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Topic: Hemipenes


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In the News (Mon 15 Jul 19)

  
  Reproductive   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-21)
The reproductive system of the copperhead is very similar in structure and function to the various other classes, with the exception of the hemipenes, which is analogous to the phallus in the Canvasback Duck and the penis in other taxa.
The hemipenes are a pair of intermittent organs found only in the snakes and lizards.
The hemipenes are returned into the body by a process called invagination where they are turned outside in by retractor muscles.
campus.murraystate.edu /academic/faculty/terry.derting/cva_atlases/copsnake/reprosnake.htm   (295 words)

  
  Britain.tv Wikipedia - Hemipenis
A hemipenis (plural hemipenes) is one of a pair of reproductive organs of male squamata (snakes, lizards and amphisbaenia).
Hemipenes are usually held inverted, within the body, and are everted for reproduction via erectile tissue like that in the human penis.
Due to being everted and inverted, hemipenes do not have a completely enclosed channel for the conduction of sperm, but rather a seminal groove which seals as the erectile tissue expands.
www.britain.tv /wikipedia.php?title=Hemipenis   (173 words)

  
 Python Sexing and Breeding
The male copulatory organs are known as hemipenes and are located on both the left and right sides of the tail base and invert into the tail base.
The actual copulatory organ is a pair of organs known as hemipenes, which are located in the base of the tail and controlled by a retractor muscle that is used for retraction and eversion.
Unlike mammals the hemipenes have a single purpose and are used solely for sexual reproduction and do not play a role in the process of eliminating urates.
www.angelfire.com /al/repticare/page23.html   (1940 words)

  
 Snake (reptile) - Printer-friendly - MSN Encarta
Male snakes have two penises or hemipenes, one on either side of the body, which are usually contained within small sacs at the base of the tail.
During mating, males insert one of their hemipenes into the cloaca of the female.
In many snake species, hemipenes are covered with small spines to hold them in place during copulation.
encarta.msn.com /text_761578341___3/Snake_(reptile).html   (638 words)

  
 Prolapse of Cloacal Tissue and Hemipenes
The paired male iguana reproductive organ, called the hemipenes, is kept tucked into the tail, pointed towards the tip of the tail.
When the hemipene is everted, it, too, passes through the cloaca to the vent.
In the normal course of defecation, the male hemipenes may be everted, that is, will be forced out of the vent.
www.anapsid.org /prolapse.html   (694 words)

  
 Biol171-Lab8 Reptiles
During mating, one of the hemipenes is everted by the muscle contraction and blood flow to the organ.
Hemipenes are retracted by the withdrawal of blood from the organ and activation of a retractor muscle.
The mechanisms that evert and retract lizard hemipenes is the same for snakes (this is a synapomorphic trait in lizards and snakes) Like lizards, egg-laying (oviparity) is the most common mode of reproduction in snakes; however live-bearing (viparity) has also evolved 30 times in snakes.
online.sfsu.edu /~jrblair/biol170/lab/Laboratory8.html   (2584 words)

  
 Snake Sex Determination by Probing
Posterior to the cloaca, a pair of hemipenes are present in male snakes.
As mentioned above, the hemipenes are paired structures located on either side of the midline.
A safer method of sexing juvenile snakes is the "popping" of the male hemipenes.
pythons.com /probing.html   (476 words)

  
 Albino Burmese.com is a great albino Burmese python breeder!
However, care should be taken if hemipenes are not visualized to look for the tiny oviduct of the female so you can be certain you've "popped" the snake correctly and haven't just called a male a female due to poor technique.
Probin is acomplished by passing a ball-tipped snake sexing probe caudally from the vent to penetrate the anal sac of the female, or the hemipenal area of the male.
The basic jist is that the animal is anesthetised (because this keeps the muscle that retracts the hemipene from fighting the eversion) and then a veterinarian injects isotonic saline into the tail below the end of where the hemipenes would be.
www.albinoburmese.com /gender.htm   (743 words)

  
 Advice on monitor lizards from mampam.com
The males of some species are said to have wider heads or thicker tail bases than the females and although there is no reason to doubt this, such criteria are of limited use when animals from different locations and of unknown age are concerned.
Sex of monitor lizards is often determined on the basis of hemipenal eversion (notably in field studies in which the animals are not sacrificed).
But if eversion is only partial it is impossible to distinguish the male hemipenes from the similar structures everted by the females*, unless equipped with a very good knowledge of the differences in their morphology.
mampam.50megs.com /monitors/advice8.htm   (1534 words)

  
 Reproduction
Hemipenes consist of 2 grooved, sac-shaped organs covered with small spines or hooks thought to grip the walls of the female cloaca during copulation
Sperm flows from the testes into the seminal ducts and onto the outer surface of the erect penis or hemipenes to be deposited into the female oviducts where they remain viable for a long time
The male grabs the female by her neck and inserts a penis or hemipenes into her cloaca, copulation occurs, sperm is released, and an egg may be fertilized.
www.reance.my100megs.com /html/bpl/mate.htm   (339 words)

