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Topic: Gustatory system

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In the News (Sat 20 Jul 19)

  Biology Department: Biology of the Gustatory System
Gustatory information from the tongue and oral cavity is processed in several CNS regions before reaching the gustatory cortex where perception occurs.
King, M.S. and Murphy, D.M., Morphology of projection neurons in the rat rostral nucleus of the solitary tract (rNST) and evidence for a projection to the rNST from the amygdala, Soc.
Recently, we have begun investigating the behavioral effects of microstimulation of discrete regions of the rat parabrachial nucleus (the second central structure in the ascending gustatory pathway).
www.stetson.edu /biology/neuro.shtml   (1012 words)

 Olfactory system - Open Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
The olfactory system is the sensory system used for olfaction.
The olfactory system is made up of a number of different areas of the brain.
Representations of the odor may be encoded by space (a pattern of activated neurons across a given olfactory region corresponds to the odor), time (a pattern of action potentials by multiple neurons corresponds to the odor) or a combination of the two.
www.open-encyclopedia.com /Olfactory_system   (428 words)

 Sensory system Summary
The nervous system is responsible for sensing the external and internal environments of an organism, and for inducing muscle movement.
Taste-detecting, or gustatory, organs are also chemoreceptors and are located in functional groupings called taste buds on the tongue, palate, pharynx, epiglottis, and the upper third of the esophagus.
The somatosensory system feeds the Brodmann Areas 3, 1 and 2 of the primary somatosensory cortex.
www.bookrags.com /Sensory_system   (3767 words)

 BioMed Central | Full text | Effects of caloric deprivation and satiety on sensitivity of the gustatory system
Sensitivity of the gustatory system could be modulated by a number of short-term and long-term factors such as body mass, gender, age, local and systemic diseases and pathological processes, excessive alcohol drinking, drug dependence, smoking, composition of oral fluid, state of oral hygiene, consumption of some foods among many others.
Sensitivity of the gustatory system could be modulated by a number of factors such as body mass, age, local and systemic diseases and pathological processes ranging from infectious diseases to zinc and cyancobolamin deficiency, excessive alcohol drinking, drug dependence and smoking.
Firstly, systemic activation of the brain during food motivation or caloric satiety might alter sensitivity of the central structures involved in perception of taste stimuli [12].
www.biomedcentral.com /1471-2202/5/5   (2665 words)

 Category:Gustatory system - ArticleWorld   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
The gustatory system is the body system involved with the sensation of taste.
The components of the gustatory system are the taste buds which reside on the papillae which project from the surface of the tongue, along with the nerves that transmit the taste signal to the brain.
The gustatory system is now known to have five specific tastes it detects, although research is being done which may add a sixth specific taste.
www.articleworld.org /index.php?title=Category:Gustatory_system&printable=yes   (105 words)

 Précis of "The Brain and Emotion" for BBS multiple book review
In primates, sensory analysis proceeds in the visual system as far as the inferior temporal cortex and the primary gustatory cortex; beyond these areas, for example in the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex, the hedonic value of the stimuli, and whether they are reinforcing or are associated with reinforcement, is represented (see text).
The ventral visual system projects via the inferior temporal visual cortex to the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex, which then determine using pattern association the reward or punishment value of the object, as part of the process of selecting which goal is appropriate for action.
The action systems must be built to try to maximise the activation of the representations produced by rewarding events and to minimise the activation of the representations produced by punishers or stimuli associated with punishers.
www.bbsonline.org /documents/a/00/00/04/89/bbs00000489-00/bbs.rolls.html   (13201 words)

 Nutrient Tasting and Signaling Mechanisms in the Gut. IV. There is more to taste than meets the tongue -- Katz et al. ...
Note the convergence of gustatory, nociceptive, and visceral inputs in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in the medulla; arrows indicate that the anterior NTS (taste) and posterior NTS (visceral) regions interact.
Gustatory and multimodal neuronal responses in the amygdala during licking and discrimination of sensory stimuli in awake rats.
Anatomy of the gustatory system in the hamster: central projections of the chorda tympani and the lingual nerve.
ajpgi.physiology.org /cgi/content/full/278/1/G6   (2438 words)

Damage to the sensors or nerves of the olfactory system may occur anywhere between the upper nasal passage, where the sensory cells are located, and the brain, where information from the sensors is decoded, and a particular odor sensation is created in the mind.
The two major categories of malfunction of the taste, or gustatory, system are changes in amount or quality of saliva, or damage to the taste buds in the tongue, or the nerve and brain pathways involved in the sense of taste.
Damage to the taste buds or nerves of the gustatory system may occur anywhere between the tongue, where the sensory cells of the taste buds are located, and the brain, where information from the sensors is decoded, and a particular taste sensation is created in the brain.
www.vcu.edu /ent/ent_nose_smell.htm   (1693 words)

