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Topic: HEU


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In the News (Wed 24 Jul 19)

  
  NTI: International Politics of Civilian HEU Elimination
Russian) HEU RERTR and fuel repatriation programs, [add links to descriptions on Past and Current Efforts to Reduce Civilian HEU Use page] provide the key elements that, given strong political leadership, could be used to eliminate much of the HEU in use in the civilian sphere.
Yet another proposal that should not be confused with HEU minimization relates to efforts to establish multinational fuel cycle facilities and to limit the spread of uranium enrichment capabilities.
HEU minimization, on the other hand, does not address the question of enrichment capabilities; unless other initiatives are adopted, under the HEU minimization initiatives states would remain free to enrich uranium to LEU (uranium enriched to under 20%).
www.nti.org /db/heu/international.html   (2682 words)

  
  Enriched uranium - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
HEU is also used in fast neutron reactors as well as in nuclear submarine reactors, where it contains at least 50%
U is a byproduct from irradiation in a reactor and may be contained in the HEU, depending on its manufacturing history.
So, the HEU downblending generally cannot contribute to the waste management problem posed by the existing large stockpiles of depleted uranium.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/HEU   (2453 words)

  
 Bulletin 21 - Putting the Genie Back in the Bottle
In practice, however, due to the outstanding performance of HEU as fuel for certain reactor types and in spite of international efforts to avoid and to discourage the use of this material for non-weapons purposes, HEU is still used in some civilian research reactors and in naval propulsion reactors.
Due to the outstanding performance of HEU as fuel for certain reactor types and in spite of international efforts to avoid and discourage the use of this material for non-weapons purposes, HEU is still used in some civilian research reactors and in naval propulsion reactors.
It is reasonable to assume that the only reason why HEU became available for widespread use in non-weapons and non-military applications in the late 1950's (such as the possibility to use HEU in research reactors) is due to the fact that thermonuclear weapons turned out to be technically feasible in the early 1950s.
www.inesap.org /bulletin21/bul21art15.htm   (3838 words)

  
 RedOrbit - Science - Global Cleanout: Reducing the Threat of HEU-Fueled Nuclear Terrorism   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-21)
HEU is the material of choice for terrorists or for states that seek to proliferate clandestinely without testing their weapons.
Although the current global HEU stockpile for land-based reactors (50-100 metric tons)6 is much less than the quantities of HEU in nuclear weapons and reserved for naval reactor fuel, it is still enough for at least 1,000 gun-type devices.
Fortunately, the densities of the HEU fuels that have to be replaced are mostly quite low, between 3 percent and 9 percent of the density of solid uranium.
www.redorbit.com /news/science/382143/global_cleanout_reducing_the_threat_of_heufueled_nuclear_terrorism/index.html?source=r_science   (4018 words)

  
 Research Reactors Fueled by Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU)
HEU is attractive to terrorist groups because it can be used directly to make a simple nuclear weapon.
Extend the U.S. deadline for retrieval of U.S. HEU from foreign reactors on a case-by-case basis.
Of the approximately 135 research reactors worldwide that continue to operate using HEU fuel, about fifty are either in the United States, of U.S. origin, or using U.S.-supplied fuel.  Several of these are committed to converting to LEU by 2006.
www.ucsusa.org /global_security/nuclear_terrorism/research-reactors-fueled-by-highly-enriched-uranium-heu.html   (1092 words)

  
 Highly Enriched Uranium Transferred to Russia from Czech Republic
The HEU, originally supplied to the Czech Republic by the Soviet Union, was used as fuel for the Department of Nuclear Reactors of the Czech Technical University in its VR-1 Sparrow research reactor.
The repatriation of the HEU fuel from the VR-1 research reactor was part of the joint effort between the NNSA, the Russian Federation and the IAEA to convert the VR-1 reactor to operate on LEU fuel and supply new LEU fuel to the university.
At the end of July, the HEU fuel was discharged from the reactor in preparation for return to Russia.
www.globalsecurity.org /wmd/library/news/russia/2005/russia-050927-usia01.htm   (838 words)

