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Topic: Guillaume Amontons

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  Guillaume Amontons - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Guillaume Amontons (August 31, 1663 - October 11, 1705) was a French scientific instrument inventor and physicist.
Amonton investigated the relationship between pressure and temperature in gases though he lacked accurate and precise thermometers.
The Amontons crater on the Moon is named after him.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Guillaume_Amontons   (449 words)

 Essays Page   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Guillaume Amontons, one of the most ingenious inventors of his age, was born in Paris on August 31, 1663.
Guillaume studied the physical sciences, celestial mechanics, and mathematics, as well as drawing, surveying, and architecture, but so far as is known he did not attend a university.
The Amontons thermometer was more accurate than Galileo's, and he was able to use it to show that, within the limits of his instrument, water always boiled at the same temperature, but it was not accurate enough for most scientific uses.
www.fofweb.com /Subscription/Science/Helicon.asp?SID=2&iPin=enweath0155   (603 words)

 [No title]
AMONTONS, GUILLAUME (1663–17o5), French experimental philosopher, the son of an advocate who had left his native province of Normandy and established himself at Paris, was born in that city on the 31st of August 1663.
In 1704 he noted that barometers are affected by heat as well as by the weight of the atmosphere, and in the following year he described barometers without mercury, for use at sea.
Amontons, who through disease was rendered almost completely deaf in early youth, died at Paris on the 11th of October 1705.
encyclopedia.jrank.org /correction/edit?locale=en&content_id=2867   (250 words)

 GAS Laws (Text Only)
Amontons developed the air thermometer--it relies on increase in volume of a gas with temperature rather than the increase in volume of a liquid.
Although Amontons' law became the most obscure of the gas laws, it was this work that eventually led to the concept of absolute zero in the 19th century.
In fact, Amontons had done the same sorts of experiments 100 years earlier, and it was Gay-Lussac in 1808 who made definitive measurements and published results showing that every gas he tested obeyed this generalization.
mooni.fccj.org /~ethall/gaslaw/gaslaw2.htm   (1541 words)

 BookRags: Guillaume Amontons Biography
Amontons was one of the earliest scientists to develop improved scientific instruments for measuring temperature and pressure.
As a youth Amontons attempted to construct a perpetual motion machine, a fruitless attempt that nevertheless solidified his interest in science and mechanics.
One of his first major projects was the invention in 1687 of an improved hygrometer, a device used to measure humidity and which consisted of a mercury-filled ball that expanded or contracted according to the air's water content.
www.bookrags.com /biography/guillaume-amontons-woi   (381 words)

Exactly 300 years after Guillaume Amontons produced the classic laws of friction, physicists have explained why Amontons' equations explain static friction so precisely.
Exactly 300 years after Guillaume Amontons produced the classic laws of friction, physicists at The Johns Hopkins University have accounted for the notable endurance of Amontons' equations by identifying the molecular origins of static friction.
Amontons' laws, relied upon extensively and routinely by engineers for three centuries, state that the frictional force needed to slide one body over another is proportional to the load that presses them together and is also independent of the areas of the surfaces.
www.newswise.com /articles/view?id=FRICTN2.JHU   (644 words)

 The Galileo Project
Amontons studied physical sciences, mathematics, and celestial mechanics.
Amontons tried out his optical telegraph in the presence of the royal family sometime between 1688 and 1695.
Bernard le Bovier de Frontenelle, "Eloge de M. Amontons" in Histoire de l'Academie Royale des Sciences (1705), pp.
galileo.rice.edu /Catalog/NewFiles/amontons.html   (222 words)

Guillaume Amontons (1663-1705) was an architect by training, but in those days this by no means meant that he was limited to that one field.
He believed that friction was predominately a result of the work done to lift one surface over the roughness of the other, or from the deforming or the wearing of the other surface.
For several centuries after Amontons' work, scientists believed that friction was due to the roughnesses on the surfaces.
webphysics.davidson.edu /faculty/dmb/PY430/Friction/history.html   (890 words)

 Guillaume Amontons (1663-1705)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
However, we must conclude, that also Amontons wasn't aware of the difference of the two friction phenomena.
The resistance caused by rubbing only increases or diminishes in proportion to greater or lesser pressure (load) and not according to the greater or lesser extent of the surfaces.
Amontons found a material-independent friction coefficient of 0.33 and therefore also he believed in the existence of a universal friction coefficient.
www.nano-world.org /frictionmodule/content/0200makroreibung/0400historisch/0200amontons/?=lang=en   (170 words)