 Chapter 16   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Olfactory receptors convey nerve impulses to olfactory nerves, olfactory bulbs, olfactory tracts, and the cerebral cortex and limbic system.
Individual gustatory receptors in certain regions of the tongue are more sensitive than others to the primary taste sensations (Figure 16.2a).
Gustatory receptor cells convey nerve impulses to cranial nerves VII, IX, and X, the medulla, the thalamus, and the parietal lobe of the cerebral cortex (Figure 14.15).
spot.pcc.edu /~mwalters/bi232/16SpeSens.htm   (4098 words)

 The Role of the gustatory thalamus in taste-guided behavior   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Gustatory thalamus is the functional name for the parvicellular region of the ventroposteromedial nucleus of the thalamus.
It is the penultimate nucleus in the thalamocortical pathway of the central gustatory system.
In fact, the new data show that the gustatory thalamus is not essential for taste detection, sodium appetite, or CTA learning, but is critical for the preparatory (i.e., food-seeking) rather than the consummatory (i.e., food-eating) aspects of taste-guided behavior.
www.uic.edu /depts/psch/abstracts/reillyab11.html   (155 words)

 Marion Frank Faculty Member at the UConn Health Center Graduate School
The broad goal of our basic research is to develop fundamental understanding of gustatory systems in mammals, at all levels from taste receptor to forebrain.
Currently we are studying the peripheral gustatory system in hamsters and rats with neurophysiological recordings from the chorda tympani and glossopharyngeal nerves, which gather information about taste stimuli subsequent to transduction and processing by taste receptor cells within the taste bud.
We are developing novel ways to address the level of functioning of the taste system in patients with neurologic damage or dysgeusia (the perception of distorted tastes), by using taste-altering drugs such as chlorhexidine gluconate and gymnemic acid to simulate taste dysfunction.
grad.uchc.edu /phdfaculty/frank.html   (991 words)

 Drosophila gene families: Taste receptors
In other sensory systems, a spatial map of receptor activation in the periphery is maintained in the brain such that the quality of a sensory stimulus may be encoded in spatially defined patterns of neural activity.
In the mammalian taste system, multiple bitter receptors are coexpressed in one population of cells on the tongue whereas receptors for sugars are expressed in a different population of taste cells, arguing that different sensory cells recognize different taste modalities.
Seminal studies in the gustatory system of mammals strongly argue in favor of the labeled-line model of taste coding in the mammalian gustatory system in the periphery as well.
www.sdbonline.org /fly/aignfam/tasterec.htm   (15941 words)

 Chapter5: Module 5.1 Transcript
The human visual system is sensitive to a narrow, narrow band of wave length of the electromagnetic spectrum.
This rod system works pretty well when the levels of illumination are low and this cone system which requires a fair amount of illumination to work, but will give you finer detail and also color information.
We tend to think you wouldn’t design a system like this but then it kind of emerges over time and what you have is rods and cones in the back of the retina and so the radiation filters through the other layers of cells to the rods and cones.
www.class.uidaho.edu /psyc101g/lessons/lesson05/lesson5.1_transcript.htm   (1859 words)

 David V. Smith, Ph.D.
We are conducting electrophysiological studies of the neuropharmacology of the gustatory system in order to understand the organization of taste pathways within the brainstem.
Structure and function of taste receptor cells: The taste system and the olfactory system are unique in the continual turnover and replacement of their receptor cells throughout life.
Gustatory projections from the nucleus of the solitary tract to the parabrachial nuclei in the hamster.
www.utmem.edu /anatomy-neurobiology/faculty/D_Smith.htm   (631 words)

 Olfactory system Summary
The olfactory system is the sensory system used for olfaction.
The olfactory system is often spoken of along with the gustatory system as the chemosensory senses because both transduce chemical signals into perception.
Representations of the odor may be encoded by space (a pattern of activated neurons across a given olfactory region corresponds to the odor), time (a pattern of action potentials by multiple neurons corresponds to the odor) or a combination of the two.
www.bookrags.com /Olfactory_system   (934 words)

The chemosensory system of Drosophila melanogaster is divided into three main components – the gustatory, the olfactory and the pheromone systems (Matsunami and Amrein 2003).
The Gustatory System is made up of gustatory or taste receptors, (sensilla), which are distributed throughout the body of the Drosophila, including in the proboscis, the pharynx, the wings, and the legs (Stocker 1994).
    The olfactory system of the Drosophila is composed of populations of neurons which are situated in the following three areas: (1.) in two pairs of appendages in the head; (2.) the third antennal segment; and  (3.) the maxillary palps (Matsunami and Amrein 2003).
instruct1.cit.cornell.edu /courses/nbb429/student2004/kkp7   (1203 words)