  
 Female Lizard Reproductive Surgery
Male lizards possess two hemipenes that are sac-like and do not have erectile tissue.
Determining the sex of a mature lizard is usually quite simple as the hemipenal bulges are obvious.
Sexing may be accomplished by using sex probes to measure the depth of the pockets distal to the cloaca.
www.exoticpetvet.net /reptile/femsurg.html   (2871 words)

  
 Australian Museum - Snakes' Tell-Tails
When the researchers compared the tail length of male gartersnakes with the size of their two hemipenes (reproductive organs), they found that the longer the tail, the longer the hemipenes.
Hemipenes are sheathed inside the base of the tail except when mating.
Both long tails and long hemipenes may be advantageous to Red-sided Gartersnakes, since a long, strong tail enables males to wrestle opponents away from females, while long hemipenes may increase attachment during copulation.
www.amonline.net.au /archive.cfm?id=1024   (310 words)

  
 Vet Article: Treatment of the Hemipenal Prolapse
Swelling of the extruded hemipenes (plural of hemipenis) will mechanically, from sheer volume, prevent their retraction within the hemipenal pockets.
You need to be careful in putting medication in the cloaca (or hemipenal sacs) as it may be absorbed systemically.
If trauma to the hemipenes or to one hemipenis was severe or extensive, or if tissues were torn when attempting reduction, a short course of systemic antibiotics also may be indicated.
www.adcham.com /html/veterinary/vet-hemipenal-pare.html   (658 words)

  
 [No title]
It is possible to evert, or "pop", the hemipenes on some males.
I was unable to evert the hemipenes as he must have been holding them in tightly.
I really didn't feel the need to force them out as I can assume from his aggressive personality and more importantly his over enthusiastic attempts to mate with my adult females that he is indeed a male.
www.angelfire.com /extreme/psychoticrage/skinkbreed.html   (552 words)

  
 Pics of my new snake and some questions. - www.ReptileForums.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-21)
It's small enough were you should be able to pop the hemipenes to see if it's a male.
Sometimes, Sooometimes (not often) when you soak a snake and it defecates, (and it's a male) the hemipenes will pop out on their own.
Again, if the hemipenes don't come out, this is not a guarantee that you have a female.
www.reptileforums.com /forums/showthread.php?p=75096   (1703 words)

  
 Hemipenes
Snakes and lizards (saurians) have a bi-lobed reproductive organ called the hemipene.
This organ is tucked away in the tail, emerging from the body through the vent, generally during mating when it is inserted into the female's vent.
Some sauria may evert one or both hemipenes when defecating, especially when they are straining due to constipation or when heavily infested with internal parasites.
www.anapsid.org /hemipenes.html   (293 words)

  
 Detailed Care Sheet for Lizards (Printer Friendly Version)
Male lizards are distinguished by the presence of two hemipenes, which are their reproductive organs.
Unlike snakes, lizards cannot usually be probed due to the convoluted shape of the hemipenes.
Lizards usually mate by the parallel alignment of the cloacas, allowing a hemipene to be inserted into the female where it will deposit sperm to fertilize the female's eggs.
centralpets.com /care/pets/reptiles/lizards/2695/7/2/petcare.php   (1336 words)

  
 [No title]
Hemipenial eversion was accomplished by holding the animal upside-down and applying soft pressure on both sides of the base of the tail, pressing from the tail toward the head.
Eversion of the hemipenes proved to be an effective technique for sexing hatchling iguanas (239 females and 229 males), as hemipenes were easily everted.
Sex of neonates can be determined by eversion of the hemipenes or by measurement of the cloacal pouch depth or cloacal width.
pages.prodigy.net /anaconda/sexdifer.htm   (783 words)

  
 World Wide Snakes
In the main, most male snakes will have a far deeper hemipenes than the musk gland of your female snake, but occasionally the scale depth of a male may be shallower than you think, this could give you pause to think it was a female.
Another problem is that the musk gland wall of the female may be very thin and you could perforate this wall thinking she was a male; this can lead to the snake getting an infection whereby antibiotic treatment will need to be administered.
Most males tend to have a thicker tail near the Cloaca, this is because of the hemipenes, but this method is a little bit of hit and miss.
www.worldwidesnakes.com /ri-breeding-sexing.php   (812 words)

  
 Glossary of Iguana Terms
Hemipenes are often seen protruding from the vent (see below) during or after mating or other sexual activity.
Hemipenes may also be visible during defecation, and may occasionally remain outside the body in what is known as a prolapse (see below).
In males, the hemipenes extrude through the vent during mating, and in females, the vent receives sperm during mating.
www.greenigsociety.org /glossary.htm   (4335 words)

