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Topic: Gurmukhi script

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In the News (Thu 27 Jun 19)

  History of Landa and Gurmukhi Script
The Gurmukhi ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ script is derived from the Later Sharada script and was standardized by the second Sikh guru, Guru Angad Dev, in the 16th century for writing the Punjabi language.
According to Al-Biruni, Ardhanagari was a mixture of Nagari, used in Ujjain and Malwa, and Siddha Matrika or the Siddham script, a variant of the Sharada script used in Kashmir.
Later in the 20th century, the script was given the authority as the official script of the Eastern Punjabi language.
punjabiworld.com /news/Creative-Punjab/gurmukhi.html   (1118 words)

Although the Gurmukhi script has been adopted by Sikhs, and their religious scripture, the Sri Guru Granth Sahib has been written in the gurmukhi script.
The Gurmukhi script made its apperance earlier, and it was only later that the second Sikh Guru, Guru Angad Dev Ji condified and finalised the gurmukhi script and gave it the form that is popular today.
Punjabi is written primarily in Gurmukhi script in the India, and that Shahmukhi script in Pakistan.
www.punjabidictionary.com /alpha.htm   (199 words)

Gurmukhi has some similarities to older Indian scripts of the times, but it's thirty five characters and vowel modifiers were standardised by Guru Angad.
Gurmukhi is not only used by Sikhs but by Hindus as well as Muslims living in Punjab to represent their common spoken language, Punjabi.
Sikhs are expected to make an effort at learning the Gurmukhi script and teaching it to their children in order to read the Guru Granth Sahib in its original written form.
www.sikhworld.co.uk /page26.html   (959 words)

  science in India - linguistics   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The recasting of the script regressed as it were from syllabic to syllabic- phonemic in a highly systematized and scientific manner.
The Nagari script was renamed the Devanagari script in the eleventh century.
This script was used for the Malayalam language and as the southern script for Sanskrit.
www.indiaheritage.org /science/ling.htm   (1898 words)

  Brahmic family - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Dravidian languages of southern India have Brahmic scripts with a rounded appearance as they were traditionally written on palm leaves, on which straight lines could not easily be formed.
The Siddham script was especially important in Buddhism because many sutras were written in it, and the art of Siddham calligraphy survives today in Japan.
Many languages using Brahmic scripts are sometimes written in Latin script, primarily for the benefit of non-native speakers or for use in computer software without support for said scripts, but these practices have made little headway in South Asia itself.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Brahmi_script   (640 words)

The literal definition of Gurmukhi is "from the mouth of the Guru." Gurmukhi is used in the Sikh scriptures, or Guru Granth Sahib Ji.
It is believed that Gurmukhi is evolved from the old Brahmi scripts and therefore would be a member of the Brahmi family.
The Gurmukhi script was made by the second Sikh Guru, Guru Angad Dev Ji.
www.infoaboutsikhs.com /language.htm   (799 words)

 Gurmukhi - SikhiWiki, free Sikh encyclopedia.
Gurmukhi seems to have gained currency from the use of these letters to record the sayings coming from the mukh (literally mouth or lips) of the (Sikh) Gurus.
The purpose for creating this script was to make the Adi Granth accessable to the general publicThe tradition system at the time was that a person had to study extensively to understand religious texts.
Gurmukhi can be learned easily and the language was the common tounge of the area, so the Guru's teachings could reach all who wanted them.
www.sikhiwiki.org /index.php?title=Gurmukhi   (2177 words)

 Online Punjabi Teaching
The most striking characteristic of the Gurmukhi script, in comparison with Roman, is that, with the exception of five, all letters are joined by a line across the top.
Equivalent sounds which have been given in romanised script are only approximate since the Gurmukhi script has many sounds unfamiliar to the English speaker which often may not be exactly represented by the Roman alphabet.
The Gurmukhi script, unlike the Greek and Roman alphabets, is arranged in a logical fashion: vowels first, then consonants (Gutturals, Palatals, Cerebrals, Dentals, Labials) and semi-vowels.
www.advancedcentrepunjabi.org /intro1.asp   (1460 words)

 The Sikhism Home Page: Gurmukhi - The Sikh Alphabet
Gurmukhi has some similarities to older Indian scripts of the times, but it's thirty five characters and vowel modifiers were standardized by Guru Angad.
Gurmukhi is not only used by Sikhs but by Hindus as well as Muslims living in Punjab to represet their common spoken language, Punjabi.
Sikhs are expected to make an effort at learning the Gurmukhi script and teaching it to their children in order to read the Guru Granth Sahib in its original written form.
www.sikhs.org /gurmukhi.htm   (398 words)

 Panthic Weekly: History of the Gurmukhi Script
Gurmukhi is the name of the script used in writing primarily Punjabi and, secondarily, in the Sindhi language.
It does not concern us here whether the script was foreign or local, but it has now been established, on the basis of internal evidence, that whatever be its name, the Aryans did have a system of writing which must have been borrowed freely from local scripts.
All Gurmukhi letters have uniform height and can be written between two parallel horizontal lines, with the only exception of e (the first letter of the alphabet) the top curve of which extends beyond the upper line.
www.panthic.org /news/135/ARTICLE/2701/2006-08-30.html   (1696 words)

