by the presence
www.jbc.org /cgi/content/full/275/51/40202   (5892 words)

 Disruption of dog-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans triggers deletions upstream of guanine-rich DNA - Nature Genetics
The G quartets are characterized by a variable stack of guanine quartet planes with strands in either a parallel or an antiparallel orientation
We detected no deletions in any of the 5 G/C-tracts with 18 or fewer guanine nucleotides (Table 1), indicating that a threshold length is probably required for deletions to occur.
Because genetic deletions in gk10 nematodes seem to be initiated at the 3' end of polyguanine tracts and to involve about half of the polyguanine tracts examined, we propose that these deletions result from failure to resolve secondary structures of guanine-rich DNA that may arise sporadically during lagging-strand DNA synthesis (Fig.
www.nature.com /cgi-taf/DynaPage.taf?file=/ng/journal/v31/n4/full/ng928.html   (3169 words)

 DNA and Protein Synthesis   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-08-20)
The four nitrogenous bases, or nucleotides of DNA are Thymine, Adenine, Cytosine and Guanine.
Transcription is the process of synthesizing a RNA (ribonucleic acid) strand from a DNA strand.
The four neucleotides of RNA are Adenine, Uracil, Cytosine and Guanine.
webpages.charter.net /matthewwvsu   (453 words)

 Guanine   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-08-20)
The chemical structure of Guanine is shown at the right.
This is a graph of the molar extinction coefficient of Guanine dissolved in water.
Guanine has a molar extinction coefficient of 10,700 M
omlc.ogi.edu /spectra/PhotochemCAD/html/guanineJZL.html   (184 words)

 Bacillus subtilis guanine deaminase is encoded by the yknA gene and is induced during growth with purines as the ...
Bacillus subtilis guanine deaminase is encoded by the yknA gene and is induced during growth with purines as the nitrogen source -- Nygaard et al.
Bacillus subtilis guanine deaminase is encoded by the yknA gene and is induced during growth with purines as the nitrogen source
of guanine to xanthine, which is the first step in guanine degradation.
mic.sgmjournals.org /cgi/content/full/146/12/3061   (4021 words)

 Zinc Binding to Guanine
The structure lends some credence to the idea that two guanine groups in close proximity in a DNA strand can bind two Zn(II) ions without undue steric strain.
The structure “suggests also that the guanine N7–zinc–guanine O6 cross-linking could be quite feasible, enhancing the ability of zinc to control the renaturation process.”
The authors note that “the ability of Zn(II) ions to bind to the O6 site of guanine could potentially be utilized in the design of the inhibitors of O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (Atase), a DNA repair protein responsible for removing alkyl groups from the guanine residues.
www.acs.org /portal/a/c/s/1/feature_pro.html?id=4bad856cc96e11d6f55e6ed9fe800100   (383 words)

 Human protein: P29777 - Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(o) subunit alpha 2. EMBL Bioinformatics Harvester
Upstream genomic sequence for Guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha activating activity polypeptide O
Guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha activating activity polypeptide O (GNAO1)
Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as modulators or transducers in various transmembrane signaling systems.
harvester.embl.de /harvester/P297/P29777.htm   (839 words)

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