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Topic: Gurmukhi

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  Gurmukhi -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Gurmukhi is a form of (A character set that includes letters and is used to write a language) alphabet called an (Click link for more info and facts about abugida) abugida, as each consonant has an inherent vowel (a), that can be changed using vowel signs.
Gurmukhi has been adapted to write other languages, such as ((Hinduism) an ancient language of India (the language of the Vedas and of Hinduism); an official language of India although it is now used only for religious purposes) Sanskrit.
Gurmukhi follows similar concepts to other (A script (probably adapted from the Aramaic about the 7th century BC) from which later Indian scripts developed) Brahmi scripts and as such, all consonants are followed by an inherent‘a’sound (unless at the end of a word when the ‘a’ is usually dropped).
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/g/gu/gurmukhi.htm   (717 words)

 Encyclopedia: Gurmukhi   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The Gurmukhi (ਗੁਰਮੁਗੀ or ਗੁਰਮੁੱਗੀ) script, derived from the Later Sharada script and standardised by Guru Angad Dev in the 16th century, was designed to write the Punjabi (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) language.
Gurmukhi follows similar concepts to other Brahmi scripts and as such, all consonants are followed by an inherent‘a’sound (unless at the end of a word when the ‘a’ is usually dropped).
Following books/articles have been written on the origins of the Gurmukhi script (all in the Punjabi language): Punjabi (sometimes spelled Panjabi) is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Gurmukhi   (3007 words)

The Gurmukhi script, derived from the Landa alphabet and standardised by Guru Angad Dev in the 16th century, was designed to write the Punjabi language.
Modern Gurmukhi has 41 consonants (vianjans), 9 vowel symbols (laga or matras), 2 symbols for nasal sounds, 1 symbol which duplicates the sound of any consonant and 3 half-forms of the consonants Ra, Ha and Ya.
Gurmukhi uses dependent vowel signs (matras) to alter the inherent vowel of a consonant.
pedia.newsfilter.co.uk /wikipedia/g/gu/gurmukhi.html   (183 words)

 SIKHWORLD.CO.UK   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Gurmukhi has some similarities to older Indian scripts of the times, but it's thirty five characters and vowel modifiers were standardised by Guru Angad.
Gurmukhi is not only used by Sikhs but by Hindus as well as Muslims living in Punjab to represent their common spoken language, Punjabi.
Sikhs are expected to make an effort at learning the Gurmukhi script and teaching it to their children in order to read the Guru Granth Sahib in its original written form.
www.sikhworld.co.uk /page26.html   (959 words)

 Monotype: Non Latin Font
Gurmukhi belongs to the group of Northern Indic scripts which descended from Brahmi script.
Gurmukhi took its present shape in the 16th century AD under Guru Angad, hence, its name, who set out to devise a rational system for writing Panjabi.
Gurmukhi is written horizontally from left to right and its basic set of symbols consists of 35 consonants
www.monotypefonts.com /Library/Non-Latin-Library.asp?show=info&lan=gurmukhi   (370 words)

 Gurmukhī - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Gurmukhi is a form of alphabet called an abugida, as each consonant has an inherent vowel (a), that can be changed using vowel signs.
Use of the conjunct forms of Vava and Yayya is increasingly scarce in modern contexts.
Meanwhile, in Western Punjab a form of the Urdu script, known as Shahmukhi is still in use.
www.wikipedia.org /wiki/Gurmukhi   (1530 words)

 Punjabi and gurmukhi, why punjabi is a language and gurmukhi is a script
The cliche that Guru Angad Dev ji made the Gurmukhi alphabet is patently false(It was propagated by the enemies of Sikhism known as Handalis who wrote the distorted biography of Guru Nanak Dev ji called Janam Sakhi Bhai Bala).
One of these is written in Gurmukhi as we know it today and gives the date which is in thirteenth century which is long before Guru Nanak Dev ji.
In their blind chauvinistic aim to show that the Gurmukhi script belongs only to Sikhs and not to rest of the Punjabis these bigots have created hatred against non-sikhs and alienated them from their own language and past and divided the population of Punjab on religious lines.
www.hathisoft.com /punjabi/punjhist.htm   (1512 words)

 Punjabi Language, Gurmukhi , Punjabi Literature, History Of Punjabi Language, State Language Of Punjab.
Gurmukhi script, created from the Nagari script, is claimed by Sikhs as the only proper script for Punjabi.
Punjabi was evolving and Guru Nanak, the founder of the Sikh religion, gave a new lease of life to the language although it was still not in its pure form.
Study of Punjabi was established in the University of Punjab at Lahore and in colleges as late as 1915.
languages.iloveindia.com /punjabi.html   (815 words)