  
 Herpetology 1999 - November
Instead the hemipenes were indistinct and therefore of indeterminate length.
The author attributes this to the males' cloacal glands lying dorsal to the hemipenes and being of smaller size.
Kuch [1999, Herpetozoa 12(1/2):11-16] notes that it is typically thought that when colubrid snakes bite, they must hold on at least several seconds to inject doses of toxic Duvernoy's glands secretion sufficient to cause envenoming in humans, and that quick defensive bites would not result in envenoming.
www.chicagoherp.org /herpetol/sums11.htm   (1792 words)

  
 The Chameleon's Dish: Male Health
The hemipenes are tucked inside the body, and connect to the outside world through the vent.
Since the two hemipenes are what make the organ, it is usually refereed to by it's plural name.
Under routine circumstances, the hemipenes will poke out of the vent during mating, when the lizard is excited, and sometimes defecation.
www.chameleonsdish.com /health/malehealth.htm   (338 words)

  
 FaunaClassifieds - Sexing Question
If you popped one and exposed the hemipenes, there should be no doubt that it is a male, as there should be no doubt if a probe passed into the hemipenes far enough.
When it popped, I didn't get hemipenes, I got the part that the hemipenes would be in if it was a male.
BPs can be tough to pop or probe, although I would suggest probing with a fairly small probe if it is a baby and gently twirling the probe as you try to see if it will enter or not.
www.faunaclassifieds.com /forums/printthread.php?t=60108   (384 words)

  
 Iguanas - Hemipenes?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-21)
I panicked a bit thinking she injured herself somehow, but when I rechecked her 5 min later it was back to normal.
I have a feeling I saw her (his) hemipenes just before it retracted.
I have looked on line, and have seen many examples of male vs. female as far as green igs go, but nothing for rhinos.
www.repticzone.com /forums/Iguanas/messages/770187.html   (356 words)

  
 Iguana Anatomy
Males will evert their hemipenes for breeding, occasionally during defecation, and sometimes just to "show off" to people or other iguanas during breeding season.
If the hemipenes are prolapsed (protruding for an extended amount of time), immediate veterinary treatment is advised.
This photo also shows the waxy plugs protruding from the femoral pores, which is a good indication that the iguana is in breeding season.
greenigsociety.org /anatomy.htm   (308 words)

  
 Monitors - Hemipenes?   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-21)
Next about hemipenes, and yes hemiclitori they both have them, you need to know what your looking at to tell them apart.
If I could find the pics, some females have hemiclitori that are just as long or even longer than males hemipenes in the same species (Sobek is one and John A’s big female water Cody was another example).
You have to be able to tell the difference between the 2 at a larger age to sex them by eversions, of course even if you knew how to pop one you would have to be able to identify what popped.
www.repticzone.com /forums/Monitors/messages/357123.html   (572 words)

  
 help! hemipenes stuck out!
If it is a prolapse then you can treat it with a sugar solution and for hemipenes we used to use a small amount of cold water applied with a cotton swab.
Tissues which could be affected by prolapse include the male reproductive organs (hemipenes) and the tissues of the lower intestine which lead to the vent.
The problem of hemipene prolapse is mostly likely to occur following mating by the male.
www.reptileforums.co.uk /about726.html   (693 words)

  
 Helmut's Memorial
A couple weeks later he was unable to retain his hemipenes in his tailbase (poor muscle control in the lower half of his body as well as some swelling).
After at least an hour and a half my vet, Dr. Thoma, was able to get Helmut's hemipenes back in and place a few surgical staples in to give Helmut a chance to keep them in.
I was to remove the staples little by little over the course of a few days, at which point the hemipenes ended up back out, necrotic.
www.igniche.com /helmut_memorial.htm   (1021 words)

  
 Forum Message: 'A: Garter? How do you tell?'   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-21)
In this method, a metal probe is slipped through the vent to check for the presence of a hemipenis, the male copulatory organ.
Every male has two hemipenes in the base of the tail.
The hemipenes make the tails of males longer and thicker than the tails of females of the same size.
www.practical-pet-care.com /snake_question.php?ID=2.737209185   (402 words)

  
 caresheet
Hatchlings can be fairly easily sexed by everting the two hemipenes of males.
inverted hemipenes, the probe can be inserted the length of about 6 or more caudal
is too wide to enter the hemipenes of a male, falsely sexing it as a female.
www.williswildlifeenterprises-cornsnakes.com /caresheet.html   (864 words)

  
 About snake love   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-21)
Male snakes have two penis (called hemipenes or “half penis” in the mistaken belief that they were pressed together to form one penis).
The hemipenes inflates when it is inserted into the female and some hemipenes may be forked or spined, probably to ensure it stays inside the female during what can be a long mating.
Males tend to have longer, fatter tails (when not in use, the hemipenes are inverted and tucked into their tails), females have bigger bodies to make and contain eggs; but there are exceptions.
www.szgdocent.org /resource/rr/c-love.htm   (487 words)

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