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Topic: Heptatonic

In the News (Wed 24 Apr 19)

On the basis of her study of Mandinka (the Mandinka are the western-most branch of the Mande family) balafons in The Gambia, (Mandinka Balafon, p.
To give the reader an idea of what this entails, it useful to compare equidistant heptatonic tuning to Western major or minor scales, which also have seven tones but, as we will see, the intervals or distances between the tones are different.
Jessup's "equidistant heptatonic" tuning is an ideal mathematical model that does not necessarily correspond to how actual balas are tuned.
tcd.freehosting.net /djembemande/bala.html   (1950 words)

 Spartanburg SC | GoUpstate.com | Spartanburg Herald-Journal   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The specific notes used in a piece will be part of one of more than seventy modes or maqam rows named after characteristic tones which are rarely the first tone (unlike in European-influenced music theory where the tonic is listed first).
The rows are heptatonic and constructed from augmented, major, neutral, and minor seconds.
Many different but similar ratios are proposed for the frequency ratios of the tones of each row and performance practice, as of 1996, has not been investigated using electronic measurements.
www.goupstate.com /apps/pbcs.dll/section?category=NEWS&template=wiki&text=Arabian_tone_system   (429 words)

 Chinese Music - ninemsn Encarta
Melody and tone colour are prominent expressive features of Chinese music, and great emphasis is given to the proper articulation and inflection of each musical tone.
Most Chinese music is based on five-tone, or pentatonic, scales, but the seven-tone, or heptatonic, scale, is also used, often as an expansion of a basically pentatonic core.
The heptatonic scale is often encountered in northern Chinese folk music.
au.encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761558966/Chinese_Music.html   (993 words)

 heptatonic - any musical scale with 7 tones per octave
A scale with seven tones per octave is called a heptatonic scale.
The most typical examples of heptatonic scales are the usual diatonic major and minor scales, composed of 5 Large (L) steps and 2 small (s) steps (which in this case are synonymous with tone and semitone, respectively.
There are probably thousands of other heptatonic scales, 7 being one of the most important numbers of the Miller Limit.
tonalsoft.com /enc/h/heptatonic.aspx   (411 words)

Further theoretical studies on the reasons of existence of the Heptatonic scales seem to indicate that, given the musical aesthetics of modal musics, the number of seven intervals per octave corresponds to an optimum of scale generation.
heptatonism and pentatonism) find a new explanation through this theory, which appears to have a range of domains that still require exploration including modal verticality and modulations with displacement of the finalis as well as the study of Indian, Persian and ancient Greek music.
The exhaustive systematical tables of Arabic maqâmât (with intervals ranking from half-tone to one and a half tone) provided in the thesis may be used as the basis for a future comparative study between these different types of music.
www.beyhom.com /systematique/index_en.htm   (3050 words)

 Philip Tagg | Modality - EPMOW entry (2000)
Church modes presuppose: (i) the diatonic division of the octave into seven constituent pitches, five separated by a whole tone, two by a semitone; (ii) a tonal centre or ‘tonic’, which may sometimes be identified as a (real or potential) drone or as the final, or most frequently recurring, melodic note.
Many popular tonal practices cannot be categorised according to the diatonic framework of heptatonic church modes.
Other well-known, non-diatonic modes, such as the heptatonic ‘Gypsy’ mode (ascends 1 2 $3 #4 5 $6 #7) and the related ‘harmonic minor’ (1 2 $3 4 5 $6 #7), recur frequently in popular melody from the Balkans, while much popular melody (e.g.
www.tagg.org /articles/epmow/modality.html   (1078 words)

 The Rules of Musics
It has been well established by leading theorists that “gapped” scales preceded heptatonic (Bronson 1969) thus supporting the contention that pentatonic should be thought of as foundational rather than incomplete.
In heptatonic tunes, the 6th degree was the second least accented tone after the 7th degree.
The harmonic progression I-bVII-I, sometimes called a double tonic progression, was a common pipe tune progression; when viewed melodically, we hear arpeggios or phrases outlining the progression such as a phrase centered on the tonic and the phrase repeated centered on the flat-seven of the key.
www.dalhousielodge.org /Thesis/MUSICrules.htm   (1493 words)

