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Topic: Hemocyanin

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 Read about Hemocyanin at WorldVillage Encyclopedia. Research Hemocyanin and learn about Hemocyanin here!   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Although the respiratory function of hemocyanin is similar to that of hemoglobin, there are a number of differences in its molecular structure and mechanism.
Hemocyanin binds with oxygen non-cooperatively and is only one-fourth as efficient as hemoglobin at transporting oxygen.
Because of the large size of hemocyanin, it is usually found free-floating in the blood, unlike hemoglobin, which must be contained in cells because its small size would lead it to clog and damage blood filtering organs such as the kidneys.
encyclopedia.worldvillage.com /s/b/Hemocyanin   (266 words)

 Hemocyanins.com: Biochemical products for Cell Biology and Cancer Research
Hemocyanins are multisubunit proteins with an oxygen transport function, similar to Hemoglobin.
Hemocyanins are found in arthropods (crustaceans like shrimp, crabs, lobsters),insects and mollusks (limpets, clams, oysters, snails, abalone, slugs, squid, and octopus.
Keyhole limpet (Megathura crenulata) hemocyanin (KLH) is widely used as an immune system stimulant in the generation of antibodies for research and diagnostic purposes.
www.hemocyanins.com   (362 words)

 Diplopod Hemocyanin Sequence and the Phylogenetic Position of the Myriapoda -- Kusche and Burmester 18 (8): 1566 -- ...
The missing alpha-helix 1.2 in the hemocyanins of Spirostreptus and the Chelicerata is in brackets.
the occurrence of a hemocyanin in the Scutigeramorpha was attributed
hemocyanin synthesis in the Myriapoda resembles that of the
mbe.oxfordjournals.org /cgi/content/full/18/8/1566   (3883 words)

 Structures of two molluscan hemocyanin genes: Significance for gene evolution -- Lieb et al. 98 (8): 4546 -- ...
hemocyanin gene, that for subunit e of the hemocyanin of the tarantula
Hypothesis for the evolution of the eight-FU molluscan hemocyanin subunit from a mono-FU precursor.
It is proposed that the dimeric repeating unit as well as the di-pentameric architecture of the extant molluscan hemocyanin evolved before the eight-unit polypeptide, and that the latter grew from the C-terminal to the N-terminal FU and not vice versa.
www.pnas.org /cgi/content/full/98/8/4546   (4189 words)

 The spider blood circulation
Unlike hemoglobin, hemocyanin is not stored in a cell but flows freely in the blood of a spider.
Hemocyanin is a protein that is made up of 24 sub-units with a molecular mass of 1.704.000 compared to the molecular mass of oxygen, which is only 32.
Hemocyanin also contains nitrogen, carbon and hydrogen but has a copper atom at the center instead of an iron atom.
www.xs4all.nl /~ednieuw/Spiders/InfoNed/blood.html   (899 words)

 OhioLINK ETD: Ton-That, Hoa
Hemocyanins are extracellular copper containing oxygen transport proteins found some arthropod and molluscs.
Limulus polyphemus hemocyanin is a 48 subunit complex, each subunit can reversibly bind one oxygen molecule.
The structure was determined to 1.9 A resolution to a crystallographic R-value of 18.6%.
www.ohiolink.edu /etd/view.cgi?case1061562434   (223 words)

 Encyclopedia: Hemocyanin   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Hemocyanins carry oxygen in the blood of most molluscs, and some arthropods such as the horseshoe crab.
They are second only to hemoglobin in biological popularity of use in oxygen transport.
Whereas hemoglobin carries its iron atoms in porphyrin rings (heme groups), the copper atoms of hemocyanin are bound as prosthetic groups comprised of histidine peptides.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/Hemocyanin   (317 words)