  
 Vehicle GPS - Heavy Equipment Unit - HEU
The HEU is a very small, self-contained GPS tracking and communications device that can be easily hidden in the body of any heavy equipment so no one knows it's there.
The HEU can be configured to send in a report when a selected maximum speed has been exceeded for a selected period of time.
The HEU can be configured to automatically report in when a certain number of equipment hours have been reached or after certain intervals of equipment hours.
www.gpstrackit.com /heu1.html   (685 words)

  
 CNS - Congress Considers Relaxing HEU Export Controls
HEU at civilian facilities, for example, is less well-protected than that at military or weapons production facilities, and more vulnerable to theft by terrorists.
Considering current terrorist threats, civilian uses of HEU should be eliminated, unless their benefits are so great and so difficult and/or expensive to obtain by other means that they justify the increased risk of nuclear terrorism.
HEU targets are irradiated in a reactor, producing the fission product molybdenum-99, which has a 2.7-day half-life and decays to 6-hour half-life tecnicium-99m, which emits a gamma ray used in medical imaging.
cns.miis.edu /pubs/reports/relaxheu.htm   (2354 words)

  
 Military Stockpiles of Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU)
Fortunately, HEU can be readily "down-blended" to low-enriched uranium (LEU), which cannot be used directly to make nuclear weapons but is generally suitable for use as nuclear power plant fuel.
To reduce the long-term risk of nuclear terrorism and the costs of protecting HEU from theft, the United States and Russia should each maximize the amounts of HEU excess to their military needs and down-blend these stocks to LEU as quickly as feasible.
One factor that will affect U.S. and Russian decisions about their excess HEU is the number of nuclear weapons that each country plans to deploy or maintain as part of a "reserve" stockpile.
www.ucsusa.org /global_security/nuclear_terrorism/military-stockpiles-of-highly-enriched-uranium-heu.html   (1037 words)

  
 The University Of The West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad & Tobago
The Health Economics Unit (HEU) is a research cluster of the Department of Economics at the University of the West Indies, St. Augustine.
HEU researchers saw themselves as providers of critical technical support to the Region.
It is therefore no surprise that the HEU has developed close ties with a number of Ministries of Health in the Caribbean as well as with other supportive agencies within and outside the University.
sta.uwi.edu /fss/centre/heu.asp   (145 words)

  
 heu mystery man
Heu said he was unaware of the attempts to hide who attended the meeting and apparently did not consult with the council as to the proposed subject.
Heu said that he has no influence over, nor responsibility for, what the Council decides to do in secret or in open session and intimated that to interfere with their prerogative would be a violation of the separation of powers inherent in the County Charter.
According to OIP opinion 3-12, persons other than those who are on the council may be questioned and consulted in secret as long as they are identified and their relationship to the subject matter is clear, preferably when the meeting is announced six days in advance.
www.parx.org /articles/heumysteryman.html   (949 words)

  
 Fissile material: Stockpiles still growing | thebulletin.org
The stocks of plutonium and HEU are roughly equal, as are stocks of civil and military fissile material.
This excess HEU is to be downblended into low-enriched uranium (LEU), which is less of a proliferation risk.
About 50 metric tons of HEU were in worldwide civil research and power reactor programs as of the end of 2003.
www.thebulletin.org /article.php?art_ofn=nd04albright_016   (1260 words)

  
 World Nuclear Association | Trade Briefings and Reports | Trade Briefing Issue 1   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-21)
HEU used in this way is a source of enrichment and conversion services, as well as of natural uranium equivalent.
The blending process which was established involved blending HEU with 1.5% enriched uranium, itself produced by the enrichment in Russia of tailings from previous enrichment activities.
The commercial contract for the implementation of the HEU agreement between USEC on the one hand and Tenex and Minatom on the other was amended in September 1996 to make it compatible with the new legislation.
www.world-nuclear.org /trade_issues/tbriefings/heu/index.htm   (2722 words)

  
 HEU
The HEU is also capable of automatically responding to exceptions that could occur anywhere in the train.
The HEU automatically selects alternate sources for brake pipe pressure and trainline voltage when the EOT is not present.
The HEU includes an internal ECP event logger and an integrated foot counter and speedometer for convenience.
www.zeftron.com /Components/HEU/HEU.htm   (227 words)

