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Topic: Hague Conventions 1899 and 1907


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  Hague Conventions (1899 and 1907) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Hague Conventions were international treaties negotiated at the First and Second Peace Conferences at The Hague, Netherlands in 1899 and 1907, respectively, and were, along with the Geneva Conventions, among the first formal statements of the laws of war and war crimes in the nascent body of international law.
The main effect of the Convention was to ban the use of certain types of modern technology in war: bombing from the air, chemical warfare, and hollow point bullets.
Though not negotiated in The Hague, the Geneva Protocol to the Hague Convention is considered an addition to the Convention.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Hague_Conventions_(1899_and_1907)   (665 words)

  
 Geneva Conventions - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The conventions were the results of efforts by Henri Dunant, who was motivated by the horrors of war he witnessed at the Battle of Solferino.
Accusations of violation of the Geneva Conventions on the part of signatory nations are brought before the International Court of Justice at the Hague.
The first three conventions were revised, a fourth was added, and the entire set was ratified in 1949; the whole is referred to as the "Geneva Conventions of 1949" or simply the "Geneva Conventions".
www.hartselle.us /project/wikipedia/index.php/Geneva_Conventions   (489 words)

  
 Encyclopedia: Hague Conventions (1899 and 1907)
Arms of The Hague The Hague (Dutch: Den Haag, or officially s-Gravenhage) is the administrative capital of the Netherlands, located in the west of the country, in the province...
The Hague, The Netherlands (Dutch: Nederland) is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (Dutch: Koninkrijk der Nederlanden).
Geneva Conventions, among the first formal statements of the The laws of war (Jus in bello) define the conduct and responsibilities of belligerent nations, neutral nations and individuals engaged in warfare, in relation to each other and to protected persons, usually meaning civilians.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Hague-Conventions-(1899-and-1907)   (2245 words)

  
 Encyclopedia: Geneva Conventions
Arms of The Hague The Hague (with capital T; Dutch: Den Haag, or officially s-Gravenhage) is the administrative capital of the Netherlands, located in the west of the country, in the province South Holland of which it is also the capital.
Second Geneva Convention "for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea" (first adopted in 1949, successor of the 1907 Hague Convention X) Third Geneva Convention "relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War" (first adopted in 1929, last revision in 1949)
All four conventions were last revised and ratified in 1949, based on previous revisions and partly on some of the 1907 Hague Conventions; the whole set is referred to as the "Geneva Conventions of 1949" or simply the "Geneva Conventions".
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Geneva-Conventions   (1590 words)

  
 International Humanitarian Law - Hague Convention II 1899
One of the purposes for which the First Hague Peace Conference of 1899 was convened was "the revision of the declaration concerning the laws and customs of war elaborated in 1874 by the Conference of Brussels, and not yet ratified" (Russian circular note of 30 December 1898).
The Conference of 1899 succeeded in adopting a Convention on land warfare to which Regulations are annexed.
The provisions of the two Conventions on land warfare, like most of the substantive provisions of the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, are considered as embodying rules of customary international law.
www.icrc.org /ihl.nsf/73cb71d18dc4372741256739003e6372/cd0f6c83f96fb459c12563cd002d66a1?OpenDocument   (395 words)

  
 Vanguard Online Edition : LAW & HUMAN RIGHTS:Saddam Hussein and the laws of war
Examples of the written laws are contained in the Geneva conventions of 1929 dealing with the treatment of prisoners of war and the care of wounded and the sick during war situations.
Under this head, the law as stated in the Hague conventions requires a country before declaration of war against another country to give previous and explicit warning either in the form of a reasoned declaration of war or the issuance of an ultimatum before commencement of hostilities.
This perhaps explain why the Hague conventions prohibit the use of poison weapons, the killing or wounding of an enemy who has laid down his arms and surrendered and the use of such arms or material likely to cause unnecessary injury.
www.vanguardngr.com /articles/2002/features/fe427082004.html   (1221 words)

