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Topic: Halophytes

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Le Houerou, H.N. Forage halophytes in the Mediterranean basin.
Gallagher, J.L. Halophytic crops for cultivation at seawater salinity.
Koehl, K. NaCl homoeostatis as a factor for the survival of the evergreen halophyte Armeria maritima (Mill) Willd.
members.cox.net /salamon/Tech/lifesupport/halophyte_ref.html   (1434 words)

 The Role of Plants in the Bioremediation of Coal Bed Methane Product Water   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Halophytes have evolved different mechanisms to deal with excess sodium and other salts in their environments.
Excretive halophytes possess glandular cells or vesiculated trichomes (leaf hairs), which are able to excrete sodium and other salts from their leaf tissue.
Halophytes can further be classified according to the type of mineral ions (salts) they are able to accumulate or excrete.
waterquality.montana.edu /docs/methane/halophytes.shtml   (3057 words)

 CIT - Selecting a Drip Irrigation System for Vineyards
Halophytes are plants that are native to saline environments such as coastal salt marshes, and they thrive on salinity.
It is important to emphasize that the cultivation of halophytes is primarily to achieve the final reduction in drainage volumes: economic return would be a bonus, but not a requisite.
More research is needed to demonstrate that the halophytes proposed for re-use cropping systems will thrive under irrigation with the hypersaline, high boron, drainage water of the San Joaquin Valley, and that under these conditions, their water use rates will be sufficiently high to provide the needed reduction in drainage volumes.
cati.csufresno.edu /cit/rese/99/990602/index.html   (1979 words)

A halophyte is a plant that naturally grows where it is affected by salinity in the root area or by salt spray, such as in saline semi-deserts, mangrove swamps, marshes and sloughs, and seashores.
Adaptation to saline environments by halophytes may take the form of salt tolerance (see halotolerance) or salt avoidance.
Plants that avoid the effects of high salt even though they live in a saline environment may be referred to as facultative halophytes rather than 'true', or obligatory, halophytes.
www.ebroadcast.com.au /lookup/encyclopedia/ha/Halophyte.html   (158 words)

 ARS | Publication request: Halophytes for Sustainable Biosalinie Farming Systems in the Middle East   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Halophytes, most of them indigenous to the Middle East, are plants that grow in soils or waters containing significant amounts of inorganic salts, can harness saline resources that are generally neglected and are usually considered impediments rather than opportunities for development.
A minimum of 50 species of seed-bearing halophytes are potential sources of grain and oil; these include halophytes with seed quality comparable to, or better than, that of wheat; and species with seed that are rich in energy, protein and fat content.
Long-term sustainability of farming systems based on these halophytes depends on the economic value of inputs and outputs, their environmental impact, future food needs, economics, the extent to which freshwater ecosystems are withheld from further agricultural development and development of agronomic practices appropriate for new farming systems.
ars.usda.gov /research/publications/publications.htm?SEQ_NO_115=141621   (585 words)

 Dr. M. Ajmal Khan
Population ecology of a subtropical coastal halophyte Arthrocnemum indicum.
Demography of a coastal desert halophyte Cressa cretica Linn.
Screening of halophytes and seed crops for cultivation in deserts of Mekran coast using seawater.
www.halophyte.org /halophyte_files/htmls/drkhancv.htm   (3251 words)

 Biodiversity of arid territories - LEAD E-Newsletter Jully 2006
Halophytes are the basis of the vegetative cover of salted soils, psammophytes are of sandy desert, gypsophyles are of gypsous desert and ephemeroid — ephemeral vegetative belong to the adyr belt.
However, the halophytes according to its halotolerance are divided into 4 groups: 1 — hyperhalophytes, 2 — euhalophytes, 3 — hemihalophytes, 4 — haloglicophytes and depending from the degree and species of soil salinization in the vegetative cover, this or that groups of halophytes are dominated.
This vast group of halophytes are presented by different forms of growth — by trees, shrubs, semi-shrubs, perennial and annual grasses.
www.virtualcentre.org /ru/enl/A3/A3_05_00_en.htm   (1677 words)

 Botany online: Characteristics of Habitats and Vegetation - Halophytes
Facultative halophytes are able to settle on salty soils, but their optimum lies in a salt-free or at least low-salt milieu.
Halophytes are often succulent, many species have salt glands, others are able to store considerable concentrations of salt within their vacuole.
Halophytes are usually less fit in salt-free habitats than other plants, this is partly due to their relatively slow development.
www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de /b-online/e56/56d.htm   (511 words)

 Vegetation of Puget Sound Salt Marshes
Halophytes keep salinity levels low by preventing salts from entering or by eliminating salts when they are inside.
Some halophytes keep out salts by concentrating them around their roots and this causes an influx of freshwater towards the roots.
Halophytes must also be able to cope with the anoxic conditions found in all wetlands.
www.uvm.edu /~ksjennin/nr260/vegetation.html   (664 words)

