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Topic: Habitat fragmentation

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In the News (Thu 18 Apr 19)

  Spartanburg SC | GoUpstate.com | Spartanburg Herald-Journal
Habitat fragmentation is a process of environmental change important in evolution and conservation biology.
Habitat fragmentation can be caused by geological processes that slowly alter the layout of the physical environment or by human activity such as land conversion, which can alter the environment on a much faster time scale.
Habitat fragmentation is frequently caused by humans when native vegetation is cleared for human activities such as agriculture, rural development or urbanization.
www.goupstate.com /apps/pbcs.dll/section?category=NEWS&template=wiki&text=Habitat_fragmentation   (1011 words)

 Roads and Habitat Fragmentation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-30)
Fragmentation of temperate forests is a major factor in the decline in numbers of some neo-tropical migrant songbirds because of the decline in overall forest habitat and the corresponding increase in edge habitat (Wilcove 1985).
Fragmentation of the landscape almost tripled with the addition of roads, while 24% of overall vegetation in the study area became road edge habitat at the 100 m level.
Habitat fragmentation not only results in decreased habitat area and increased patchiness of that habitat, but also causes microclimatic changes along the patch perimeter that alters the vegetative structure of remnant forest.
www.wildrockies.org /WildCPR/notes/biblionotes/road-frags.html   (1332 words)

 Conservation Ecology: Habitat Fragmentation and Native Bees: A Premature Verdict?
The contrasting responses of these two halictid bee genera to habitat fragmentation may be plausibly explained by differences in their nesting biologies, not their floral biologies, although such an assertion must be based on knowledge of the identities, nesting substrates, and habitats of the two species.
In all of these cases, changes in the habitat matrix that surrounds the fragments appear to have affected the opportunities for nesting by native bees, an outcome that was not anticipated by the researchers and is therefore now relegated to the realm of speculative interpretation.
Habitat loss at some extreme spatial scale of patch size and isolation is, of course, deleterious to both communities of invertebrate pollinators and the sexual reproduction of plants.
www.ecologyandsociety.org /vol5/iss1/art3   (4875 words)

 08/17/01 -- Habitat fragmentation decreases plants’ ability to take up nitrogen
Inbreeding in plant species caused by the fragmentation of their habitats is lowering their abilities to take up nitrogen, according to a US scientist.
The increasing size and isolation of habitats is changing the genetic make-up of plants, affecting different species in different ways, so altering communities, says Eric Lonsdorf, a graduate student from the University of Minnesota, who carried out the research.
Lonsdorf is now studying the variation among species’ reaction to fragmentation, with the ultimate aim of linking genetic changes in a population to ecological changes.
www.forests.org /archive/general/hafrdecr.htm   (434 words)

 Eco-Link Habitat Fragmentation
There are two major effects of fragmentation: a reduction in the total area of the original habitat, and the creation of an edge between the original habitat and the human altered landscape, known as "edge effects".
Habitat islands are often compared to oceanic islands, and several scientists have extended the theory of island biogeography (MacArthur and Wilson 1967) to these mainland islands.
Habitat fragmentation affects the flora and fauna of a given ecosystem by replacing a naturally occurring ecosystem with a human-dominated landscape which may be inhospitable to a certain number of the original species.
learning.turner.com /efts/rforest/habfrag.htm   (3028 words)

 Habitat fragmentation, its effect on biodiversity
Small fragments of habitat can only support small populations of fauna and small populations of fauna are more vulnerable to extinction.
Fragments of habitat that are separated from each other are unlikely to be recolonised.
Small fragments are therefore unfavourable for those species which require interior habitat and may ead to the extinction of those species.
www.austmus.gov.au /factsheets/habitat_fragmentation.htm   (348 words)

 Effects of Habitat Fragmentation on Birds in Western Landscapes: Contrasts with Paradigms from the Eastern United States
Under this argument, key com- ponents in defining habitat fragmentation are scale, the mechanism causing separation of hab- itat from non-habitat (i.e., the degree to which connectivity is affected), and the spatial arrange- ment of habitat and non-habitat.
From this, the process of habitat fragmentation can be defined as the set of mechanisms leading to the discontinuity in the spatial distribution of re- sources and conditions present in an area at a given scale that affects occupancy, reproduc- tion, and survival in a particular species.
Another result of habitat fragmentation is an increase in the amount of edge habitat, as well as the proliferation of new types of edges, as anthropogenic habitats (e.g., agriculture, logged forest, and urbanized areas) replace native hab- itats and abut the remaining fragments.
elibrary.unm.edu /sora/Condor/cooper/SGML/sab_025/sab_025.html   (18188 words)