Some scholars say the Characters of Gurmukhi Script were used by Bhai Lehna Ji during the time of Guru Nanak and he even showed this to Nanak.
All the Thirty Five characters of Gurmukhi Script are present in the the Baani of Guru Nanak Dev known as "Raag Asa Di Patti".
As this script became popular an enthusiasm was created among the people to read and write the language which they were so far only able to speak.
www.sikhpoint.com /religion/creatertruth&sikhism/PentaCentenery/contributions.php   (409 words)

 Punjabi and gurmukhi, why punjabi is a language and gurmukhi is a script
He and polished the landa script to reflect, pronunciation and the authentic tonal expressions to what is known as Gurmukhi today.
In their blind chauvinistic aim to show that the Gurmukhi script belongs only to Sikhs and not to rest of the Punjabis these bigots have created hatred against non-sikhs and alienated them from their own language and past and divided the population of Punjab on religious lines.
Regarding the Gurmukhi script, it is derived from Brahmi used for Asoka's edicts.
www.hathisoft.com /punjabi/punjhist.htm   (1512 words)

 Working Paper 2
The script is left-to-right and words are spelt phonetically with characters that represent syllables (all consonants contain an inherent /a/ or schwa ending hence Devanagari is often thought of as a syllabary rather than an alphabet).
Gurmukhi, meaning "from the mouth of the Guru" is the most commonly used script in India for writing in Punjabi.
Gurmukhi is descended from the Brahmi script of Ashoka.
bowland-files.lancs.ac.uk /monkey/ihe/mille/wp2.htm   (5140 words)

 Welcome to The Institute of Sikh Studies-->Publications
Now, when all of us know that the scripts of Indian origin have developed from Brahmi, it is but natural that some, if not all, letters of the old script do exist in the new from which has developed from the old one.
It is therefore, correct that most of the letters of Gurmukhi did exist before the time of the Gurus, but the Gurmukhi script did not exist.
As such Gurmukhi is the only script which is formed by a single individual and therefore, it does not suffer from the drawbacks and defects which creep into the scripts which develop over a passage of time, through the efforts of different writers having different speech habits, different orthographical and lexical attitude.
www.sikhstudies.org /Periodicals.asp?TtlCod=162   (1923 words)

 Monotype: Non Latin Font
Gurmukhi belongs to the group of Northern Indic scripts which descended from Brahmi script.
Gurmukhi took its present shape in the 16th century AD under Guru Angad, hence, its name, who set out to devise a rational system for writing Panjabi.
Gurmukhi is written horizontally from left to right and its basic set of symbols consists of 35 consonants
www.monotypefonts.com /Library/Non-Latin-Library.asp?show=info&lan=gurmukhi   (370 words)

 Gurmukhi: The Unique Invention of Guru Nanak
A crude script of 27 letters, called Mahaani or Takri, without vowel letters or mattras was used by people to note down accounts, record of family events and sending messages.
Their bani was recorded by Guru Nanak not only in the Gurmukhi script but also in the language of Guru Granth.
Booklets or Gutkas as we, the Sikhs, call them containing bani written in Gurmukhi script were the centre of reverence in the Dharamsals, as gurdwaras were then called.
www.sikhreview.org /november2000/philology.htm   (947 words)

 The Gurmukhi Script
According to an opinion, the Brahmi script was introduced between the 8th and the 6th centnries BC.
It does not concern us here whether the script was foreign or local, but it has now heen established, on the basis of internal evidence, that whatever be its name, the Aryans did have a system of writing which must have been borrowed freely from local scripts.
It is the state script of the Punjab and as such its common and secular character has been firmly established.
www.sikh-history.com /sikhhist/events/gurmukhi.html   (1381 words)

 5abi Panjabi Portal - Font display error
Since there was no standard for Gurmukhi script, font developers created their fonts without any standard keyboard layout.
Gurmukhi and English characters now have separate code, where as in ASCII, Gurmukhi and English characters shared the code points.
But if I was writing an article in Gurmukhi using ASCII fonts, I would have to decide which font the readers would have installed on their machines.
www.5abi.com /dosh/aboutU/gurmukhiU1_amrinder.htm   (949 words)

 Gurmukhi (Punjabi) script and pronunciation
The Gurmukhi alphabet was devised during the 16th century by Guru Nanak, the first Sikh guru, and popularised by Guru Angad, the second Sikh guru.
The name Gurmukhi means "from the mouth of the Guru".
In Pakistan Panjabi is written with a version of the Arabic script known as Shahmukhi (see below).
www.omniglot.com /writing/gurmuki.htm   (318 words)

 Sites on Scripts and Writing Systems
Scripts and Languages “This is a site about the scripts of the world, and the languages they are used to write.
Gurmukhi Script This link is to an issue of the VishwaBharat e-newsletter, published by the government of India, that includes an article on Gurmukhi script and its encoding in Unicode.
The Pollard script and its equivalent in the Romanized script.
scripts.sil.org /cms/scripts/page.php?site_id=nrsi&item_id=SitesOnScriptsAndWSs   (3635 words)