 Low-Resolution Molecular Structures of Isolated Functional Units from Arthropodan and Molluscan Hemocyanin -- Grossmann ...
Hemocyanins are not a homogeneous class of proteins; the sequence
Crystal structure of deoxygenated Limulus polyphemus subunit II hemocyanin at 2.18 Å resolution: clues for a mechanism for allosteric regulation.
Sequences of the Octopus dofleini hemocyanin subunit: structural and evolutionary implications.
www.biophysj.org /cgi/content/full/78/2/977   (2933 words)

 Kelly Thrippleton Research
The absolute and relative mass of sample injected into the system was calculated by Coomassie Blue analysis of collected fractions and from the integrated areas of the peaks obtained from the diode array detector respectively (Figure 1c-e).
The degree of depletion of copper from hemocyanin was calculated from the protein-normalized samples using the following expression, (1-[(apo-hemocyanin ng Cu/µg protein)/(hemocyanin ng Cu/µg protein)]) x 100%.
Purified and isolated Helix aspersa hemocyanin/apo-hemocyanin absorbance ratios at 280, 254, and 350 nm.
www.csulb.edu /~zedmason/students/current/research/kellythrippleton/kthrippleton_results.html   (317 words)

 SDS-induced Phenoloxidase Activity of Hemocyanins from Limulus polyphemus, Eurypelma californicum, and Cancer magister ...
Hemocyanins are large multisubunit copper proteins composed of different subunit types and found freely dissolved in the hemolymph
californicum hemocyanin (1 and 5), purified subunits bc (2 and 6), purified subunit d (3 and 7), and purified subunit e (4 and 8).
Nellaiappan and Sugumaran (12) is exhibited by hemocyanin.
www.jbc.org /cgi/content/full/276/21/17796   (2580 words)

 Nora Terwilliger
The hemocyanin gene family provides a fertile opportunity to explore new proteins with new functions, and we are currently studying three related proteins that play separate and significant roles in the developmental physiology of the Dungeness crab, Cancer magister.
We are currently investigating the role of hypoxia in hemocyanin expression in crustaceans at both the cellular and the organismal level.
Additionally, we are studying the dynamics of synthesis of hemocyanin and cryptocyanin at the molecular, tissue and organismal level, including differential responses to hormonal regulation.
biology.uoregon.edu /people/Terwilliger.html   (704 words)

 SICB - 2004 meeting - Abstract Details   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Hemocyanin is a copper-containing, extracellular blood protein that combines reversibly with oxygen.
Cryptocyanin is a copper-free hexameric protein similar in sequence and structure to hemocyanin that is involved in molting.
Hemocyanins of both isopods have phenoloxidase activity, and there is apparently no other phenoloxidase in the hemolymph, consistent with Pless et al.
www.sicb.org /meetings/2004/schedule/abstractdetails.php3?id=639   (267 words)

 A hemocyanin from the Onychophora and the emergence of respiratory proteins -- Kusche et al. 99 (16): 10545 -- ...
A hemocyanin from the Onychophora and the emergence of respiratory proteins -- Kusche et al.
The simplified tree was deduced from the analyses of an amino acid alignment of the Epiperipatus hemocyanin with seven chelicerate, three myriapod, six crustacean, and one insect hemocyanins (Fig.
the emergence of the hemocyanins preceded the divergence of
www.pnas.org /cgi/content/full/99/16/10545   (2289 words)

 Publications   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
(1995) Three-dimensional reconstruction of the hemocyanin of the protobranch bivalve mollusc Nucula hanleyi from frozen-hydrated specimens.
(1994) Three-dimensional reconstruction from frozen-hydrated specimen of the hemocyanin of the chiton Lepidochiton sp.
Three-dimensional reconstruction of molluscan hemocyanins from frozen-hydrated specimens.
www.lmcp.jussieu.fr /~nboisset/Publications.html   (3805 words)

 Synchrotron SAXS Studies on the Structural Stability of Carcinus aestuarii Hemocyanin in Solution -- Spinozzi et al. 85 ...
Guanidinium chloride induced unfolding of a hemocyanin subunit from Carcinus aestuarii.
On the stability of the 24-meric hemocyanin from Eurypelma californicum.
Molecular heterogeneity of the hemocyanin isolated from the king crab Paralithodes camtschaticae.
www.biophysj.org /cgi/content/full/85/4/2661   (5980 words)