 Habitat fragmentation, its effect on biodiversity
Small fragments of habitat can only support small populations of fauna and small populations of fauna are more vulnerable to extinction.
Fragments of habitat that are separated from each other are unlikely to be recolonised.
Small fragments are therefore unfavourable for those species which require interior habitat and may ead to the extinction of those species.
www.amonline.net.au /factsheets/habitat_fragmentation.htm   (348 words)

 GIS/EM4 - Temporal analysis of habitat fragmentation
Habitat fragmentation, characterized by changes over time in the composition and spatial configuration of critical early winter habitat for woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), may be occurring near Revelstoke, British Columbia as a result of timber harvesting and natural disturbances such as wildfires.
Habitat fragmentation is a landscape evolution process characterized by both the reduction in the total amount of suitable habitat available (habitat loss) and the spatial isolation of the remnant habitat patches over time (McGarigal and Marks 1995).
The 1997 habitat unit map produced for the study area was used as a base dataset from which to project changes in classes back into the past and recreate a 1975 habitat and disturbance map that could be directly compared to the present landscape structure.
www.colorado.edu /Research/cires/banff/pubpapers/25/index.html   (3400 words)

 Forest Fragmentation: Habitat fragmentation
Fragmentation occurs when a large region of habitat has been broken down, or fragmented, into a collection of smaller patches of habitat.
Fragmentation typically occurs when land is converted from one type of habitat to another.
Other species may be excellent competitors deep within their own specialized habitat, but are less successful against species found at the edge of their habitat that take advantage of the wide variety of conditions found between two dissimilar habitats.
chesapeake.towson.edu /landscape/forestfrag/all_habitatfrag.asp   (1330 words)

 Trees for Life - Habitat Fragmentation
Thus, fragmentation increases what is known as the 'edge effect', whereby the interior area of habitat is affected by the different conditions of the other habitats on its edges.
The smaller a particular habitat is, the greater is the proportion of its area which experiences the edge effect, and this can lead to dramatic changes in plant and animal communities.
If their natural habitat is too fragmented, many might not be able to do so, and they will therefore be at risk of extinction.
www.treesforlife.org.uk /forest/humanimpacts/fragmentation.html   (2129 words)

 NPWRC :: Habitat Fragmentation Effects on Birds in Grasslands and Wetlands: A Critique of Our Knowledge
Habitat fragmentation involves the division of large, contiguous areas of habitat into smaller patches isolated from one another.
Habitat fragmentation is a major concern in conservation biology since it has implications for reserve design (e.g., Diamond and May 1976; Wilcox and Murphy 1985), as well as for understanding species-area relationships (e.g., Temple and Wilcox 1986), island biogeography theory (Galli et al.
Fragments of forest were viewed as habitat "islands" surrounded by "seas" of habitats unsuitable for forest species.
www.npwrc.usgs.gov /resource/birds/habfrag   (5899 words)

Habitat destruction, alteration and fragmentation are probably the most serious causes of current and future amphibian population declines and species extinctions (Dodd and Smith 2003).
Habitat destruction is defined as the complete elimination of a localized or regional ecosystem leading to the total loss of its former biological function (Dodd and Smith 2003).
Habitat fragmentation is a secondary affect of habitat destruction.
amphibiaweb.org /declines/HabFrag.html   (1117 words)

 Habitat Fragmentation
Fragmentation can be defined as the subdivision of once contiguous habitats and ecosystems into patches of various sizes and shapes.
This type of fragmentation in a forested ecosystem is seen as a patchwork of treed areas and clearings.
Habitat fragmentation is a complex issue, and the forest industry is continuing to experiment with different types of cutting methods that will reduce the effects of fragmentation.
www.abheritage.ca /abresources/inventory/resources_forests_harvesting_habitat.html   (296 words)

 Habitat fragmentation Summary
Critical habitat usually refers to the area that is essential for a minimal viable population to survive and reproduce.
Habitat fragmentation, usually a result of human activity, is found in all major habitat types around the world.
Habitat fragmentation is frequently caused by humans when native vegetation is cleared for agriculture or development.
www.bookrags.com /Habitat_fragmentation   (2421 words)

Another aspect of area we have to consider is the boundary between the habitat we are interested in and adjoining habitats.
The diversity of habitats contributes to the diversity of animals, remember the concept of metapopulations and source and sink areas.
Habitat fragmentation can immediately cause a loss of species which are endemic to portions of the landscape which are destroyed.
faculty.plattsburgh.edu /thomas.wolosz/area_effects.htm   (1746 words)

