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Topic: Gulf of Tonkin Resolution


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  Gulf of Tonkin Resolution - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Following the Gulf of Tonkin Incident, Lyndon Johnson, who was up for election that year, launched retaliatory strikes and went on national television on August 4, 1964.
The Resolution was approved by the House unanimously (416-0), and by the Senate 88-2, with Senators Wayne Morse of Oregon and Ernest Gruening of Alaska casting the only nay votes.
The Resolution was repealed in June of 1970, with the help of Judge Glenn Smith II, in response to the Nixon Administration's military operations in Cambodia.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Gulf_of_Tonkin_Resolution   (297 words)

  
 Gulf of Tonkin Incident - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Gulf of Tonkin Incident was a pair of alleged attacks by North Vietnamese gunboats on two American destroyers, the USS Maddox and the USS C.
On July 31, 1964, the American destroyer USS Maddox (DD-731) began a reconnaissance mission in the Gulf of Tonkin and was attacked by five North Vietnamese patrol boats, in international waters, on August 2, 1964.
While US officials were less than honest about the full extent of hostilities that led to the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, critical claims that a naval commander fired weapons solely to create an international incident tend to overlook circumstances and opportunistic responses that suggest a less intentional motivation.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Gulf_of_Tonkin_Incident   (1925 words)

  
 washingtonpost.com: Remember the Gulf of Tonkin
When the reason occurred -- two alleged "unprovoked" mosquito-boat attacks on U.S. destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin -- a national crisis atmosphere was created and a resolution was introduced for congressional approval that gave the president the authority to respond to the provocation.
Fulbright, in turn, stated on the Senate floor that his understanding of the intent of the resolution was that it was to permit only a response appropriate to the alleged provocation.
The lesson of the Gulf of Tonkin resolution is clear: There is every reason for tough and explicit limiting language that does not allow for the usual rhetorical gambits that thereafter can be used by an aggressive administration to claim support for whatever it wants to do, no matter what.
www.bsos.umd.edu /pgsd/people/staffpubs/Gar-Tonkin.htm   (527 words)

  
 Tonkin Gulf resolution on Encyclopedia.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
TONKIN GULF RESOLUTION [Tonkin Gulf resolution] in U.S. history, Congressional resolution passed in 1964 that authorized military action in Southeast Asia.
On Aug. 7, Congress passed a resolution drafted by the administration authorizing all necessary measures to repel attacks against U.S. forces and all steps necessary for the defense of U.S. allies in Southeast Asia.
Although there was disagreement in Congress over the precise meaning of the Tonkin Gulf resolution, Presidents Johnson and Richard M. Nixon used it to justify later military action in Southeast Asia.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/t/tonking1u.asp   (423 words)

  
 American Civil Liberties Union : Letter to Congress Urging the Final Resolution for the Authorization of Force Against ...
Unfortunately, the draft resolution the White House submitted to Congress yesterday is written with the same breadth and vagueness that plagued the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, Pub.
The Gulf of Tonkin resolution authorized the President to "repel any armed attack against the forces of the United States, and to prevent further aggression" until the "peace and security of the area is reasonably assured.
Unlike that resolution, the draft resolution is not limited to specific military objectives, such as (for example) forcing UN inspections, requiring the dismantling of Iraq's weapons of mass destruction, or the overthrow of the government of Saddam Hussein.
www.aclu.org /safefree/general/17031leg20020920.html   (989 words)

  
 PH@school: The Living Constitution   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution approves U.S. military involvement in the Vietnam conflict.
On August 7, the House of Representatives and Senate passed the Gulf of Tonkin resolution by near-unanimous votes.
Instead, the executive branch used the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution as the constitutional justification for military actions.
www.phschool.com /atschool/constitution/constitution6h.html   (347 words)

  
 Resolution Likened to '64 Vietnam Measure
The president's draft makes no mention of the War Powers resolution of 1973, which was passed partly in reaction to the perceived mistakes of the Tonkin Gulf resolution.
White House officials said the resolution was intended to be specific to Iraq, but the sweep of the language took scholars aback and opened Bush to criticism from Democrats who supported the idea of a resolution.
That resolution required Bush's father to report back to Congress that the United States had exhausted "all appropriate diplomatic and other peaceful means" of expelling Iraqi forces from Kuwait.
www.commondreams.org /headlines02/0920-03.htm   (894 words)

  
 Tonkin Gulf II?
It was the impending downfall of the South Vietnamese government to Ho Chi Minh's communists that underlay the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution.
He seized on a murky series of clashes in the Gulf of Tonkin in August 1964 between U.S. navy vessels and North Vietnamese torpedo boats as a pretext for American action.
Shortly after the events in the Gulf of Tonkin, Lyndon Johnson met with congressional leaders and lobbied them to grant him broad powers to respond to the supposed provocation.
hnn.us /articles/1005.html   (765 words)