 Penn State Faculty Research Expertise Database (FRED)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
The gustatory system is used as a tool in the investigation of the neural coding of rewarding and aversive signals.
To assess the hedonic effect of motivational states, changes in activity of gustatory neurons or in extracellular levels of neurotransmitters are monitored with electrophysiological and neurochemical methods.
This finding may give an in-sight how the relative rewarding value of a taste stimulus is coded in the gustatory system (for more details, see the full text of J.
fred.hmc.psu.edu /ds/retrieve/fred/investigator/ahajnal   (433 words)

 Nutrition Reviews: Neural Plasticity in the Gustatory System   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-14)
Beyond the receptors, the peripheral and central gustatory systems may have their own capacity for plasticity, reflecting not only receptor cell alterations but also interactions of afferent gustatory signals with other neural programs.
Given the inherent plastic nature of the gustatory system, one might expect the literature to be filled with examples of how increased or decreased exposure to specific stimuli through dietary means results in corresponding changes in taste receptor cell function.
It may be, therefore, that at least lower-level gustatory neurons are plastic not necessarily to limited or enhanced experience, but are plastic primarily when there is an adaptive physiological advantage.
www.findarticles.com /p/articles/mi_qa3624/is_200411/ai_n9470718   (1287 words)

 SVIBOR - Project code: 6-06-034
Research goals: The aim of the investigations within the project was to obtain some new insight in the functioning of the gustatory system, primarily concerning the coding mechanism of the taste stimulus intensity and qualities.
In addition the objective was to test the validity of simple sensorimotor reaction time as an indicator of the reactivity level of the gustatory system.
The obtained data gave insight into: (a) the time course of gustatory adaptation and recovery; (b) the share of central and peripheral processes in gustatory adaptation; (c) the coding mechanism of taste qualities as indicated by data on cross-adaptation; (d) the mechanism of electric taste.
www.mzos.hr /svibor/6/06/034/proj_e.htm   (286 words)

 Chapter 10 - Taste and Smell
The distribution of gustatory papillae, their innervation, and the regions of maximum sensitivity to different submodalities of taste on the human tongue.
Gustatory receptor cells are found in the taste buds of fungiform, foliate, and circumvallate papillae located mainly on the tongue.
Perhaps, like the gustatory system, the olfactory system signals smell quality by the pattern of activity in the ensemble of olfactory receptors.
www.unmc.edu /Physiology/Mann/mann10.html   (4556 words)

 System Operator Tutorial - 4) Integrating Other Perspectives
This is the fourth article in a series of tutorials on the system operator.
The point is that, in a problem-solving context at least, we are often prone to not only forget any of the senses that are not already being used in the system.
The system operator in whatever form we chose to use it is an important element within the overall TRIZ philosophy.
www.triz-journal.com /archives/2002/01/c   (1298 words)

 Ralph Norgren, Ph.D.
Gustatory stimuli are easily specifiable chemicals that elicit reliable ingestion and rejection in many species, and therefore provide a convenient probe for investigating the neural control of the motivated behavior associated with energy, water, and electrolyte regulation.
In fact, the second central gustatory relay in the pontine parabrachial nuclei projects to the thalamic gustatory relay, the hypothalamus, and the amygdala.
Until this complex sensory system had been delineated, research on limbic system mechanisms was hampered by the paucity of direct sensory input or motor output.
www.hmc.psu.edu /behsci/Norgren/norgren.htm   (659 words)

 Gustation - Psychology Wiki
In humans, the sense of taste is transduced by gustatory hairs, taste buds and is conveyed via three of the twelve cranial nerves.
Impulses generated by the gustatory taste hairs on the superior surface of the tongue, travel from the tongue to either the facial or glossopharengeal cranial nerves.
As a general rule, taste is a holistic assessment of the interaction of the fundamental taste systems of sweetness, sourness, bitterness, saltiness, and umami (savouriness).
psychology.wikia.com /wiki/Taste   (648 words)

 Role of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Target Invasion in the Gustatory System -- Ringstedt et al. 19 (9): 3507 ...
of neurons in gustatory ganglia was increased in BDNF-overproducing
plexus underlying the gustatory epithelium of circumvallate papillae
Sagittal and transverse sections of the tongue in E19 wild-type (wt) and E19 BDNF-transgenic mice (tg), visualizing DiI-labeled gustatory fibers of the chorda tympani nerve (gustatory branch of the seventh cranial nerve).
www.jneurosci.org /cgi/content/full/19/9/3507   (6551 words)

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