 Devanagri   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Gurmukhi to English translation of all of Siri Guru Granth Sahib text in a sentence by sentence format including phonetic transliteration in common English characters.
Gurmukhi and Devanagari to English translation and phonetic transliteration of all of Siri Guru Granth Sahib text in a sentence by sentence format.
The Gurmukhi text is in the first column, the phonetic transliteration text in the 2nd column and the English translation in the 3rd column.
www.sikhpoint.com /Religion/downloads/gurbanitranslationfiles.htm   (915 words)

 PCRC - General Resources - An Introduction to Gurmukhi   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Gurmukhi, a derivative of Landa, is a type of script called an abugida.
Gurmukhi has been adapted to write other languages (such as Sanskrit) but these adaptations will generally not be covered.
Ek Onkar is a Gurmukhi symbol that is often used in Sikh literature.
guca.sourceforge.net /resources/introductiontogurmukhi   (509 words)

 Gurmukhi: The Unique Invention of Guru Nanak
Their bani was recorded by Guru Nanak not only in the Gurmukhi script but also in the language of Guru Granth.
It was the genius of Nanak, that in one stroke, he separated his followers or seekers of truth, or Sikhs, from Arabic, Persian and Sanskrit.
Booklets or Gutkas as we, the Sikhs, call them containing bani written in Gurmukhi script were the centre of reverence in the Dharamsals, as gurdwaras were then called.
www.sikhreview.org /\november2000\philology.htm   (947 words)

 Welcome to The Institute of Sikh Studies-->Publications   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Gurmukhi script, particularly its name `Gurmukhi', irks some scholars beyond the limits of scholarly patience.
It is therefore, correct that most of the letters of Gurmukhi did exist before the time of the Gurus, but the Gurmukhi script did not exist.
As such Gurmukhi is the only script which is formed by a single individual and therefore, it does not suffer from the drawbacks and defects which creep into the scripts which develop over a passage of time, through the efforts of different writers having different speech habits, different orthographical and lexical attitude.
www.sikhstudies.org /Periodicals.asp?TtlCod=162   (1923 words)

 Gurmukhi   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Gurmukhi es un formulario del alfabeto llamado un abugida, pues cada consonante tiene una vocal inherente (a), que se puede cambiar usando señales de la vocal.
Gurmukhi moderno tiene 41 consonantes (vianjans), 9 símbolos de la vocal (laga o los matras), 2 símbolos para los sonidos nasales, 1 símbolo que duplique el sonido de cualquier consonante, 3 subjoined los formularios de las consonantes ra, ha y Virginia, y 1 formulario de la poste-base de Ya.
Gurmukhi utiliza los señales relacionados de la vocal (matras) de alterar la vocal inherente de una consonante.
www.yotor.net /wiki/es/gu/Gurmukhi.htm   (250 words)

 5abi Panjabi Portal - Font display error
Since there was no standard for Gurmukhi script, font developers created their fonts without any standard keyboard layout.
Gurmukhi and English characters now have separate code, where as in ASCII, Gurmukhi and English characters shared the code points.
But if I was writing an article in Gurmukhi using ASCII fonts, I would have to decide which font the readers would have installed on their machines.
www.5abi.com /dosh/aboutU/gurmukhiU1_amrinder.htm   (949 words)

 Punjabi - Gurmukhi Script   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Gurmukhi derive its character set form Landa (old script of Indian sub-continent) and was standardized by Guru Angad Dev (second Sikh Guru, 1504 - 1552) in the 16th century and contained 35 consonants at that time.
Modern Gurmukhi has 41 consonants, 9 vowels symbols, 2 symbols for nasal sounds, 1 symbol that duplicates the sound of any consonant, 3 subjoined forms of the consonants Ra, Ha and Va and 1 post-base from of Ya [1].
In Unicode, Gurmukhi sub-range is from U+0A00 to U+0A7F.
www.lokpunjab.org /puran/gurmukhi.htm   (203 words)

 AncientScripts.com: Gurmukhi
The Gurmukhi script is tightly associated with the Sikh religion, as the words guru-mukhî literally mean "from the mouth of the guru".
It was created in the 16th century CE by the second Sikh guru, Guru Angad, to write the Punjabi language.
Stylistically, Gurmukhi derives its letter shapes from Landa, but considerable influence from Nagari is evident from the top horizontal bar present in most letters.
www.ancientscripts.com /gurmukhi.html   (96 words)