  
 Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Purchase Agreement Transparency Implementation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-21)
HEU weapon components from dismantled Russian weapons are machined into HEU metal shavings, oxidized, purified, and converted into uranium hexafluoride (UF6).
The 10th anniversary of the HEU Purchase Agreement was celebrated in February 2003 and the 10th anniversary of the HEU Transparency Protocol occurred in March 2004.
The success of HEU transparency monitoring activities in sensitive nuclear facilities in both the United States and Russia – activities that would not have been dreamed of in Soviet times – demonstrates how far our bilateral relationship has come and how effective our joint nonproliferation efforts can be.
www.nnsa.doe.gov /na-20/heu_trans.shtml   (774 words)

  
 BCSIA - Publication - Managing Military Uranium and Plutonium in the United States and the Former Soviet Union: Current ...
By the 1990s, production of HEU had almost ceased and production of plutonium for military purposes had slowed to less than two tons per year, but the rate of growth of the stocks of civilian plutonium embedded in spent fuel, produced as a byproduct of continuing nuclear power generation, was about 70 tons per year.
Because of the continued operation of nuclear power reactors and the blending down of a small portion of Russia's excess HEU stockpiles, these figures are estimated to have changed, by the end of 1996, to roughly 1300 tons of plutonium worldwide and 1750 tons of HEU.
The HEU figure and the lower plutonium figure are based on (17); the higher plutonium figure is based on the larger total amount of plutonium estimated in (44).
bcsia.ksg.harvard.edu /publication.cfm?program=CORE&ctype=article&item_id=387   (2983 words)

  
 CNS - Congress Relaxes HEU Export Controls - Aug 4, 2005 - Research Story
Experts have long recognized that highly enriched uranium (HEU) is the nuclear material of choice for terrorists, since HEU is the easiest material to use in manufacturing an improvised nuclear explosive device.
HEU targets are irradiated in a reactor, producing the fission product molybdenum-99, which has a 2.7-day half-life and decays to 6-hour half-life technicium-99m, a gamma ray emitter used in medical imaging.
The paper endorsed as a goal "the elimination of HEU in the civilian nuclear sector as soon as technically feasible."[29] It is likely that additional steps to follow up on this proposal will be made this fall at either the UN General Assembly or the General Conference of the IAEA.
cns.miis.edu /pubs/week/050804.htm   (2663 words)

  
 Arms Control Association: Arms Control Today: Decision Time for the HEU Deal:
From the beginning, the HEU deal was intended to be a government-to-government arrangement, with fuel derived from Russian weapons to be sold in commercial markets to defray the costs of the program.
Given the importance of the HEU deal to both U.S. energy and national security, it is essential that the implementation be put on a fair and solid footing.
When the HEU deal was negotiated, and when the five-year contract was signed in 1996, the only way to place the large amounts of Russian HEU SWU was through the large portfolio of DOE contracts being fulfilled by USEC.
www.armscontrol.org /act/2001_06/nefjun01.asp   (5272 words)

  
 Minimization of Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) in the Civilian Nuclear Sector
Nuclear research facilities such as research reactors and critical assemblies have played a central role in the development of peaceful uses of nuclear technology.
Many of these facilities were established in the 1950s and 1960s and were originally fuelled with Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU).
Beginning in the late 1970s, there was increased recognition that the large quantities of HEU that had been in use around the world to support these and other facilities posed a significant proliferation risk.
www.nrpa.no /symposium   (116 words)

  
 HEU Braces for Damage Decisions   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-21)
The HEABC didn't suggest to the court a penalty for the HEU.
But Norske spokesperson Jennifer Patrick said her company had sought injunctions against the HEU and considered it responsible for the picket action.
Regarding the penalties that may be levied by the B.C. Supreme Court, the HEU has argued that it made every effort to get workers back on the job once it was found in contempt and tried to provide essential services throughout the action, which was non-violent.
thetyee.ca /News/2004/05/17/HEU_Braces_for_Damage_Decisions/print.html   (984 words)