 Research must on origins of Punjabi   (Site not responding. Last check: )
The Gurmukhi script, said to have been taken in good measure from Sharda used in Kashmir, came around the 16th century.
And in both the scripts, the alphabet was subordinated to Punjabi phonetics.
This is important because too frequently, as in the Indian armed forces, where the Roman script is official and in wide use for writing Hindi, the Hindi language is being written in Roman according to the English alphabet, thus subordinating Hindi phonetics to the phonetics of the English language.
www.mahapunjab.org /articles/2003/03puri.html   (879 words)

 PCRC - General Resources - An Introduction to Gurmukhi
Gurmukhi, a derivative of Landa, is a type of script called an abugida.
Gurmukhi has been adapted to write other languages (such as Sanskrit) but these adaptations will generally not be covered.
Gurmukhi follows similar concepts to other Brahmi scripts and as such, all consonants are followed by an inherent ‘a’ sound (unless at the end of a word when the ‘a’ is usually dropped).
guca.sourceforge.net /resources/introductiontogurmukhi   (509 words)

 decodeunicode.org . Unicode Blocks . Gurmukhi
In the 16th century Gurmukhi was devised by the first Sikh Guru Nanak and then established by Guru Angad Dev, the second Sikh Guru.
The Gurmukhi script is a kind of alphabet also known as abugida, where each consonant has an inherent vowel (a) that can than be changed using vowel signs (see glossary).
Gurmukhi has forty-one consonants (Vianjans), nine vowel symbols (Laga Matra), two symbols for nasal sounds (Bindi U+0A02 and Tippi U+0A70) and one symbol which duplicates the sound of any consonant (Addak U+0A71).
www.decodeunicode.org /w3.php?viewMode=block&ucHex=0A00   (255 words)

 PCRC - Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
Gurmukhi is by far the most predominant script used for writing Punjabi in eastern (Indian) Punjab.
The Gurmukhi script is derived from the Landa alphabet and was standardised by Guru Angad Dev in the 16th century.
Devanagari (Hindi, Marathi, Sanskrit), Bengali (Bengali, Assamese), Gurmukhi (Punjabi), Gujarati, Oriya, Tamil, Telugu, Kannada and Malayalam.
guca.sourceforge.net /faq   (1462 words)

 Panjabi Language   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Gurmukhi script was developed in the 16th century C.E. from an older Panjabi
The old Landa script was still in use up until the early part of the 20th century by many traders in
Punjab but this script has seen its last days and is now almost completely out of use.
www.mahapunjab.org /panjabi   (952 words)

 Punjabi Computing Information (Penn State)
Gurmukhi is a syllabic alphabet in that it consists of consonants with vowel signs.
This script is also closely related to the Sikh religion and was created by a Sikh guru.
For short texts, it may be desirable to use Unicode entity codes for Gurmukhi and enter HTML entity codes.
tlt.psu.edu /suggestions/international/bylanguage/punjabi.html   (898 words)

 Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji :Page :SearchGurbani.com
Sri Guru Granth Sahib contains hymns of 36 composers written in twenty-two languages employing a phonetically perfected Gurmukhi script on 1430 pages in 511,874 words, 1,720,345 characters, and 28,534 lines.
In addition to the edition in original Gurmukhi script, the Guru Granth on the web is available in Hindi, Sindhi, and roman English transliterations.
In addition, the Guru designed a phonetically complete gurmukhi font to meet the need of inscribing the multi-linguistic scripture that is also musical.
searchgurbani.com /main.php?book=sri_guru_granth_sahib&action=index   (2242 words)

 Gurmukhi OpenType specification
Gurmukhi is closely related to Devanagari and is used to write the Punjabi language in the Punjab in India.
Font developers will learn how to encode complex script features in their fonts, choose character sets, organize font information, and use existing tools to produce Gurmukhi fonts.
In addition to being a primer and specification for the creation and support of Gurmukhi fonts, this document is intended to more broadly illustrate the OpenType Layout architecture, feature schemes, and operating system support for shaping and positioning text.
www.microsoft.com /typography/otfntdev/gurmukot   (247 words)

Like Devanagari, the Gurmukhi is a script in which each consonant has an inherent [a] vowel which can be modified by vowel symbols that can be attached to the consonant.
The Shahmukhi orthography is a modified version of the Persian Nasta’liq script and as such, it is written from right to left.
It started at the end of the 16th century following the development of the Gurmukhi script, even though there are some literary pieces dating back to the 12th century AD.
www.nvtc.gov /lotw/months/february/punjabi.html   (1073 words)

 Untitled Document
When we look at the different scripts of all languages, written and spoken, in the Indian sub-continent, there is a lot of similarity, in the letters.
These examples clearly certify that present GURMUKHI script was in use in Panjab as well as far off parts of U P as Varanasi where Kabir Ji lived.
Due to the word ”Gurmukhi (from the mouth of GURU) Panjabi language was connected with the Sikh Faith, though Gurmukhi script was in use, before Guru Nanak Dev Ji and on the Indian side of Panjab Hindus, purposely showed down this language.
www.apnaorg.com /articles/boli   (1242 words)

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