 Information Regrading Gurmukhi Unicode Fonts
The switching between the Gurmukhi and English typing input can also be achieved by pressing the Alt+Shift keys on the keyboard or by selecting the input language through the task bar.
An alternate font in Windows XP for typing Gurmukhi is Arial Unicode MS (Note: this font is a part of some software by Microsoft and may not be present on all systems).
Regarding the Punjabi language, Uniscribe supports all the Gurmukhi characters mapped to Unicode standard and many others in the subrange (that are used in Gurmukhi but do not have allocated locations in Unicode range).
www.gurbanifiles.org /unicode/unifonts.html   (1314 words)

 Gurmukhi - Test for Unicode support in Web browsers
The Gurmukhi script is used for the Indo-Aryan Punjabi language, which is widely spoken in Pakistan and is also used in parts of India, where it is closely associated with Sikhs.
Gurmukhi Unicode Web pages with UTF-8 encoding are supported by Internet Explorer 5 (or higher) for Windows, Mozilla, Opera 6 (or higher), and the Safari and iCab Web browsers for Macintosh.
The characters that appear in the first column of the following table depend on the browser that you are using, the fonts installed on your computer, and the browser options you have chosen that determine the fonts used to display particular character sets, encodings or languages.
www.alanwood.net /unicode/gurmukhi.html   (334 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Gurmukhi for TeX User Manual Version 1.0 October 1995 Amarjit Singh ________________________________________________________________________ This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 1, or (at your option) any later version.
Gurmukhi is a script for the Punjabi language mostly used in North India.
These can be used to understand the features of a Gurmukhi text, and can also be used as input text to see if the installation is complete.
mirrors.ibiblio.org /pub/mirrors/CTAN/languages/gurmukhi/singh/Readme   (692 words)

 The Gurmukhi Script
The word gurmukhi seems to have gained currency from the use of these letters to record the sayings coming from the much (lit.
The letters no doubt existed before the time of Guru Angad (even of Guru Nanak) as they had their origin in the Brahmi, but the origin of the script is attributed to Guru Angad.
ll Gurmukhi letters have uniform height and can be written between two parallel horizontal lines, with the only exception of e (the first letter of the alphabet) the top curve of which extends beyond the upper line.
www.sikh-history.com /sikhhist/events/gurmukhi.html   (1381 words)

 Gurmukhi downloadable files relating to SGGS   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Gurmukhi text to Punjabi (Gurmukhi) translation of all of Siri Guru Granth Sahib.
This document has all the words from Siri Guru Granth Sahib in Gurmukhi and these words are arranged in an alphabetical order according to the Gurmukhi alphabet.
A concordance file in Gurmukhi that lists all the words and their locations of occurrence in Siri Guru Granth Sahib.
www.gurdwaramidhudson.org /gurfiles/gurmukhi.html   (813 words)

 Shaping: Gurmukhi OpenType specification
The syllable unit that the shaping engine receives for the purpose of shaping is a string of Unicode characters, in a sequence.
Then the Gurmukhi shaping engine splits matras that have components appearing on more than one side of the base glyph into the corresponding parts (pre-base, below-base, above-base or post-base parts).
Because glyph strings are obtained from reordered character strings, the features in an Gurmukhi font must be encoded to map reordered characters (and combinations of characters) to their corresponding glyphs.
www.eu.microsoft.com /typography/otfntdev/gurmukot/shaping.htm   (1170 words)

 Gurmukhi Script   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
As Bhai Lehna devised the script, the same is known as Gurmukhi - a language devised by a Gurmukh at the instance of the Guru.
This script was adopted by all the composers of Bani and in the same very script was written Aad Sri Guru Granth Sahib.
With the passage of time it has spread to all the corners of the world and is universally acclaimed as a very rich and developed language.
www.namdhari-world.com /new%20nw/gurmukhi.htm   (242 words)

 Gurmukhi alphabet --  Encyclopædia Britannica
It seems to have been modified from the Landa script, which is used to write the Punjabi, Lahnda, and Sindhi languages.
Landa, Gurmukhi, and two other scripts used in northwestern India, Sarada and Takri, make up a related group that is probably descended from a common ancestor.
More results on "Gurmukhi alphabet" when you join.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-9038566?tocId=9038566&query=null&ct=null   (754 words)

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