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Topic: Hephthalite


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  Hephthalite - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The term Hephthalite derives from Greek, supposedly a rendering of Hayathelite (from the term Haital = "Big/Powerful" in the dialect of Bukhara), the name used by Persian writers to refer to a 6th century empire on the northern and eastern periphery of their land.
From this time on they came to be called Hephthalites, but meanwhile the rest of the Huer and Alchoni under Sarosios's father strengthened their position in Khwarezmia to conquer the dregs of Attila's Hunnic empire in the west.
The Hephthalites, or Huna as they were known in India, established themselves in Afghanistan by the first half of the fifth century, with their capital at Bamiyan.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Hephthalite   (1062 words)

  
 Hephthalite - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
de:Hephthaliten The term Hephthalite derives from Greek, supposedly a rendering of "Hayathelite", the name used by Persian writers to refer to a 6th century empire on the northern and eastern periphery of their land.
The Eastern Huer or Hephthalite control of Uighuristan was achieved between 541 and 545 during the reign of Ye-Tai-Yi-Li-Tuo's successor Toramana 2 which is why some scholars say Avar rule began in the area from this time.
It was apparently during the reign of Ye-dai-yi-li-tuo that there was a split resulting in the western portions of Huer and Alchoni relocating their interests in the Volga region of Europe as the Avars.
www.encyclopedia-online.info /White_Hun   (938 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
But whatever their origins might have been, by the year 500 branch empires of the Hephthalites controlled an area stretching south from Transoxiana to the Arabian Sea, and as far west as Khurasan (the eastern-most part of the Sassanian empire), and all of northern India to the east.
The Hephthalites have been portrayed as virulently anti-Buddhist, a claim based primarily on a description of a Hephthalite ruler of Gandhara recorded by Song Yun and Huisheng: "The nature of the king is violent and cruel, very often conducting massacres.
Hephthalite centers are at Ghur, Balkh, Warwaliz (north of today's Kunduz near the source of the Oxus) and Hsi-mo-ta-lo.
depts.washington.edu /uwch/silkroad/exhibit/hephthalites/essay.html   (1071 words)

  
 Iranica.com - HEPHTHALITES
Procopius claims that the Hephthalites live in a prosperous territory, are the only Huns with fair complexions, do not live as nomads, acknowledge a single king, observe a well-regulated constitution, and behave justly towards neighboring states.
When Kawa@d (488-96) succeeded in Iran, he was deposed and imprisoned; but he escaped, and, benefiting from his acquaintance with the Hephthalites, amongst whom he had lived as a hostage after the defeat of Pe@ro@z, obtained the help of their ruler and a military contingent, enabling him to recover the Sasanian throne.
It is also claimed that the tribe of the Gurjaras accompanied the Hephthalite invaders, giving their name to various localities on their route to Gujarat, and that they are ancestral also to the Gujar pastoralists who today frequent the higher elevations of the North-West Frontier Province and Kashmir.
www.iranica.com /articles/v12f2/v12f2036.html   (1903 words)

  
 The White Huns - The Hephthalites
In 484 the Hephthalite chief Akhshunwar led his army attacked the Sassanian King Peroz (459-484) and the king was defeated and killed in Khurasan.
Under the Hephthalite control, the Bactrian script and language continued to be used and trade and commerce flourished as previously.
Most scholars believe it is Iranian for the Pei Shih states that the language of the Hephthalites differs from those of the Juan-juan (Mongoloid) and of the "various Hu" (Turkic); however there are some think the Hephthalites spoke Mongol tongues like the Hsien-pi (3rd century) and the Juan-juan (5th century) and the Avars (6th-9th century).
www.silk-road.com /artl/heph.shtml   (1209 words)

  
 Hephthalite   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The Eastern Huer or Hephthalite control of Uighuristan was achieved between 541 and 545, during the reign of Ye-Tai-Yi-Li-Tuo's successor Toramana II, which is why some scholars say Avar rule began in the area from this time.
The Indian emperor Skandagupta repelled a Huna invasion in 455, but the Hephthalites continued to pressure India's northwest frontier, and broke through into northern India by the end of the fifth century, hastening the disintegration of the Gupta empire.
The Hephthalite ruler Toramana established his rule over northern India, and was succeeded by his son Mihirakula in 520.
hallencyclopedia.com /Hephthalite   (1297 words)

  
 Central Asia during the early Middle Ages - Introduction
The date of the creation of the Hephthalite state on the territory of Central Asia is assigned to the 50’s of the V c.
Hephthalites successfully repelled the attacks upon their territory of the Sassanian Shakh Peroz (454-484 AD), who himself fell into their hands during the final campaign.
It is possible that the leaders of the Hephthalite tribes assumed the authority with the support of the aristocracy of the agricultural oases.
www.kroraina.com /ca/ca_intro.html   (2681 words)

