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Topic: Herbicide

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  Herbicide resistant crops
Because herbicides cannot differentiate between plants that are crops and plants that are weeds, conventional agricultural systems can only use 'selective' herbicides.
herbicides are only useful before seedlings emerge or in special cases like fruit orchards, vineyards, and tree nurseries.
Herbicide resistant crops also facilitate low or no tillage cultural practices, which many consider to be more sustainable.
www.gmo-compass.org /eng/agri_biotechnology/breeding_aims/146.herbicide_resistant_crops.html   (584 words)

  Herbicidal Control - Plant Management in Florida Waters
This brief history of aquatic herbicide development tells the tale, from sea-salt and sulfuric acid used in the early years; to 2,4-D beginning in the 1940s; to endothall, fluridone and other newer compounds that were discovered and developed and are in use today.
Whenever agencies and companies apply aquatic herbicides, as a safety precaution, they place notices and posters in the area to inform the public of "water-use restrictions" that may be in effect after application; these vary from no use restrictions at all to restrictions lasting one month's time.
Herbicides and other pesticides are subjected to batteries of laboratory and field tests in order to better understand the pesticides' "mode of action", persistence, breakdown products, toxicity to non-target organisms and other characteristics in order to protect the environment and the public-at-large.
plants.ifas.ufl.edu /guide/herbcons.html   (1631 words)

  Herbicide Spray Drift
Herbicide spray drift is the movement of herbicide from the target area to areas where herbicide application was not intended.
Herbicide granules or dried particles of herbicides may move from the target area in high winds but are not considered important sources of herbicide drift.
Herbicides should not be applied when the wind is blowing toward an adjoining susceptible crop or a crop in a vulnerable stage of growth.
www.ag.ndsu.edu /pubs/plantsci/weeds/a657w.htm   (4018 words)

 Herbicide Mode of Action and Sugarbeet Injury Symptoms
Postemergence herbicide rate of uptake and amount absorbed often is determined by the chemical and physical relationships between the leaf surface and the herbicide.
Herbicides in the sulfonylurea, imidazolinone and sulfonamide families can move in both the xylem and phloem to areas of new growth and can be taken up through plant foliage and roots.
Herbicides in these families vary greatly in selectivity and may control annual and perennial broadleaf or grass weeds and may be soil or foliar applied.
www.ag.ndsu.edu /pubs/plantsci/rowcrops/a1085w.htm   (3220 words)

 Herbicide | Environmental Encyclopedia
Sometimes herbicides are not used to protect crops, but to reduce the quantity or height of vegetation, for example along highways and transmission corridors.
The reliance on herbicides to achieve these ends has increased greatly in recent decades, and the practice of chemical weed control appears to have become an entrenched component of the modern technological culture of humans, especially in agroecosystems.
Herbicides were most widely used, accounting for 68% of the total quantity [646 million lb per year [293 million kg/year]), and applied to 82% of the treated land [484,000 square miles per year (121 million hectares/year)].
www.bookrags.com /research/herbicide-enve-01   (414 words)

 Herbicide Formulations
In addition to providing the Consumer with a form of herbicide that is easy to handle, formulating a herbicide can enhance the phytotoxicity of the herbicide, improve the shelf-life (storage) of the herbicide, and protect the herbicide from adverse environmental conditions while in storage or transit.
Formulations vary according to the solubility of the herbicide active ingredient in water, oil and organic solvents, and the manner the formulation is applied (i.e., dispersed in a carrier such as water or applied as a dry formulation itself).
The primary advantages of this type of formulation are that the formulation is ready to use with simple application equipment (seeders or spreaders), and the drift potential is low because the particles are large and settle quickly.
www.ext.colostate.edu /pubs/crops/00558.html   (1127 words)

 herbicide accumulation in ponds
Herbicides are one of the primary methods of weed control used in container crops.
Because herbicides move little in bark-based media, and virtually no herbicide has been detected leaching from the bottom of containers, herbicide accumulation in retention ponds is a function of the amount of herbicide that falls between containers.
Because herbicides used in containers have low solubility and high coefficients of adsorption (Koc, the affinity for a chemical to bind to soil), it is likely that herbicides move while attached to some type of sediment.
oregonstate.edu /dept/nursery-weeds/feature_articles/herbicide_accum/herbicide_accumulation.html   (1545 words)

 Herbicides, Diabetes Linked in New Study David Brown / Washington Post 12oct00
Exposure to herbicides during the Vietnam War, especially the defoliant known as Agent Orange, may be associated with the development of diabetes later in life, according to a new report.
The association between herbicides and diabetes is "limited and suggestive" and far from certain, said a panel of experts convened by the National Academy of Sciences' Institute of Medicine.
Three of the eight diseases (or categories of diseases) officially considered to be associated with herbicide exposure got that designation on the basis of "limited/suggestive" scientific evidence, which is the strength of the evidence that exists with diabetes.
www.mindfully.org /Pesticide/Herbicides-Diabetes-Linked.htm   (686 words)