  
 Human Rights Learning Centre: Study Guide on International Humanitarian Law
The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1904 limited the means by which belligerent states could conduct warfare.
In the aftermath of the atrocities of the Holocaust, the Genocide Convention of 1948 outlawed acts that were carried out with the intention of destroying a particular group.
Many provisions of the four Geneva Conventions, the two Protocols, and the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 are broadly accepted as restating customary international humanitarian law applicable to all countries.
www.hrea.org /learn/guides/ihl.html   (2582 words)

  
 International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
On August 22, 1864, the conference adopted the first Geneva Convention "for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded in Armies in the Field." Representatives of 12 states and kingdoms signed the convention: Baden, Belgium, Denmark, France, Hesse, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Prussia, Switzerland, Spain, and Württemberg.
One year later, the Hague Convention X, adopted at the second International Peace Konferenz in The Hague, extended the scope of the Geneva Convention to naval warfare.
In territories that were officially designated as "occupied territories," the ICRC could assist the civilian population on the basis of the Hague Convention's "Laws and Customs of War on Land" of 1907.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Red_Cross   (8269 words)

  
 Dáil Éireann - Volume 488 - 12 March, 1998 - Geneva Conventions (Amendment) Bill, 1997: Second Stage.
These conventions dealt with the amelioration of the condition of the [1150] wounded and sick in armed forces in the field; the amelioration of the condition of wounded, sick and shipwrecked members of armed forces at sea; the treatment of prisoners of war; and the protection of civilian persons in time of war.
In the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, like the Geneva Conventions of 1929 and 1949, the principle of protection is deemed to be a developing rule of law, though at that time it was not considered necessary to formulate it word for word in the texts themselves.
The Geneva Conventions Act, 1962, enabled effect to be given in domestic law to those four conventions and I understand it is necessary to amend that Act and associated legislation to enable Ireland to become a party to the two additional protocols.
www.oireachtas-debates.gov.ie /D/0488/D.0488.199803120007.html   (7591 words)

  
 The Avalon Project - Laws of War : Pacific Settlement of International Disputes (Hague I); 29 July 1899
The Convention for an inquiry defines the facts to be examined and the extent of the Commissioners' powers.
Done at The Hague, the 29th July, 1899, in a single copy, which shall remain in the archives of the Netherlands Government, and copies of it, duly certified, be sent through the diplomatic channel to the Contracting Powers.
Under the reservations formulated with respect to Articles 16, 17 and 19 of the present Convention (15, 16 and 18 of the project presented by the committee on examination) and recorded in the procès-verbal of the sitting of the Third Commission of July 20, 1899.
www.yale.edu /lawweb/avalon/lawofwar/hague01.htm   (3719 words)

  
 DeCSS Central - DVD CCA lawsuit(s)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
This is an overview on the past and current activities and dangers of the Hague Convention on Jurisdiction and Foreign Judgements in Civil and Commercial Matters (short "Hague Convention" throughout this article), in response to Richard M.
The Hague Conference is a long-standing but little noticed body of international diplomacy, consisting chiefly of meetings conducted first in Hague in 1893, then irregularily until 1956, after which meetings were held every four years.
But the major danger of the Hague Convention is that it runs circles around the national laws of the member states.
web.lemuria.org /DeCSS/hague.html   (1627 words)

  
 Human Rights and Development
The Conventions and Protocols protect women both as members of the civilian population not taking part in hostilities and also as combatants, fallen into the hands of the enemy.
In addition, the Third Convention provides in general that prisoners of war must be treated humanely at all times and it is forbidden to subject them to physical mutilation or to medical or scientific experiments which are not justified by the medical treatment of the prisoner concerned and which are not in his interest.
Despite adoption of the Fourth Geneva Convention and the two Additional Protocols, women as members of the civilian population continue to be the first victims of indiscriminate attacks against civilians, since the men are usually engaged in the fighting.
www.hri.ca /HRDevelopment/chapter5/protection/women.html   (7842 words)

  
 Convention violators ... - May 24, 2004   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Of interest now is the Geneva convention on the treatment of prisoners of war, which replaced the prisoners of war convention of 1929.
Under the convention, measures of reprisal against the prisoners are prohibited.
The convention has also established the principle that prisoners of war must be released and repatriated without delay after the cessation of active hostilities.
www.inq7.net /opi/2004/may/24/text/letter_7-1-p.htm   (281 words)