  
 Hunas - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Billon drachm of the Hephthalite King Napki Malka (Afghanistan/ Gandhara, c.
The Hunas, (or Alchon but inaccurately Indo-Hephthalites), as they were known in India, seem to have been part of the Hephthalites group, who established themselves in Afghanistan by the first half of the fifth century, with their capital at Bamiyan.
Gurjara origins and their relationship to the Hephthalites are not well documented, and subject to considerable debate.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Indo-Hephthalite   (417 words)

  
 M073
Piruz, with the help of a large Hephthalite army, defeated Hormazd in battle and took the throne (459 A.D.).
The Hephthalite Chief, Khush Nawaz was further antagonized by Piruz when he sent a commoner, instead of his daughter in hand of marriage.
In 484 another branch of the Hephthalites under the command of Khingila Khan attacked the Kushan Capital, Balkh.
www.aoti76.dsl.pipex.com /coins/g1/m073.htm   (451 words)

  
 N311
The Hephthalites were known as 'White Huns' due to a quotation in Procopius's History of the Wars, written in the mid 6th century.
In 484 the Hephthalite chief, Akhshunwar, attacked the Sassanian King Peroz (459-484), who was defeated and killed in Khurasan.
Kavad gained their support by marrying the niece of the Hephthalites chief which allowed him to regain his crown in 498.
www.aoti76.dsl.pipex.com /coins/in/n401.htm   (472 words)

  
 Hephthalite --¬† Encyclop√¶dia Britannica   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
In 400 a new wave of Central Asian nomads under the Hephthalites took control, only to be defeated in 565 by a coalition of Sasanids and Western Turks.
Under the Hephthalites and Sasanids, many of the Afghan princedoms were influenced by Hinduism.
Sasanian king (reigned 484–488), succeeding his brother Firuz I. Soon after he ascended the throne, Balash was threatened by the dominance of invading Hephthalites, a nomadic eastern tribe.
www.britannica.com /eb/article-9040081   (377 words)

  
 Hephthalite: Encyclopedia topic   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The term Hephthalite derives from Greek (Greek: A native or inhabitant of Greece), supposedly a rendering of Hayathelite, the name used by Persian (Persian: The language of Persia (Iran) in any of its ancient forms) writers to refer to a 6th century (6th century: (5th century - 6th century - 7th century - other centuries)...
From this time on they came to be called Hephthalites, but meanwhile the rest of the Huer and Alchoni (Alchoni: many historians consider the huns (meaning "person" in mongolian language) the first mongolian...
The Eastern Huer or Hephthalite control of Uyghuristan was achieved between 541 and 545, during the reign of Yedaiyiliduos successor Toramana II, which is why some scholars say Avar (Avar: there are two different people called avars:...
www.absoluteastronomy.com /reference/hephthalite   (1434 words)

  
 Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Indo-Hephthalites
The Indo-Hephthalites, or Hunas as they were known in India, where part of the Hephthalites group, who established themselves in Afghanistan by the first half of the fifth century, with their capital at Bamiyan.
The Gupta Indian emperor Skandagupta repelled a Huna invasion in 455, but the Hephthalites continued to pressure India's northwest frontier (present day Pakistan), and broke through into northern India by the end of the fifth century, hastening the disintegration of the Gupta empire.
The Hephthalite ruler Toramana established his rule over Pakistan and northern India, and was succeeded by his son Mihirakula in 520 whose capital was Sakala or modern day Sialkot in the Pakistani Punjab.
www.reference.com /browse/wiki/Indo-Hephthalites   (370 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Yet the fact that this and thirteen other Hephthalite coins like it were found among the relics of an important stupa mound paints a different picture.
If the Hephthalite rulers were in fact enemies of Buddhism, it seems doubtful that believers would have interred coins bearing their portraits and inscriptions.
A more likely scenario is that the Hephthalite at least tolerated the practice of Buddhism once their reign had been established, and may have supported it whenever it was politically beneficial to do so.
depts.washington.edu /uwch/silkroad/exhibit/hephthalites/k146162.html   (189 words)

  
 Sims-Williams --- Bactrian
The history of the period from the Sasanian Kushan-shahs to the arrival of the Arabs is illustrated by a second discovery.
Hephthalites" and here confirmed by first-hand evidence, was apparently typical of the region.
This agrees well with the statement of the text that the "Hephthalite tax" due on the property has been paid.
www.gengo.l.u-tokyo.ac.jp /~hkum/bactrian.html   (4539 words)

  
 HEPHTHALITE   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Some sources indicate that one branch of the Juan Juan was called Uar or Var, and they were placed at the head of the Uighurs after Juan Juan subjugation in 460.
Procopius called them "White Huns" while Simokattes calls them Uar and identifies them as the "real" Avars of the east and the true political force behind what he calls the "pseudo" Avars who eventually settled down in Transylvania.
It is licensed under the GNU free documentation license.
www.yotor.org /wiki/en/he/Hephthalite.htm   (788 words)