 Macroscopic Friction   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
In high school physics the phenomenon of friction is reduced to the classical friction laws of Leonardo da Vinci, Guillaume Amontons, Leonard Euler und Charles Coulomb.
Amontons did experiments on a horizontal surface and measured the friction force with a spring.
It was found by Leonhard Euler that one has to distinguish between static and kinetic friction, because it is not possible to cause a slow motion by slowly increasing the angle of an inclined plan.
www.nano-world.org /frictionmodule/content/0200makroreibung/?lang=en   (227 words)

 AMONTONS   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
AMONTONS, GUILLAUME (1663-1705), French experimental philosopher, the son of an advocate who had left his native province of Normandy and established himself at Paris, was born in that city on the 31st of August 1663.
But the 'amora soon ceased to be a mere repeater, and developed into an original expounder of scripture and tradition.
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simplestartpage.com /2301_AMONTONS.HTML   (240 words)

 Meet the People
(1663-1705) Amonton was a French physicist who discovered the properties of gases and the interdependence of temperature.
Deaf as a child, Amonton became interested in mechanics.
Thanks to Amontons, his Law reminds us that the coefficient of friction is independent of the normal force.
www_hockey.tripod.com /ice/id23.html   (576 words)

 Friction   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
It was Guillaume Amontons who first established that there existed a proportional relationship between friction force and the mutual pressure (or force) between the bodies in contact.
Amontons' paper "De la résistance causée dans les machines" was published in 1699 in Memoires de l'Académie des Sciences.
Recently it has been shown that the lubricant properties of graphite disappear under ultra high vacuum, and hence that molecules of gases, such as oxygen and nitrogen, most probably act as a kind of molecular grease to help the sheets slide past each other.
hypertextbook.com /physics/mechanics/friction   (1169 words)

 Gas Laws   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Toward the end of the 1600s, the French physicist Guillaume Amontons built a thermometer based on the fact that the pressure of a gas is directly proportional to its temperature.
Amontons' law explains why car manufacturers recommend adjusting the pressure of your tires before you start on a trip.
Amontons' law can be demonstrated with the apparatus shown in the figure below, which consists of a pressure gauge connected to a metal sphere of constant volume, which is immersed in solutions that have different temperatures.
xenon.che.ilstu.edu /genchemhelphomepage/topicreview/bp/ch4/gaslaws3.html   (2804 words)

 Intute sciences - >University Chemistry: The Empirical Gas Laws: Temperature and the Law of Charles   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
The volume of a trapped sample of air increases on heating until the pressure of the trapped air equals the pressure of the atmosphere plus the small pressure due to the plug.
Nevertheless, Amontons failed to achieve formulation of Charles' law for the same reason as did Boyle: a quantitative scale of temperature was needed.
A quantitative scale of temperature could only be developed after it was realized that at a fixed pressure any pure substance undergoes a phase change at a single fixed temperature which is characteristic of that substance.
www.intute.ac.uk /sciences/reference/plambeck/chem2/p01042.htm   (884 words)

 Meeting Minutes
Liang was fortunate to travel to a laboratory in France last summer and use some of their specialized equipment to research the frictional properties of ice at low temperatures.
Early studies of friction were conducted by Leonardo da Vinci circa 1470, Guillaume Amontons circa 1699, Charles Augustin Coulomb circa 1782, and Sir Isaac Newton circa 1668.
The study of ice and friction is important in everyday life as it effects quality of life and safety.
sections.asme.org /northernak/MeetingMinutes122801.htm   (371 words)

 Charles's law - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This reference has led to the law being attributed to Charles.
The relationship had been anticipated by the work of Guillaume Amontons in 1702.
Charles' Law has been used in many different ways, from hot air balloons to aquariums.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Charles'_Law   (234 words)

 Friction at the nano-scale (February 2005) - Features - nanotechweb.org
Hundreds of years later, in 1699, the French physicist Guillaume Amontons published the first formal account of the classical, macroscopic friction laws.
He found that the frictional force that resists the sliding motion between two interfaces is directly proportional to the perpendicular force that squeezes the surfaces together.
This instrument, which is able to creep along a surface in nanometre steps, was designed specifically to study the validity of Amontons' law - which states that the frictional force is proportional to the weight of the moving object - at the micro- to meso-scale (figure 4).
www.nanotechweb.org /articles/feature/4/2/1/1   (2869 words)