 Horseshoe Crabs: The Animal   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Their blood contains a molecule call hemocyanin which carries oxygen throughout the crabs body.
Hemocyanin is very similar to the hemoglobin that human blood uses to carry oxygen and that gives our blood it's red color.
The main difference between these two molecules is that hemoglobin is an iron-based molecule whereas hemocyanin is based on copper.
www.mbl.edu /animals/Limulus/animal/breathe.html   (344 words)

 Temperature Effects on Hemocyanin Oxygen Binding in an Antarctic Cephalopod -- Zielinski et al. 200 (1): 67 -- The ...
The concentration of hemocyanin in native blood (hemolymph)
Depiction of oxygen-binding properties of Sepia officinalis hemocyanin at temperatures between 0 and 20 °C in a pH/saturation diagram.
Hemocyanin levels in Octopus vulgaris and the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis from the Aegean sea.
www.biolbull.org /cgi/content/full/200/1/67   (4121 words)

 carrier1   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Hemocyanin obtained from different mollusks, haven proven to be highly immunogenic in vertebrates, due to their high molecular size (Mr 8.0 x10
A hemocyanin molecule usually accepts up to 100 hapten molecules without losing immunogenicity.
Due to its size, hemocyanin loses water solubility after liophilization; this does not affect its immunogenicity but hampers the determination of the degree of substitution with proteins and haptens, even after removing the insoluble particles.
www.biosonda.cl /carri1.html   (248 words)

 Hemocyanin -- Facts, Info, and Encyclopedia article   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
They are second only to (A hemoprotein composed of globin and heme that gives red blood cells their characteristic color; function primarily to transport oxygen from the lungs to the body tissues) hemoglobin in biological popularity of use in oxygen transport.
Hemocyanin is made of individual subunit proteins, each of which contains two (A ductile malleable reddish-brown corrosion-resistant diamagnetic metallic element; occurs in various minerals but is the only metal that occurs abundantly in large masses; used as an electrical and thermal conductor) copper atoms and can bind one oxygen molecule (O
Each subunit weighs about 75 (Click link for more info and facts about kilodaltons) kilodaltons (kDa).
www.absoluteastronomy.com /encyclopedia/h/he/hemocyanin.htm   (234 words)

 TONMO.com Forums - Fresh Water
He theorized that the lack of freshwater cephs is due to their use of hemocyanin as their circulatory fluid.
Hemocyanin serves as a good transport, but has a low affinity for, oxygen.
There are certainly plenty of freshwater and land inverts that use it for O2 transport, so it seems like in and of itself it's not a big limiter-- although most freshwater molluscs are pretty sluggish, and a lot of insects are quite fast and active...
www.tonmo.com /forums/printthread.php?t=3673   (1171 words)

 Ontogeny of decapod crustacean hemocyanin: effects of temperature and nutrition -- Terwilliger and Dumler 204 (5): 1013 ...
Hemocyanin is present throughout the decapod crustacean's life, usually as
from hemocyanin of oocyte and adult crab and may represent the onset of
magister, culminating in the pattern of adult hemocyanin.
jeb.biologists.org /cgi/content/abstract/204/5/1013   (276 words)

 Functional Conversion of Hemocyanin to Phenoloxidase by Horseshoe Crab Antimicrobial Peptides -- Nagai et al. 276 (29): ...
Conversion of Hemocyanin to Phenoloxidase by Antimicrobial Peptides-- Tachypleus hemocyanin is composed of at least six subunits having the same molecular mass of 70 kDa on SDS-polyacrylamide
Hemocyanin was also incubated with 0.1% SDS as a positive control (g) or WGA as a negative control (h).
The background activity of the unactivated hemocyanin was subtracted from each apparent phenoloxidase activity induced.
www.jbc.org /cgi/content/full/276/29/27166   (3067 words)