  
 History of Iran: Emperor Ardeshir and the cycle of history
It is difficult to determine the ethnic composition of Chionites or Hephthalites, but there is no evidence that the Chionites were different from the Hephthalites; rather the meagre evidence indicates that the Hephthalites may have stood in the same relation to the Chionites as the older Kushans did to the Yueh-chih.
Undoubtedly by the time of the Arab conquests, however, the Turkic elements among the Hephthalites had increased, but that was after the Turks themselves had appeared in the Near East.
It is, of course, possible to construct theories of history and of ethnic relationship on the basis of suggested etymologies of one or two words, but the lack not only of sources but of reliable traditions in the fragmentary information about Central Asia and eastern Iran in classical sources makes any theory highly speculative.
www.iranchamber.com /history/articles/emperor_ardeshir_history3.php   (3407 words)

  
 Pratihara   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The Pratiharas, also called the Gurjara-Pratiharas were an Indian dynasty who ruled kingdoms in Rajasthan and northern India from the sixth to the eleventh centuries.
The Pratiharas are generally thought to be descended from the Gurjara clan, who appeared in northern India in the aftermath of the Hephthalite or Huna invasion at the end of the fifth century.
Harichandra, a brahmin is said to have laid the foundation of this dynasty in the sixth century.
pda.molinu.com /wiki/en/pr/Pratihara.htm   (617 words)

  
 Kyrgyzstan history   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The struggle between tribes caused wars that resulted in break up of the Usuni tribal unions in the middle of the 1st century A.D. The writings by Strabon, Ptolemey and Zang Qian provide limited information on the history of Kyrgyzstan of the time of Usuni period.
At the end of the 5th century till beginning of the 6th century the territory of Kyrgyzstan was part of Hephthalite State that included also other territories of Central Asia including Afghanistan and Eastern Iran.
The break up of the Hephthalite State happened due to efforts of ancient Turk tribes of Altai who formed the Turkic Khanate in the middle of the 6th century.
www.asia-travel.uz /kyrgyzstan/history2.html   (572 words)

  
 Isamatov   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
In order to understand the social, political, and economic dynamics of the musical culture of the Iranian peoples of the Sassanid and Hephthalite eras, therefore, we must research the books that were authored, copied, or translated during the Samanid period.
The Hephthalite government, a superpower of that time, had created strong political and cultural ties with the countries of the world, especially with China.
Records indicate that between AD 507 and 531, the Hephthalites sent 13 embassies to the court of the Toba-Vays.
www.iles.umn.edu /faculty/bashiri/Borbad/Isamatov.html   (2254 words)

  
 H-Net Review: Charles C. Kolb on History of the Civilizations of Central Asia, Volume III: The ...
Kidarite socieconomic, political, monetary, commercial, and ideological characteristics are surveyed, and the author states that the Kiderites considered themselves to be the heirs of the Kushan kings and adopted Kushan heritage and traits.
Numismatics, Chinese pilgrim accounts by Fa-hsien and Hsuan-tsang, and Persian geographies are among the sources used to document the loss of international trade routes by the Kushans and Kidarites, and the latter state's transition from a satrapy political administration to a semi-feudal system which included slavery and the absorption of the caste system is addressed.
The Khalaj of western Turkestan were the political successors of the Hephthalites and are thought by some historians to be the present-day Pashto-speaking Ghilzai tribe of Afghanistan.
www.h-net.msu.edu /reviews/showrev.cgi?path=12484885938191   (4155 words)

  
 uar
They are supposed to have united around 460 under the rule of one of the 5 Yuezhi families - the Hephthal.
Simokattes's term Uar (also sometimes written War or Var) is quite reminicient of the Hephthalite's self designation Hua according to the Chinese classic Liang chih-kung-t'u and are identified as the "true" Avars of the east and the true political force behind what he calls the "pseudo" Avars who eventually settled down in Transylvania.
According to Theophylaktos Simokattes though the White Huns were initially composed of two nations: the Uar and the Hion tribes, they were also joined near the end of the 6th century by the Zabender, Tarnach and Kotzagerek Huns.
www.fact-library.com /uar.html   (301 words)

  
 iqexpand.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The Indian emperor Skandagupta repelled a Huna invasion in 455, but the Hephthalites continued to pressure India's northwest frontier (present day Pakistan), and broke through into northern India by the end of the fifth century, hastening the disintegration of the Gupta empire.
The term Hephthalite derives from Greek, supposedly a rendering of Hayathelite (from the term Haital = "Big/Powerful" in the dialect of Bukhara), the name used by Persian writers to refer to a 6th...
According to Procopius's History of the Wars, written in the mid 6th century - the...
hephthalite.iqexpand.com   (1223 words)

  
 TCS Daily - Horizontal Knowledge
If I'm curious about the Hephthalite huns or the rocket equation or how much money Fritz Hollings has gotten from the entertainment industry, I can have it in less time than it takes the barmaid to draw me a beer.
What's more, I can coordinate that sort of information (er, well, it might be kind of hard to tie those particular three facts together, but you take my meaning.
Because people thought it was cool enough (to them) to be worth the effort (on their part) of putting it online.
www.tcsdaily.com /article.aspx?id=060403A   (814 words)

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