  
 International humanitarian law   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
While the main focus of the Hague Conventions is to stipulate what is and what is not permitted under the rules of war (Law of The Hague), the main focus of the Geneva Conventions is to lay down rules for the protection of the wounded, prisoners of war and civilians (Law of Geneva).
Another important convention in the area of international humanitarian law is the Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict concluded as early as 1954.
Many provisions of the aforementioned conventions, including in particular the rules designed to shield civilians from the effects of armed conflict, are today deemed to have universal common law validity, irrespective of whether states are parties to these conventions or not.
www.auswaertiges-amt.de /www/en/aussenpolitik/vn/voelkerrecht/hum_vr_html   (1206 words)

  
 FM 27-10 Foreword
It should be noted, however, that the official text of the Hague Conventions of 18 October 1907 is the French text which must be accepted as controlling in the event of a dispute as to the meaning of any provision of these particular conventions.
The effect of these four conventions upon previous treaties to which the United States is a party is discussed in detail in paragraph 5 of the text.
Moreover, even though States may not be parties to, or strictly bound by, the 1907 Hague Conventions and the 1929 Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War, the general principles of these conventions have been held declaratory of the customary law of war to which all States are subject.
www.globalsecurity.org /military/library/policy/army/fm/27-10/FWD.htm   (428 words)

  
 MEMORANDUM ON SRI LANKA - PART II
In the modern age, the law governing the conduct of combat is frequently referred to as " The Hague law" because the most important multilateral treaties relating to combat were drafted at conferences held in The Hague, the Netherlands.
The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, multilateral treaties resulting from the peace conferences held in the Hague in 1899 and 1907 developed the law of combat.
As of present time, The Hague law limits or forbids certain combat activities: killing a combatant who is sick, wounded or has surrendered; military operations against towns, villages, or buildings which are undefended or against the civilian population or civilian habitations (including foodstuffs and drinking water); and pillage.
www.webcom.com /hrin/parker/ltte96-2.html   (3144 words)

  
 Crimes Of War Project > The Book
Some acts involve prohibited means or methods of warfare (“Hague law,” that is, the law arising from the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907).
Other acts harm protected persons—sick and wounded, shipwrecked, or civilians ("Geneva law," that is, the law arising from the Geneva Conventions).
Illegal acts, other than grave breaches, are known as serious violations and, unlike grave breaches, are not subject to universal jurisdiction, although they may and often will be subject to prosecution in different courts, including international tribunals.
www.crimesofwar.org /thebook/illegal-prohibited-acts.html   (186 words)

  
 WAR   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 dealt with the conduct of war by outlawing certain types of weapons (dum-dum bullets, poison gas) and outlining treatment of POWs and civilians.
The Geneva Conventions of 1864 and 1906 dealt with treatment of the sick and wounded.
Lacking an actual conventional or unconventional attack on the United States by Iraq, lacking possession of deliverable weapons of mass destruction targeted at the U.S. or its allies, or direct tangible evidence of Iraqi involvement with other organizations or nations plotting to attack the United States, there is simply no case for a defensive war.
home.comcast.net /~painehouse/News/PICS/WAR.htm   (445 words)

  
 The Avalon Project : Laws of War
Hague III - Adaptation to Maritime Warfare of Principles of Geneva Convention of 1864 : July 29,1899
Hague II - Limitation of Employment of Force for Recovery of Contract Debts : October 18, 1907
Hague X - Adaptation to Maritime War of the Principles of the Geneva Convention : 18 October 1907
www.yale.edu /lawweb/avalon/lawofwar/lawwar.htm   (567 words)

  
 Working Paper No. 4: "Investigative Capacity"
Inquiry procedures have been discussed in the international arena since the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, yet are acknowledged as a "relatively uncharted area of international human rights law".
For instance, among the oldest treaty bodies, the Committee for the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD)12.
UNHCR has "specifically understood its control and monitoring functions to be applicable also in respect of international ad hoc arrangements and agreements of a less formal nature, whether in the context of voluntary repatriation operations or special international arrangements in the case of mass influx situations."24.
www.icva.ch /cgi-bin/browse.pl?doc=doc00000487   (4967 words)