 Publications by Karen Magnus.
The six entries below are the primary repositories of the nine protein structures of hemocyanin and profilin we have determined.
Magnus, K.A. (2001) Hemocyanins from Arthropods and Molluscs In "Handbook of Metalloproteins", A. Messerschmidt, R. Huber, T. Poulos and K. Wiegherdt, Eds., John Wiley R Sons, Ltd., Chinchester.
Magnus, K.A., Ton-That, H. and Carpenter, J.E. (1993) Three-dimensional Structure of the Oxygenated Form of the Hemocyanin Subunit II of Limulus polyphemus at Atomic Resolution.
moray.ml.duke.edu /projects/Magnus/publications   (759 words)

 COBRE II - Bonaventura Lab - Mayaguez, PR   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Hemocyanin of the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus: a temperature-jump study of the oxygen kinetics of the isolated components.
Hemocyanins in Spiders, XIII: Kinetics of oxygen dissociation from individual subunits of Eurypelma and Cupiennius hemocyanins.
Self-association and oxygen-binding characteristics of the isolated subunits of Limulus polyphemus hemocyanin.
www.uprm.edu /~jbonaventura/joescv.html   (3866 words)

 Jahrbuch-CD der MPG 2003 - Oligomeric stability of Rapana
The stability of RvH isoforms under varying ionic conditions is compared with the stability of keyhole limpet (KLH, Megathura crenulata) hemocyanin (KLH) and Haliotis tuberculata hemocyanin (HtH) isoforms.
The process of dissociation and reassociation is connected with changes of the fluorescence intensity at 600 nm, which can be explained by differences in opalescence of the solutions of these two isoforms.
Rapana venosa hemocyanin; copper protein; dissociation and reassociation of protein (hemocyanin); fluorescence study on hemocyanin
www.mpg.de /forschungsergebnisse/wissVeroeffentlichungen/archivListenJahrbuch/2003/65/publZIM11.html   (395 words)

 FB 21   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The one from the 24-meric tarantula hemocyanin may be resolved to a resolution of about 3A.
Not only oxygen but also an allosteric effector such as lactate was found to induce a conformational switch in the 12-meric hemocyanin from the American lobster.
The hemocyanin KLH from the keyhole limpet Megathura crenulata was also studied by SAXS and SANS (cooperation with Prof.
www.uni-mainz.de /Organisationen/MWFZ/Jahresbericht/FB21.html   (304 words)

Keyhole-limpet hemocyanin (immunocyanine) is a strong antigen/immunogenic compound being investigated as an intravesical agent.
An average sized animal provides aproximately 5mg/ml hemocyanin and can be isolated in a relatively pure state from the hemolymph of the giant mollusks.
Although the results from newer intravesical therapies such as IFN, KLH, bropirimine, and PDT are encouraging, to date they have only proven to be useful in the therapy and prophylaxis of superficial TCC and long-term data on the prevention of recurrence, disease progression, and survival are unknown.
blcwebcafe.org /klh.asp   (1227 words)

 The Biological Bulletin: Temperature Effects on Hemocyanin Oxygen Binding in an Antarctic Cephalopod.(Statistical Data ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The functional relevance of oxygen transport by hemocyanin of the Antarctic octopod Megaleledone senoi and of the eurythermal cuttlefish Sepia officinalis was analyzed by continuous and simultaneous recordings of changes in pH and hemocyanin oxygen saturation in whole blood at various temperatures.
These data were compared to literature data on other temperate and cold-water cephalopods (octopods and giant squid).
In S. officinalis, the oxygen affinity of hemocyanin changed at [delta][P.sub.50]/[degrees]C = 0.12 kPa (pH 7.4) with increasing...
www.highbeam.com /library/doc0.asp?DOCID=1G1:72412247&refid=ip_encyclopedia_hf   (183 words)

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