 U.S. Global Change Research Information Office
An inevitable result of fragmentation is an increase in the proportion of what is called edge habitat, defined as a boundary between two regions with vegetation of distinctly different heights, such as a forest and an adjoining field of corn.
Disturbed habitats, such as pastures with scattered trees and those coffee plantations that grow coffee shrubs in the shade of tall trees, are heavily used by migratory songbirds for these purposes.
Losses of grassland habitat in the southern U.S. may be responsible for some of the declines of grassland species, and particularly the short-distance migrants that spend their winters on this side of the Gulf of Mexico.
www.gcrio.org /CONSEQUENCES/vol3no1/songbirds.html   (7590 words)

 Leaf Litter- Biohabitats eNewsletter
This is referred to as "habitat configuration" and is evaluated by measuring a variety of spatial metrics such as fractal dimensions or nearest neighbor indices.
Habitat fragmentation may be the result of either natural or anthropogenic processes.
In one region urban sprawl may be the most important factor contributing to habitat fragmentation, while in other regions, the most important factor may be conversion of natural systems to agricultural uses or increased habitat fragmentation due to resource extraction.
www.biohabitats.com /ndg_newsite/newsletter/number.03/news.htm   (5551 words)

Loss and fragmentation of habitat due to urban sprawl, rather than population increases, are the most significant factors in the decline of our native species, according to the Natural Resources Defense Council (www.nrdc.org).
One study (www.sciencelives.com/rabbit.html) indicates that New England cottontails on small patches are not as healthy as those on large patches because they depleted their food supply sooner and were forced to eat lower-quality food, or to search for food in areas where there was more risk of being killed by a predator.
In general, prey species are more easily preyed upon when their habitat is fragmented and they are limited to small islands of suitable habitat that makes escape into thick, protective cover difficult.
www.rlep.org /livinggreen/Habitat_fragmentation.htm   (1217 words)

 Fish and Wildlife Service   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-30)
Habitat types include: coastal and estuarine, rivers and streams, lakes and ponds, wetlands, riparian areas, deserts, grasslands/prairie, forests, coral reefs, marine, perennial snow and ice, and urban.
Destruction, degradation, and fragmentation of habitat is the driving force behind today's decline in species and biodiversity.
Impacts to habitat can be caused directly by such activities as the clearing of forests to grow crops or build homes, or indirectly, for example, by the introduction of invasive species or increased pollution run-off from yards and fields.
www.fws.gov /habitat   (233 words)

 The effects of habitat fragmentation on dispersal
Habitat loss and fragmentation are amongst the most serious environmental threats affecting the persistence of animal species throughout the world.
White-winged choughs (Corcorax melanorhamphos) have recently been identified as sensitive to habitat fragmentation (Watson 2000), and are one of a large group of woodland bird species that are thought to be on the decline (Birds Australia 2002).
This project is using both field studies and genetic analysis to investigate dispersal behaviour and the effects of habitat fragmentation on white-winged chough populations.
www.hermonslade.org.au /projects/HSF_03_1/hsf_03_1.htm   (609 words)

 Habitat Fragmentation
Habitat fragmentation is the seperation of a landscape into various landuses (e.g, development, agriculture, etc.), resulting in numerous small, disjunct habitat patches left for use by wildlife.
Fragmentation eliminates habitat for those species requiring large unbroken blocks of habitat (e.g., bobcats and upland sandpipers).
Additionally, the small habitat patches resulting from fragmentation often do not provide the food and cover resources for many species that do attempt to use them (e.g, New England cottontail, which requires large patches of shrubland).
www.mass.gov /dfwele/dfw/bdi/habfrag.htm   (298 words)

 Frogs and Habitat Fragmentation
Following is the abstract to my honours thesis at Murdoch University, which examined the effects of habitat fragmentation on frogs in the WA wheatbelt.
It is thus important to investigate the influence of habitat fragmentation on amphibian populations.
Habitat alteration of the wheatbelt, involving the clearance of 140 000 km2 (Saunders, 1989) has had a massive and often unpredictable impact on endemic fauna and flora and habitat fragmentation has been implicated as the key mechanism responsible for the loss of many of Australia’s plant and animal species (Hobbs and Hopkins, 1990).
www.westernwildlife.com.au /frogs/abstract.htm   (659 words)

 Friends of the Forest - Wildlife Habitat
Many species of animals and plants need large, continuous areas of habitat to survive and don’t fair well when forests and rangeland are chopped into smaller and often isolated patches of developed and undeveloped land.
These habitat types are home to thousands of species of wildlife, including one third of all federally listed endangered species, such as salmon, fl-footed ferrets and Kirtland's Warblers.
Habitat Fragmentation: Past roads, excessive logging and development all worked to fragment large areas of intact habitat, creating small, isolated areas of habitat that are often too small to support many of the resident wildlife.
www.becomeafriend.org /forestissues/wildlife_habitat.php   (745 words)

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