 Organic herbicide, organic weed control, natural weed killer
When a systemic herbicide is applied to a weed, it must penetrate the leaf surface and move through the plants vascular system to the site of action within the plant.
Herbicide additives can (1) reduce the surface tension of the carrier solution (2) improve retention and coverage of spray droplets on the leaf surface (3) increase herbicide absorbed rate (4) reduce the potential for herbicide induced plant stress and (5) reduce the need for over application of herbicides.
Overuse of chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides destroys soil biomass and depletes the soil.
www.ecochem.com /t_cb707.html   (666 words)

 Agent Orange - Herbicide Exposure (U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs)
These are the diseases which VA currently presumes resulted from exposure to herbicides like Agent Orange.
The law requires that some of these diseases be at least 10% disabling under VA's rating regulations within a deadline that began to run the day you left Vietnam.
(For purposes of this section, the term acute and subacute peripheral neuropathy means temporary peripheral neuropathy that appears within weeks or months of exposure to an herbicide agent and resolves within two years of the date of onset.)
www.vba.va.gov /bln/21/benefits/herbicide   (377 words)

 TASKFORCE® Herbicide
is a systemic herbicide with low contact activity as it is mainly taken up by the roots where it is translocated to other parts of the plant.
The herbicide acts very slowly and the first signs of the weeds dying may take up to 3 months - just dependent on factors such as soil type, rainfall etc. A major benefit of this herbicide is its ability to keep killing germinating seedlings for 3-4 years after initial treatment.
For more information please peruse this site or contact Bill Dobbie.
www.taskforceherbicide.com   (153 words)

 Bio-Tech Info - Herbicide Tolerance
Roundup-resistant weeds are cropping up -- The herbicide is so popular that it may not be as effective as it was initially.
Simon Barber's comments on: Triple herbicide tolerant canola found in Alberta, includes the origial Canadian government decision documents for the various herbicides, February 2000.
Resistance to the herbicide glyphosate, Nature 395: 25-27, September 3, 1998.
www.biotech-info.net /herbicide-tolerance.html   (3104 words)

 International Survey of Herbicide Resistant Weeds
Herbicide Resistance in Weeds PDF By: Nishanth Tharayil-Santhakumar, Plant andSoil Sciences University of Massachusetts Amherst, MA.
We aim to expand this section to include data on mutations that confer resistance to other herbicide modes of action.
HRAC has produced a poster illustrating the grouping of herbicides and their chemical structures.
www.weedscience.org /in.asp   (430 words)

 herbicide — FactMonster.com
In agriculture, selective herbicides are often used instead of tillage, or in combination with tillage and other agronomic practices, to control weeds without damaging crops.
Contact herbicides kill only the parts of the plant they touch; systemic herbicides are absorbed by foliage or roots and translocated to other parts of the plant.
Organic herbicides began to be produced in earnest with dinitrophenol compounds in 1932.
www.factmonster.com /ce6/sci/A0823452.html   (529 words)

 Herbicide Resistant Weeds
For example, after the extensive use of herbicide A in a field, selection of a weed biotype resistant to herbicide A is found to also be resistant to herbicide B, although herbicide B was never used in that field.
Herbicides that interfere with single sites of action are generally more likely to select for resistant weeds because a change in only one gene may be enough to affect a herbicide's binding potential to the site of action.
As a result, it is not possible to predict herbicide cross resistance; however, the greatest potential for herbicide cross resistance exists among herbicides of the same family and having the same site of action.
www.extension.umn.edu /distribution/cropsystems/DC6077.html   (3631 words)

 Weed Control Principles: Herbicide Resistance in Weeds
Experience since the herbicide revolution began in the 1940s indicates that some naturally occurring weed biotypes can be resistant to herbicides that are normally lethal to the majority of the population.
When a herbicide having a very site-specific mode of action (for example, a photosynthesis inhibitor) is applied to an area repeatedly over time, the portion of a weed population susceptible to that herbicide is gradually depleted.
Herbicide rotation - Herbicide rotation is generally practiced along with crop rotation, and as long as herbicides used in one crop have a different mode of action from those used in other crops in the rotation, it will be more difficult for resistant populations to become established.
ohioline.osu.edu /weeds/weeds_14.html   (667 words)

 G4907 Herbicide Resistance in Weeds, MU Extension
Weeds typically become resistant to herbicides when the same herbicide is used repeatedly for several (4 to 10) years in a row.
When the herbicide is used, the susceptible types are controlled, and then the smaller, resistant populations increase and reinfest the area.
How to identify herbicide resistance: As farmers learn about herbicide resistance, an unfortunate side effect is that some herbicide failures from bad weather, weeds that are too large or improper applications are considered herbicide-resistance problems.
extension.missouri.edu /explore/agguides/crops/g04907.htm   (3210 words)