 Where's the rub? - unusual results measuring friction between atoms - Brief Article Discover - Find Articles
According to a law discovered by French physicist Guillaume Amontons in 1699, the amount of friction between one body and another moving over it is independent of the amount of surface contact between the two.
Whether you lay a brick flat or stand it on end, Amontons found, the friction is proportional only to the weight of the brick and the type of material the brick is on, say ice or sand.
To test this law in the atomic realm, Bharat Bhushan and his colleagues at Ohio State used an atomic force microscope to probe sheets of silicon, graphite, and other materials.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_m1511/is_n10_v16/ai_17449567   (493 words)

 Surface Grime Explains Friction
The laws of static friction were first laid down by Guillaume Amontons, a 17th century French researcher who believed that surfaces have regular jagged edges like the teeth in a bicycle wheel gear.
When two surfaces meet, his theory said, the teeth of the upper surface settle into the grooves of the lower surface.
Accordingly, Amontons' laws say that static friction is proportional to the weight of the upper plate and independent of the plate's surface area.
focus.aps.org /story/v7/st6   (663 words)

 Thall's History of Gas Laws
Amontons developed the air thermometer--it relied on increase in volume of a gas
As a consequence of becoming deaf as a young boy, Amontons worked on inventions
Amontons lifetime, the ideas were later refined and put into use.
web.fccj.org /~ethall/gaslaw/gaslaw.htm   (1241 words)

 Facts - Philadelphia Instruments and Controls, Inc. - Specializes in the production of temperature related products.
He studied the expansion of gases on heating but did not achieve formulation of Charles' Law.
He developed the air thermometer, which measures the increase in pressure of a system of constant volume when the temperature increases, and also made significant studies of the liquid-in-glass thermometer.
The liquids used in a thermometer by Amontons, and still used today, are alcohol (with red dye in it, used at low temperatures), linseed oil (for higher temperatures), water, and mercury.
philadelphiainstrument.com /facts.asp?index=3   (135 words)

 The History of the light bulb   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Although the Egyptians were struggling with friction over 4000 years ago, the formal written study of friction did not begin until the fifteenth century with the pioneering work of Leonardo da Vinci.
About 200 years later in 1699 a Frenchman named Guillaume Amontons rediscovered what da Vinci had observed and formulated what we now call the Classical Laws of friction:
The force of friction is directly proportional to load.
invsee.asu.edu /Modules/friction/meatclassical.htm   (140 words)

 Untitled Document   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
The irony is that Charles never published the work for which he is remembered, nor was he the first or last to make this discovery.
In fact, Guillaume Amontons had done the same sorts of experiments 100 years earlier, and it was Joseph Gay-Lussac in 1808 who made definitive measurements and published results showing that every gas he tested obeyed this generalization.
It is pretty surprising that dozens of different substances should behave exactly alike, as these scientists found that various gases did.
prof.usb.ve /jpino/Textos/31.htm   (424 words)

 Absolute zero
In 2003, researchers at MIT eclipsed this with a new record of 450 pK (0.45 nK).
The absolute zero state was first proposed by Guillaume Amontons in 1702 who was investigating the relationship between pressure and temperature in gases.
He lacked accurate and precise thermometers so his results were only semi-quantitative, but he established that the pressure of a gas increases by roughly one-third between "cold" temperatures and the boiling point of water.
www.danceage.com /biography/sdmc_0K   (1759 words)

 Intute sciences - >Chemical Sciences: From Heat to Enthalpy: Thermometry   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
The study of amount of heat is called calorimetry.
The advances in thermometry in the first half of the eighteenth century included the significant work of Guillaume Amontons (d.
The key question in thermometry at this time was whether substances changed from one state to another at a single fixed temperature or whether they did so over a narrow range of temperatures.
www.intute.ac.uk /sciences/reference/plambeck/chem2/p01072.htm   (782 words)

 Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold
Hot steam is made of fast moving H2O molecules; cold ice has slow ones.
In 1703, even before anyone understood what made cold things cold, Guillaume Amontons deduced that there was a limit to just how cold anything could be.
Now we know that limit is simply the place where particles stop moving altogether -- a point known as absolute zero.
www.absolutezerocampaign.org /get_involved/low_temp_basics.htm   (548 words)

 The Science Bookstore - Chronology   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Women in Medicine and Science, 275 entries BUY
Amontons, G. Guillaume Amontons publishes work on P-T behavior of gases
Amontons, G. Gas volume and temperature Guillaume Amontons
www.thesciencebookstore.com /chron.asp?searchstring=Amontons   (77 words)

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