  
 Hague Arbitration Cases: Compromise and Awards with Maps in Cases... - WILSON, GEORGE GRAFTON   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Hague Arbitration Cases: Compromise and Awards with Maps in Cases...
Hague Arbitration Cses: Compromise and Awards with Maps in Cases Decided Under the Provisions of the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907.
The Hague conventions under which the court has been constituted are given in the Appendix.
www.antiqbook.com /boox/law/39879.shtml   (141 words)

  
 Hague Convention
Hague III -- Adaptation to Maritime Warfare of Principles of Geneva Convention of 1864
Hague Convention II -- The Limitation of Employment of Force for Recovery of Contract Debts
Hague Convention X -- Adaptation to Maritime War of the Principles of the Geneva Convention
www.lib.byu.edu /~rdh/wwi/hague.html   (395 words)

  
 continued
The existing laws of war are mostly products of 19th- and 20th-century conflicts and are largely contained within the four Geneva Conventions adopted in 1949 to address warfare against civilian populations and noncombatants, a particularly horrifying characteristic of World War II.
There were also other treaties, such as the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 and the Geneva Protocols of 1977, which include the regulation of the means and methods of warfare, and others that prohibit practices such as torture and the use of chemical weapons.
However, as Goldsmith observed: "It's certainly the case that the laws of war were not fully developed to answer all the questions about a war between a state on one hand and a nonstate actor/terrorist organization on the other.
www.law.harvard.edu /alumni/bulletin/2004/fall/feature_1-2.html   (1037 words)

  
 Crimes Of War Project > The Book   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The 1949 Geneva Conventions, which codified IHL after World War II, also marked the first inclusion in a humanitarian law treaty of a set of war crimes --the grave breaches of the conventions.
Wartime atrocities not prohibited under the Geneva Conventions or Additional Protocol I may nonetheless be war crimes under the customary law rubric of "violations of the laws and customs of war" (the same phrase as in the Nuremberg Charter).
For interstate conflicts, states agree that such war crimes include certain violations of the 1907 Hague Convention and Regulations, such as use of poisonous weapons, wanton destruction of cities not justified by military necessity, attacks on undefended localities, attacks on religious and cultural institutions, and plunder of public and private property.
www.crimesofwar.org /thebook/categories-of-warcrimes.html   (1208 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
These conventions also provided for the protection of cultural property (1954) by codifying their safety from attack whenever these culturally significant buildings are not used for military purposes.
The Hague Conventions drew many of its undergirding principles from the Lieber Code and, in turn, influenced the philosophical framework and organisation of the League of Nations which followed the end of the First World War.
Convention relative to the protection of civilian persons in time of war (Geneva IV) This convention reiterated principles previously codified by Lieber and in the Hague Conventions.
www.usafa.af.mil /jscope/JSCOPE97/Mays97.htm   (7768 words)

  
 The Hague Legal Capital   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
In order to insulate the process of nomination from political considerations, candidates are not nominated directly by governments but by the national groups in the Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) or, in the case of countries not participating in the PCA, by national groups constituted in the same way.
The Permanent Court of Arbitration, which is based in The Hague, was established under the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907.
Each State party to those Conventions (currently 97) has its own national group, that is to say a group of up to four jurists who can be called upon to serve as members of an arbitral tribunal under the Conventions.
www.thehaguelegalcapital.nl /lc/news/press/press/icj01   (661 words)

  
 Bombing Dual-Use Targets: Legal, Ethical, and Doctrinal Perspectives   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Their path-breaking efforts culminated in the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, the Geneva Conventions of 1949, and the 1977 Protocol I and II to the Geneva Conventions.
Continuing the evolution of international humanitarian law begun by Grotius, the 1899 Hague Conference declared a 5-year moratorium on "launching of projectiles and/or explosives from the air," which at that time affected only bombardment from balloons.
The other is an attack that may be expected to cause incidental loss of civilian life, injury to civilians, damage to civilian objects, or a combination of the three, that would be excessive relative to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated.
www.airpower.maxwell.af.mil /airchronicles/cc/Rizer.html   (7015 words)

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