  
 100600 Heu children involved in custody, property dispute as father awaits trial
Just this week, Amanda Heu learned that Joseph Heu's relatives have filed for custody of her sisters, claiming that she is too young to look after them and won't raise them in strict Hmong tradition.
With Joseph Heu in jail awaiting trial on first-degree murder charges, the custody and property battles are enmeshed in legal disputes about restrictions on the ability of criminals to benefit from their crimes.
Joseph Heu's filing failed to disclose that his current address is the Dakota County jail and that a county grand jury had indicted him on first-degree murder charges in his wife's death.
www.hmongnet.org /news/news_004.html   (1032 words)

  
 HEU Nuclear Material Removed from Czech Research Reactor
Fourteen kilograms of highly enriched uranium (HEU) that could be used to assemble a nuclear weapon have been safely returned to the Russian Federation from the Czech Republic.
The fresh HEU fuel was airlifted under guard from an airport near Prague, Czech Republic, to a secure facility in Dimitrovgrad, Russia.
The Agency is working with its Member States to convert their research reactors from HEU to using proliferation-resistant lower enriched fuel.
www.iaea.org /NewsCenter/News/2005/czech_material.html   (424 words)

  
 Kuperman: Civilian HEU & the Fissile Material Convention
Moreover, civil HEU has historically been used as a fuel in nuclear research reactors, often located on university campuses that lack the physical security measures employed at many nuclear powerplants and government weapons facilities.
The threat posed by continued civil commerce in HEU was recently underscored dramatically by the disclosure that Iraq, in 1990, diverted bomb-grade uranium fuel from safeguarded research reactors for a crash program to build nuclear-weapon components.
To preserve the progress of the last two decades, the international community should appeal to Germany to abandon its proposed HEU design, other states should complete the conversion of their operating reactors, and the fissile material convention should be expanded to codify the international consensus against new HEU-fueled reactors.
www.nci.org /i/ib82996.htm   (2808 words)

  
 EPA: Federal Register: Long-Term Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials
Therefore, the decisions on surplus HEU disposition do not affect or preclude other decisions to be made on the long-term storage and disposition of other weapons-usable fissile materials, can proceed regardless of decisions pursuant to the PEIS, and are independently justified.
A separate action is the most rapid path for neutralizing the proliferation threat of surplus HEU, is consistent with the President's nonproliferation policy, would demonstrate the U.S. nonproliferation commitment to other nations, and is consistent with the course of action now underway in Russia to reduce Russian HEU stockpiles.
Further, the decisions on surplus HEU will not impact or preclude other decisions which may be made regarding the disposition of surplus plutonium and other weapons-usable fissile materials, can proceed regardless of decisions on these other issues pursuant to the PEIS, and are independently justified.
www.epa.gov /fedrgstr/EPA-IMPACT/1995/April/Day-05/pr-723.html   (1543 words)

  
 Largest Batch of HEU Returned from Germany to Russia
At the end of a five-day operation, 268 kg of fresh highly enriched uranium fuel (HEU) and 58 kg of fresh low-enriched uranium fuel (LEU) were taken from a German research reactor, airlifted and safely delivered to Russia, where the fuel originated.
The HEU fuel that was returned today was supplied by the USSR to the former German Democratic Republic in 1960s and 1970s.
The final goal is to reduce and eventually eliminate international commerce in HEU for research reactors.
www.iaea.org /NewsCenter/News/2006/germany.html   (743 words)

  
 Arms Control Association: Arms Control Today: Ending HEU Use in Medical-Isotope Production
In contrast to HEU, LEU contains less than 20 percent U-235.[1] It is considered non-weapons-useable primarily because the amount of uranium needed to set off a sustained nuclear chain reaction—about one critical mass—is so large.
The Energy Department estimates that Soviet-designed research reactors inside and outside Russia today use a total of about 350 kilograms of HEU fuel per year.[10] In 1993 the United States began to work in Russia to revive the Russian program with the objective of converting all Soviet-designed research reactors to LEU.
HEU that was originally weapons grade is of special concern because it is still near weapons grade.[15] For some years after discharge from the reactor, the spent fuel is considered “self-protecting” by the IAEA because the radioactive fission products it contains emit highly dangerous gamma rays as they decay.[16]
www.armscontrol.org /act/2006_01-02/JANFEB-heuFeature.asp   (4130 words)

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