  
 Democracy Collaborative - Remember the Gulf of Tonkin   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
When the reason occurred — two alleged "unprovoked" mosquito-boat attacks on U.S. destroyers in the Gulf of Tonkin — a national crisis atmosphere was created and a resolution was introduced for congressional approval that gave the president the authority to respond to the provocation.
William Fulbright, to create a legislative record that could serve as a less-than-formal interpretation of the meaning of the Gulf of Tonkin resolution — a tactic sometimes used to persuade senators to withdraw amendments.
On many occasions later, Fulbright said that not including a formal limiting amendment to the Gulf of Tonkin resolution was one of the greatest errors of his long and distinguished career in the U.S. Senate —; if not the greatest error he ever made.
www.democracycollaborative.org /publications/books/alperovitz2.html   (535 words)

  
 Tonkin Gulf Resolution   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The Resolution was authorized in response to a attack on United States patrol boats in the Tonkin Gulf.
However, he Tonkin Gulf Resolution served as the equivalent to a formal declaration of war.
The significance of the Tonkin Gulf Resolution is that it provided the means for US to further escalate into the war.2 It is a myth to believe that the document gave the president the right to intervene in Vietnam.
www-rohan.sdsu.edu /~rchristm/TonkinGulfResolution.htm   (231 words)

  
 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, 1964
This joint resolution of Congress (H.J. RES 1145) dated August 7, 1964, gave President Lyndon Johnson authority to increase U.S. involvement in the war between North and South Vietnam.
As public resistance to the war heightened, the resolution was repealed by Congress in January 1971.
Tonkin Gulf Resolution, Senate roll call tally sheet, 08/07/1964; SEN 88A-M1, Misc Roll Calls, 88th Congress, 2nd Session; Record Group 46, Records of the U. Senate; National Archives.
www.classbrain.com /artteenst/publish/article_105.shtml   (528 words)

  
 Tonkin Incident Might Not Have Occurred
The tapes, released by the LBJ Library at the University of Texas at Austin, include 51 phone conversations from Aug. 4 and 5, 1964, when the Tonkin Gulf incident occurred.
While the reasons for it either were unclear or false, the Tonkin Gulf Resolution cleared Congress on Aug. 7, 1964 - 414-0 in the House and 88-2 in the Senate.
History has seemed to coalesce around the belief that the second Tonkin Gulf incident, on Aug. 4, was a mistake, but not a charade.
www.commondreams.org /headlines02/0805-09.htm   (2267 words)

  
 soc.history.war.vietnam FAQ: Tonkin Gulf Incident
Edwin E. Moise of Clemson University, The Tonkin Gulf Incidents of 1964 On the morning of July 31, 1964, the US Navy destroyer MADDOX (DD-731) began a reconnaissance patrol, called a DESOTO patrol, along the coast of North Vietnam in the Gulf of Tonkin.
Tonkin Gulf was one of the things that got cut.) William B. Cogar, ed., New Interpretations in Naval History: Selected Papers from the Eighth Naval History Symposium.
John W. Schmidt, The Gulf of Tonkin Debates, 1964 and 1967: A Study in Argument.
www.cs.uu.nl /wais/html/na-dir/vietnam/tonkin-gulf.html   (1136 words)

  
 CNN Cold War - Historic Documents: Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
The U.S. House and Senate passed the following resolution by an overwhelming majority on August 7, 1964, five days after the USS Maddox had been fired upon by the North Vietnamese.
The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution allowed the president to take "all necessary steps" to protect the forces of the United States and its allies.
This resolution shall expire when the President shall determine that the peace and security of the area is reasonably assured by international conditions created by action of the United Nations or otherwise, except that it may be terminated earlier by concurrent resolution of the Congress.
www.cnn.com /SPECIALS/cold.war/episodes/11/documents/tonkin   (229 words)

  
 Essay: 40th Anniversary of the Gulf of Tonkin Incident
On this 40th anniversary of the Tonkin Gulf incident it is appropriate to recall an affair that has much history wound around it, a watershed in the U.S. move toward full-scale war in Vietnam.
More recently, the Tonkin Gulf incident has regularly been invoked in connection with the lead-up to the war in Iraq, where the administration of President George W. Bush also cited threats to the United States to obtain congressional approval for the use of force.
The particulars of the incidents of early August 1964, as reported by the Johnson administration, were crucial to gaining the legislative authority President Johnson sought, which came in the form of the Tonkin Gulf Resolution.
www.gwu.edu /~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB132/essay.htm   (4109 words)