 Explanation of Musical Modes
There are two common types of modal scales: pentatonic and heptatonic, meaning 5-tone and 7-tone, respectively.
Major and "natural" minor scales are two of a special (but common) kind of heptatonic scale known as diatonic.
They may be produced by playing the white keys of a piano from C to C or from A to A, respectively.
www.elvenminstrel.com /tolkien/modes.htm   (515 words)

 Tonal Organization of Venda Music III
Thus, in many melodies where there is a sequence of seven descending tones (as in Songs 39 and 46) we may be fairly confident that the first is not only the tonic of that particular row but also the final of the mode of which the whole melody is constructed.
I heard a heptatonic version of Song 17 by a solo singer, but am inclined to think that this was her own idiosyncrasy.
Song 48 is also hexatonic, but its chord sequences are related to the descending heptatonic melody of Song 16, of which it is in fact an alternative version.
www.qub.ac.uk /VendaGirls/VendaMusic/Mu_TO_Text3.html   (6056 words)

 The Kitchen Musician Site
The "modal" terminology works pretty well to makes sense of a lot of fiddle tunes, folk tunes, etc. which are in one key but seem to have the key signature for a different key.
But it doesn't quite work unless the tune is "heptatonic" - uses all seven tones, A through G (allowing for sharps or flats).
To bring back the math, we can have "heptatonic" = all seven tones are there; "hexatonic" = one tone is missing; "pentatonic" = two tones are missing; and so on.
www.kitchenmusician.net /tutor/tutor5a.html   (190 words)

 Body   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
The anhemitonic pentatonic scales of British Insular and Insular-American folksong usually are presented as five separate octave divisions that contain minor-third gaps created by the absence of tones from the traditional Western heptatonic modes.
Unlike other studies that disassociate folksong scales from the various heptatonic orderings, the present one does not defend a single dichotomy of major and minor tonality.
Rather, it is argued that a tune's relationship to the gamut is one of congruency.
home.earthlink.net /~llywarch/scl01.html.htm   (682 words)

 Tuning-Math Archive Section 9: 8325 - 8349
I think that we would hear it as heptatonic (due in no small part to the fact that we are so heptatonic-oriented, but on the other hand, I don't know how someone coming from a culture that uses only a pentatonic scale would interpret it).
I think that we > would hear it as heptatonic (due in no small part to the fact that we > are so heptatonic-oriented, but on the other hand, I don't know how > someone coming from a culture that uses only a pentatonic scale would > interpret it).
I recognize that a scale that is essentially a just dominant 9th chord makes it a little more difficult to imply any changes in the harmonic element other than alternation between 4:5:6 to 6:7:9 triads in an accompaniment.
www.robertinventor.com /tuning-math/s___9/msg_8325-8349.html   (7619 words)

 The Piagui Musical Scale: Perfecting Harmony
The origins of K and P are the ten tone frequencies found in the Pythagoras and Aristoxenus heptatonic scales.
Piagui and Tempered chord wave peaks of basic twenty-four triads are drawn by computer to demonstrate the true concords and discords respectively.
A concise explanation of the ancient Pythagoras and Aristoxenus heptatonic scales was made, emphasizing intervals between each two consecutive notes.
www.authorhouse.com /BookStore/ItemDetail~bookid~21407.aspx   (1174 words)

 Dodecaphony through the usage of polymodality
One clear example is to choose a heptatonic mode, and superimpose a “sister mode” upon the other symmetrical axis.
This mode would be as well a heptatonic mode and in the case of the tritone, is built upon the augmented fourth of the original mode.
Also the “sister mode” should consist of the five pitches which are not found in the original mode.
www.amrod.de /details/dodecaphony.html   (296 words)