 PLATEAU™ herbicide
PLATEAU herbicide may be applied at a rate of 4 to 8 oz per acre to established centipede grass for the control of annual broadleaf and grass weeds.
PLATEAU herbicide may be applied at the rate of 4 oz per acre to newly seeded crown vetch beds to aid in the establishment of vetch and reduce weed competition.
PLATEAU herbicide may be applied at the rate of 2 to 4 oz/A plus an adjuvant to aid in the establishment of sideoats and blue grama after new seedlings have emerged and reached the five (5) leaf stage.
www.turffiles.ncsu.edu /pubs/weeds/plateaula.htm   (10176 words)

  Herbicide Resistance Action Committee
The Herbicide Resistance Action Committee (HRAC) is an international body founded by the agrochemical industry as part of the GCPF organization.
The aims of HRAC have the general purpose of supporting a cooperative approach to the management of herbicide resistance.
HRAC is keen to support the establishment of a worldwide herbicide resistance database.
www.plantprotection.org /HRAC   (188 words)

 Herbicide Information, Wisconsin Manual of Control Recommendations for Ecologically Invasive Plants - WDNR   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Foliar spot applications of herbicide should be done uniformly with a hand sprayer, sponge applicator, or wick to ensure that the entire leaf is wetted.
Herbicide Licensing and Certification: The State of Wisconsin in many cases requires individuals involved in the application of pesticides to be certified and licensed.
Herbicide concentrations must be stored in their original container in good condition, with an attached legible label, preferably in locked storage.
www.dnr.state.wi.us /org/land/er/invasive/info/herbicides.htm   (1321 words)

 G4907 Herbicide Resistance in Weeds, MU Extension
Weeds typically become resistant to herbicides when the same herbicide is used repeatedly for several (4 to 10) years in a row.
When the herbicide is used, the susceptible types are controlled, and then the smaller, resistant populations increase and reinfest the area.
How to identify herbicide resistance: As farmers learn about herbicide resistance, an unfortunate side effect is that some herbicide failures from bad weather, weeds that are too large or improper applications are considered herbicide-resistance problems.
muextension.missouri.edu /explore/agguides/crops/g04907.htm   (3210 words)

 Herbicide Resistant Weeds
Herbicides work by disrupting biological pathways that allow plants to produce sugars and others compounds that are needed for growth.
Herbicide performance is a complex issue that is influenced by many factors.
Herbicides simply select for herbicide-resistant individuals that already occur in the population by controlling susceptible plants and allowing the resistant plants to survive and reproduce.
edis.ifas.ufl.edu /AG239   (1810 words)

 Top 10 reasons your preemergence herbicide failed
Herbicide labels contain a lot of information about application timing, rates, spray volume, soil conditions, and how to incorporate or activate the herbicide.
After applying the recommended herbicide rate (assuming uniform application and incorporation), there should be a chemical barrier in the soil with sufficient herbicide concentration that weeds will be inhibited from growing for roughly 3 to 5 months (depending on the herbicide).
Herbicides registered for use in nursery crops will not kill existing weeds (except for spray-applied Goal, which is only labeled for conifers or directed sprays).
oregonstate.edu /dept/nursery-weeds/feature_articles/top_10/Top_10_reasons.html   (1989 words)

 P1907 Herbicide Resistance - Prevention and Detection
Herbicide labels and weed response tables provide growers with this information, but there is also variation in control within a particular genus or species.
Confirming herbicide resistance in a weed population is a slow process.
This information can be useful to plan weed control tactics that include herbicide rotation so herbicides with similar modes of action or in the same families are not repeatedly used year after year.
msucares.com /pubs/publications/p1907.htm   (1248 words)

 Herbicide Basics
There are selective herbicides that will only work on certain plants and there are non-selective herbicides that will affect any plant on which it is used.
Use an herbicide to kill it during the growing season only if is threatening to choke out your desirable grasses.
Preen is a great preemergent herbicide for use in flower beds, but make sure you check the long list of safe plants before you use it.
www.bachmans.com /retail/tipsheets/Chemicals_and_Fertilizers/HerbicideBasics.cfm   (994 words)

 GEO-PIE Project: Herbicide resistance
Broad-spectrum herbicides are most often applied pre-emergence-- that is, the field is sprayed to kill all of the weeds before newly-planted crops emerge in the field.
Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide-- that is, all green plants are killed by glyphosate.
Sulfonylureas are not broad-spectrum herbicides, and are often applied by cereal farmers to control broadleaf weeds.
www.geo-pie.cornell.edu /traits/herbres.html   (1168 words)

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