  
 Gulf of Tonkin   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
In the absence of independent journalism, the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution -- the closest thing there ever was to a declaration of war against North Vietnam -- sailed through Congress on Aug. 7.
The resolution was carried by a crushing majority (88 senators for, and only two against).
The resolution was preceded by two serious incidents of exchanges of fire that took place in the Gulf of Tonkin that in those days separated the communist north from the US protectorate in the south.
members.iimetro.com.au /~hubbca/public_html/tonkin.htm   (1278 words)

  
 vietgulf
The USNS Maddox on August 2nd, 1964 was patrolling in the Gulf of Tonkin outside North Vietnam’s territorial waters when three North Vietnamese torpedo boats approached at high speed.
Congress approved the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution on August 11, 1964 with 98% approval in the Senate and 100% approval in the House.
Be it a resolution, a law, or a school rule it is important to remember the spirit behind a proposal and the reason it was put into effect.
home.cinci.rr.com /patkers/vietgulf.html   (965 words)

  
 SignOnSanDiego.com > News > Election 2002 -- Gulf of Tonkin legacy shadows current war debate
WASHINGTON – As a college student in the 1960s, Bob Filner berated members of Congress who voted for the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution that gave Lyndon B. Johnson a blank check to widen the Vietnam War.
Many came to regret their hasty support of the war resolution as the body count escalated and they learned the Johnson administration had misled them about the alleged North Vietnamese attacks on U.S. destroyers, the Maddox and the C. Turner Joy, in the Gulf of Tonkin, that prompted the vote.
It was the first time that Congress had passed a war resolution since the Tonkin Gulf.
www.signonsandiego.com /news/politics/20021009-1342-n4885.html   (953 words)

  
 Gulf of Tonkin Incident   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The Senate had scheduled a hearing on the incident in order to consider a resolution in support of the President's actions, and on the afternoon of 7 August, Congress passed the Tonkin Gulf Resolution giving the president the authority to use any measure necessary to deal with aggression in Vietnam.
Congress passed the resolution with the understanding that it would be consulted if the war escalated and particularly if ground troops were to be used in South Vietnam.
The Tonkin Affair is also detailed in Truth is the First Casualty: The Gulf of Tonkin Affair--Illusion and Reality by Joseph C. Goulden (1969).
novaonline.nv.cc.va.us /eli/evans/HIS135/Events/tonkin64/gulfoftonkin64.html   (1252 words)

  
 "Lyndon Johnson and the Charade of the Tonkin Gulf Resolution" by Michael J. Benevento, Jr.
portrayed the Gulf of Tonkin incident as an unprovoked and malicious
In essence, the passage of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
The revelation that the Gulf of Tonkin incident was a
www.southernct.edu /organizations/hcr/2004/nonfiction/johnson.htm   (1896 words)

  
 30-year Anniversary: Tonkin Gulf Lie Launched Vietnam War   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The official story was that North Vietnamese torpedo boats launched an "unprovoked attack" against a U.S. destroyer on "routine patrol" in the Tonkin Gulf on Aug. 2 — and that North Vietnamese PT boats followed up with a "deliberate attack" on a pair of U.S. ships two days later.
On the night of Aug. 4, the Pentagon proclaimed that a second attack by North Vietnamese PT boats had occurred earlier that day in the Tonkin Gulf — a report cited by President Johnson as he went on national TV that evening to announce a momentous escalation in the war: air strikes against North Vietnam.
In the absence of independent journalism, the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution — the closest thing there ever was to a declaration of war against North Vietnam — sailed through Congress on Aug. 7.
www.fair.org /index.php?page=2261   (896 words)

  
 (10/4/2002) Iraq Debate: "This is Another Gulf of Tonkin"   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
I was one of the Senators who voted for the Gulf of Tonkin resolution.
It was the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution that gave Lyndon Johnson carte blanche to wage war in Vietnam.
As Norman Solomon noted in a 1998 column, that incident was a cynical PR operation by the White House.
www.monitor.net /monitor/0210a/iraqdebate.html   (555 words)

  
 CongressLink - A Resource for Teachers Providing Information About the U.S. Congress
Students will also gain an insight into the events surrounding the declaration of war in 1941 and the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution in 1964.
Was the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution a declaration of war?
They will then compare/contrast that procedure with the one followed in passing the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution.
www.congresslink.org /print_lp_warmaking.htm   (591 words)

  
 The Avalon Project : The Tonkin Gulf Incident; 1964
Last night I announced to the American people that the North Vietnamese regime had conducted further deliberate attacks against U.S. naval vessels operating in international waters, and I had therefore directed air action against gunboats and supporting facilities used in these hostile operations.
After consultation with the leaders of both parties in the Congress, I further announced a decision to ask the Congress for a resolution expressing the unity and determination of the United States in supporting freedom and in protecting peace in southeast Asia.
We seek the full and effective restoration of the international agreements signed in Geneva in 1954, with respect to South Vietnam, and again in Geneva in 1962, with respect to Laos...
www.yale.edu /lawweb/avalon/tonkin-g.htm   (668 words)

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