 Venda Music: Musical Instruments
The Pedi would have heard the heptatonic national dance of the Venda, and borrowed from them the idea of playing reed-pipes in ensembles and then adapted it to their own scale system.
Later the Venda borrowed back for secular purposes the Pedi adaptation of their idea with the pentatonic scale, so that it has now become an integral part of their own culture.
The names of the heptatonic pipes are characteristically Venda, and the first to be tuned is phala, which is the key-note of every set and should be of the same pitch in the sets of all the headmen of a tribe.
era.anthropology.ac.uk /Era_Resources/Era/VendaGirls/VendaMusic/Mu_I_Text2.html   (841 words)

 Musical Nirvana - Introduction to Indian Classical Music
The treatise deals with the varied aspects of drama, including sections on dance and on music (particularly instrumental music), including tunings, scales, modal patterns and functions, instrument types, performance techniques, and accompaniment styles.
Bharata describes a music system based on modes (jati-s) that are scales (murcchana) based on the successive notes of two heptatonic scales (sadjagrama and madhymagrama).
A jati was mode in a scale (murcchana) which was drawn from either of two possible heptatonic parent scales: the sadja-grama (a scale based on the note, sadja) and the madhyama-grama (a scale based on the note, madhyama).
www.musicalnirvana.com /introduction/ancient_history3.html   (940 words)

 Modes in Traditional and Early Music
A Byzantine nun named Kassia, who wrote chants in the 9th century, used B as a reciting note in the Phrygian, for example.
The Glarean system is the basis for the heptatonic "ethnic mode" system given next.
Note: Basic scales refer to those that would result if a mode were placed so that it used only the white notes of a modern keyboard.
clem.mscd.edu /~yarrowp/MODEXh.html   (907 words)

 heptatonic xylophone
In conclusion, it should be noted that xylophone-family instruments are common throughout Africa, but the Mande balafon is unusual in that it uses a heptatonic (as opposed to the more universal...
Considered by many the precursor of the contemporary xylophone, this Mandinka heptatonic Balafon has 20 or 21 keys (professional version).
The kora is a 21 -string harp, the balafon is a xylophone with wooden keys and the ngoni is a...
www.depechmode.de /34542   (278 words)

 iCompositions - Forums
Not to get too complicated, but it is very similar to the ritsu scale, as they're both constructed using two tetrachords that only differ in that the second note of each tetrachord is flattened (as if derived from a minor scale).
I use that scale a lot in my Musashi "album." We would term the heptatonic version the C Phrygian mode.
C harmonic minor is C D E-flat F G A-flat B. C melodic minor is C D E-flat F G A B. The heptatonic version of ritsu has a B-flat (like C natural minor) but no A-flat.
www.icompositions.com /forums/viewtopic.php?p=24406   (1150 words)

 The Middle Muse, Mesopotamian Echoes in Archaic Greek Music
The ‘Symphonic Circle’ is my own coinage, suggestive and I hope colourful, for the heptatonic system of the Mesopotamian tablets, which relies on tuning by consonance (Greek symphônia), and which is arranged in a cycle.
In this chapter I tell the story of the discovery of the cuneiform musical tablets and the progressive reconstruction of the heptatonic cycle between 1960 and 1969 by Anne Kilmer (Berkeley), the late Oliver Gurney, and others.
Here only three phases of the heptatonic cycle survive, and Gurney and others have disputed the extent of reconstruction — through seven phases, so that all permutations are enumerated, or through eight, so that the first is repeated and a different sort of closure is achieved.
www.kingmixers.com /MiddleMuseAbstract.html   (2997 words)

 China: National Geographic World Music   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
This continuity of aesthetics has been remarkably constant throughout the history of Chinese music, and it's understanding is crucial to comprehending Chinese music.
The ancient Chinese defined, by mathematical means, a series of 12 frequencies (called the lü-lü) from which various sets of five, or six, or seven frequencies, pentatonic and heptatonic tones, were selected to make the major scale familiar to people the Western ear, But the Chinese aesthetics prefers to use interval rather than scale.
The 12 lü approximate the frequencies known in the West as F, G flat, G, E flat, and E. The ancient Chinese system of tuning encompasses the closest approximations to the just intervals.
worldmusic.nationalgeographic.com /worldmusic/view/page.basic/country/content.country/china_170?fs=plasma.nationalgeographic.com   (737 words)