 Glenn, Edward P., University of Arizona Environmental Research Laboratory
Glenn, E. Irrigating halophytes with saline water to produce animal feed and sequester carbon from the atmosphere.
Salicornia bigelovii Torr.: an oilseed halophyte for seawater irrigation.
Salt tolerance and osmotic adjustment of low-sodium and high-sodium subspecies of the halophyte, Atriplex canescens.
ag.arizona.edu /swes/people/cv/glenn.htm   (2275 words)

 Salt-Tolerant Plants & Their Uses, N.P. Yensen   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
There was even a rumor a number of years ago that a Nobel prize might be awarded for the individual or group that could identify and transfer this gene to a traditional crop such as wheat, rice or corn, all salt-sensitve crops.
Still, the elucidation of halophyte mechanisms is an exciting field and someday the spin-offs could be of great significance.
The ants (still un-described) have air-lock chambers and will use halophytes to "pasture" scale insects (for their honey dew) during the neap tides and during the spring tides take their "cows" down into air-tight chambers to keep them from drowning.
www.ussl.ars.usda.gov /pls/caliche/halophyte.preface   (2178 words)

 What are Halophytes
Halophytes are plants which tolerate or even demand sodium chloride concentrations in the soil water they absorb.
One distinguishes succulent halophytes, halophytes with salt bladders on the leaf surface, and those which excrete the salt with evaporation water, where the salt crystals remain visible on the leaf surface.
Halophytes are plants which are able to live under elevated salinities in their growth media.
www.usf.uos.de /projects/expo2000/english/descript/descript.html   (1116 words)

 Application to the Santander Group for financial support to establish a sectorial group in the area of environment, ...
We have shown that many halophytic species of theses eco-systems can be cultivated in plantations using intelligent irrigation systems with saline water or even with seawater and that such saline irrigated plantations of salt tolerant plants could be used to protect certain types of desert landscapes against wind and water erosion.
Because of the great potential of halophytic plants for the immediate future of large areas of the world we try with this paper to generate an international working group.
Traditional uses of halophytic plants are known from all continents.
www.ex.ac.uk /~MAPatric/sgroup/sectM/halophyt.htm   (1842 words)

 Dr. John Gallagher
Wetland ecology and restoration; salt tolerant plants (halophytes), physiology, biochemistry and biotechnology; halophyte agronomy (halophytes), seagrass tissue culture.
The response of plasma membrane lipid composition in callus of the halophyte Spartina patens (Poaceae) to salinity stress.
Expression of Foreign Genes, GUS and hygromycin resistance, in the halophyte Kosteletzkya virginia in response to bombardment with the Particle Inflow Gun.
www.ocean.udel.edu /cms/jgallagher   (743 words)

 Chapter 4 - Drainage water re-use
The area of halophytes that can be grown is a function of the quantity and quality of drainage water recovered from the trees.
The trees and halophytes need to be selected for their salt tolerance, which should range from about 9 000 to 18 000 mg/litre for trees and 18 000 to 41 000 mg/l for halophytes.
Halophytes have been selected for salt tolerances ranging from an EC of 20 to 45 dS/m.
www.fao.org /docrep/W7224E/w7224e08.htm   (5113 words)

 Halophytes and Xerophalophytes
Halophytes are often classified as excretives and succulents.
Halophytic succulence is demonstrated in many genera of plants that inhabit saline environments, such as the mud flats of coastal salt marsh, but also is commonly observed on the leading edge of vegetation on coastal beaches, i.e., in strand vegetation.
Among the halophytes, the seagrasses, which are submerged plants of shallow marine meadow, have salt tolerance, because the osmolality of cytoplasm is adjusted to match the osmolality of the seawater, so that desiccation of the plant does not occur.
www.botgard.ucla.edu /html/botanytextbooks/lifeforms/halophytes/fulltextonly.html   (824 words)

 Industry pros to lead irrigation workshops
An environmentally responsible system for drainage water management is to use the water for irrigation in a sequential reuse system that applies the saline drainage to progressively more salt tolerant crops and finally to halophytes as the drainage becomes progressively concentrated in salinity through reuse.
Benes’ study has focused on the saline water use of saltgrass and other halophytes; and there is some good news: The saltgrass appears to be thriving under irrigation with drainage water about two-thirds the salt content of sea water and high in boron.
Additional salt tolerant forages and halophytes need to be evaluated for growth and water use under irrigation with the Westside drainage water.
cati.csufresno.edu /cit/upda/99/summer/halophytes.html   (672 words)

 Title page for Thesis adt-WCU20021002.114248
The aims of this thesis were to make a contribution towards a better understanding of the ecology of halophytes suitable for use in revegetation and the likely physical requirements for their sustainable establishment on post-mining landforms.
In terms of germination, many of the halophytes currently used for rehabilitation of saline substrates are well suited in that they are able to germinate in solutions of up to 20 g L(subscript)-1 NaCl.
Values for the tolerance index ranged from 5.7 to 25.3 for the halophytic species compared with a value of 0.2 for the glycophytic Secale cereale.
adt.curtin.edu.au /theses/available/adt-WCU20021002.114248   (778 words)