Some centuries before Christ, the Pythagorean and Just Intonation heptatonic scales were derived from string lengths measurements and mathematical reasoning.
Early in the second millennium, composers and musicians realized that the needed harmony could not be achieved with only seven tones per octave so then each heptatonic scale led to an extended scale of twenty one tone frequencies to cover the octave range from Do = 1 to 2Do =2.
Analysts of musical scales transform the tone frequencies given in vibrations per second (HZ) to the ratios between any tone frequency and the frequency of Do.
www.geocities.com /piaguiscale/page.html   (1375 words)

 The Jakarta Post - The Journal of Indonesia Today
Abdul Syukur, who was awarded the title L'Officier de l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres by the French Embassy to Indonesia on Oct. 24, 2002, had to toil quite a while before he eventually won recognition of his talent.
Not everybody understands his music, penta- and heptatonic, meditative and stirring at the same time.
He was called "producer of sounds" or even "noise-maker" since he uses -- beside the conventional instruments -- unusual tones in his compositions, produced by mouth or nose by animals or engines, or almost anything else you can think of.
www.thejakartapost.com /yesterdaydetail.asp?fileid=20021203.S05   (1123 words)

 melodeon.net forums - To Club or de-Club, that is the question... - @ www.aimoo.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-20)
Guys, look at the heading of this forum, it clearly reads"for melodeons, diatonic accordions and related items".Diatonic is the heptatonic scales described in Encyclopaedia Britannica as"the seven "natural" pitches forming an octave devoid of...........
Guys, look at the heading of this forum, it clearly reads"for melodeons, diatonic accordions and related items".Diatonic is the heptatonic scales described in Encyclopaedia Britannica as"the seven "natural" pitches forming an octave devoid of chromatic alterations".So that reduces the forum to single rowers with low notes only.You are creating a camel out of a horse.Bill
Diatonic is the heptatonic scales described in Encyclopaedia Britannica as "the seven "natural" pitches forming an octave devoid of chromatic alterations".
www.aimoo.com /forum/postview.cfm?id=546320&CategoryID=270442&ThreadID=2486852   (1309 words)

 The Hindu : Entertainment / Music : Erudite lectures
The term audava, was derived from udu, star and is representative of sky, fifth in the five elements of nature.
Amongst the heptatonic or sampoorna scales, the ancestral ragas are Sankarabharanam, Kharaharapriya, Todi, Kalyani, Harikambodhi and Natabhairavi.
The six can be compared to gotras or familial groups of the Hindu system.
www.hindu.com /fr/2004/12/24/stories/2004122403410800.htm   (757 words)

The few raga-s, which use four swara-s are performed only rarely -- obviously due to their limited melodic potential.
On this basis, raga-s are classified into chatuswara [quadratonic], audava [pentatonic], shadava [hexatonic] and sampoorna [heptatonic].
Raga-s which use a different number of swara-s in the ascent and the descent are described by a dual description such as audava-sampoorna or a shadav-sampoorna.
wuwf.org /india/raga2.htm   (2245 words)

 The Gamelan
Out of curiosity, I go to my library and open my acoustic bible entitled: "On the sensations of Tone" by Hermann Helmholtz (this outstanding work was originally written in 1864, but republished in 1954 by Dover Publications).
I read that the Gamelan is a Javanese instrument which uses pentatonic and /or heptatonic scales : the so-called 'Saléndro' pentatonic scale (0,240,480,720,960,1200 cents) and/or the 'Pelog' heptatonic scale (0,137,446, 575, 687,820,1098 and 1200 cents).
So, in equal temperament, this 'rounded up' pentatonic scale would correspond to: D sharp, F, G, A sharp, C. As I am a curious person, by nature, I want to know how the Saléndro scale would sound if I was playing the real thing.
www.angelfire.com /music2/theanalogcottage/gamelan.htm   (738 words)

 Heptatonic scale - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In music, a heptatonic scale is any scale with seven (hepta) degrees.
Other heptatonic scales can be found in other forms of music, such as Hindustani classical music, although use of the term "scale" outside the field of Western functional harmony is controversial.
This page was last modified 01:24, 6 October 2006.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Heptatonic   (115 words)

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