 The UNESCO Regional Office in the Arab States of the Gulf
The results were weakening of ecosystems, decrease in potential and real production, which led to desertification and almost irreversible forms of soil degradation.
Within this project, particular attention is given to those countries having or planning biosphere reserves on islands and /or coastal zones and to those countries whose governments have already signed and ratified the Convention on Biological Diversity.
Halophytes as cash crops have a huge potential to help particularly in developing to alleviate living conditions for local populations.
www.unesco.org /doha/science/egyptboa.htm   (237 words)

 Salt Marsh Vegetation
Salinity is probably the toughest condition faced by salt marsh halophytes.
Halophytes have mechanisms for reversing the osmotic effect.
They concentrate salt ions in their roots, so that the salt concentration is greater there than in the surrounding soil, and water flows into the roots.
www.humboldt.edu /~ere_dept/marsh/saltveg.html   (841 words)

 Effects of salinity on growth and cation accumulation of Sporobolus virginicus (Poaceae) -- Bell and O'Leary 90 (10): ...
Halophytes are plants that can complete their life cycles in
Rozema J. 1991 Growth, water and ion relationships of halophytic monocotyledonae and dicotyledonae: a unified concept.
Yeo A. Flowers 1980 Salt tolerance in the halophyte Suaeda maritima (L.)Dum: evaluation of the effect of salinity on growth.
www.amjbot.org /cgi/content/full/90/10/1416   (5902 words)

 Halophyte - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
An example of a halophyte is the salt marsh grass Spartina alterniflora (smooth cordgrass).
At the other extreme, Salicornia bigalovii (dwarf glasswort) grows well at 70 g/l of dissolved solids, and is a promising halophyte for use as a crop.
Or a plant species may maintain a 'normal' internal salt concentration by excreting excess salts through its leaves or by concentrating salts in leaves that later die and drop off.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Halophyte   (364 words)

 Application to the Santander Group for financial support to establish a sectorial group in the area of environment, ...
The research subject of this proposal is the „Sustainable Utilization of Halophytes".
The greenification of coastal areas, tourist sites, road sites, building areas, wastlands, etc. with halophytes will be of great socio-economic importance in the future.
In the attached annex we have outlined the thematic areas to be studied in order to improve the biodiversity of saltmarshes and mangroves.
www.ex.ac.uk /~MAPatric/sgroup/sectM/backg.htm   (1902 words)

 CRC Journals   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-16)
Despite their polyphyletic origins, halophytes appear to have evolved the same basic method of osmotic adjustment: accumulation of inorganic salts, mainly NaCl, in the vacuole and accumulation of organic solutes in the cytoplasm.
Halophytes have been tested as vegetable, forage, and oilseed crops in agronomic field trials.
Halophytes grown on seawater require a leaching fraction to control soil salts, but at lower salinities they outperform conventional crops in yield and water use efficiency.
www.crcjournals.com /eJournals/articles/article_synopsis.asp?id=26035   (351 words)

 Faculty:Allan M. Showalter
Another project in the lab involves examining the molecular adaptations of halophytes to saline environments.
Khan, M. Ungar, and A. Showalter (2000) The effect of salinity on the growth, water status, and ion content of a leaf succulent perennial halophyte, Suaeda fruticosa (L.) Forssk.
Cloning and characterization of the betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase and choline monooxygenase genes from the halophyte Atriplex prostrata
www.plantbio.ohiou.edu /epb/faculty/faculty/ams.htm   (968 words)

 KARACHI: Halophyte plants may help fight salinity: experts -DAWN - Local; September 10, 2003
Halophytes are plants adapted to growing in saline conditions.
The deputy director-general of the World Wide Fund for Conservation of Nature, Pakistan, Dr Ejaz Ahmad, said the halophytes could be used to plant as many mangroves as possible.
He said: “Botanists working on halophytes should be enabled to carry out research in the field in a more vigorous manner.
www.dawn.com /2003/09/10/local9.htm   (571 words)

 Salinity – Mitigation
If these various options for reducing deep drainage are effective in lowering water tables so that any salt scalds dry out,  there is still the problem that the salt remains in the root zone.
Salt tolerant crops may then be able to grow there, and enable further leaching of the salt.
Halophytes have no special metabolic adaptation to high salinity.
www.plantstress.com /Articles/salinity_m/salinity_m.htm   (5364 words)

 Cash Crop Halophytes Recent Studies - Ten Years after Al Ain Meeting
The losses in soil fertility in certain regions is so severe that rural populations are either starving, leaving their villages or requesting permanent living support through foreign aid.
In recent years several scientists in Europe have developed research projects for the sustainable utilisation of halophytes.
This volume will be of great value for all scientists and persons interested in R and D projects for the future use of halophytes and saline irrigation systems.
www.cplbookshop.com /contents/C1337.htm   (294 words)

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