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Topic: Hierarchical Routing


  
  Hierarchical routing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Hierarchical routing: Routing that is based on hierarchical addressing.
Note: Most Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) routing is based on a two-level hierarchical routing in which an IP address is divided into a network portion and a host portion.
Additional levels of hierarchical routing are introduced by the addition of subnetworks.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Hierarchical_routing   (95 words)

  
 Routing Basics
Routing is the act of moving information across an internetwork from a source to a destination.
A metric is a standard of measurement, such as path bandwidth, that is used by routing algorithms to determine the optimal path to a destination.
Routing algorithms should also be flexible, which means that they should quickly and accurately adapt to a variety of network circumstances.
www.cisco.com /univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/ito_doc/routing.htm   (2969 words)

  
 RFC (Request for Comments) 2008   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Hierarchical routing works by taking the set of addresses covered by a portion of the topology, and generating a single routing advertisement (route) for the entire set.
A common example of hierarchical routing is the phone network, where country codes, area codes, exchanges, and finally subscriber lines are different levels in the hierarchy.
Since the information that the routing system really needs is the location of the address within the topology, for hierarchical routing, the useful abstraction must capture the topological location of an address within the network.
www.rfc.ok.cl /rfc.nkt/2008   (4594 words)

  
 Howstuffworks "How Routing Algorithms Work"
In hierarchical routing, routers are classified in groups known as regions.
In three-level hierarchical routing, the network is classified into a number of clusters.
Hierarchical routing is widely used in Internet routing and makes use of several routing protocols.
computer.howstuffworks.com /routing-algorithm5.htm   (269 words)

  
 H. Dibowski - Hierarchical routing system using ant based control
The Hierarchical routing system therefore is designed to be a distributed routing system which consists of several parts where each of it is responsible for one network of the hierarchical network.
The route optimization is done with the ABC-algorithm, a decentralized routing algorithm, which uses intelligent agents which explore the network and find the shortest routes in time.
Routes, which start in one network of the hierarchical network and end in another network, are computed as composed route out of several routes.
www.kbs.twi.tudelft.nl /Publications/MSc/2003-Dubowski-MSc.html   (443 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
For each data message to be sent from a source s to a destination d, the proposed routing protocol chooses randomly each of three intermediate nodes from a selected set of network nodes, and routes the data message along a path from s through the three intermediate nodes to d.
There have been several proposals for hierarchical routing ([1], [4], [19], [21]), which vary in the way in which the nodes are organized and the routing schemes are used.
In a distance-vector routing algorithm, each node maintains a routing table and a distance vector, which contain, respectively, a preferred neighbor for the shortest path to each destination in the network and the distance of the path to the destination.
www.cs.uh.edu /~smbak/papers/I3CN99.DOC   (2762 words)

  
 26.1 Overview of Hierarchical Routing   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Hierarchical routing was mainly devised, among other things, to reduce memory requirements of simulations over very large topologies.
Optimum results were found for 3 levels of hierarchy and the current ns implementation supports upto a maximum of 3 levels of hierarchical routing.
To be able to use hierarchical routing for the simulations, we need to define the hierarchy of the topology as well as provide the nodes with hierarchical addressing.
www.isi.edu /nsnam/ns/doc-stable/node310.html   (177 words)

  
 Internet Exterior Routing Protocol Development: Problems, Issues, and Misconceptions
The fifth section presents a generic global hierarchical routing model which is introduced as a basis for discussion relative to both provider and geographic IP address allocation paradigms.
BGP allowed for policy-based routing, but these polices were determined by network administrators and enforced according to rules defined in router configuration files, and were not a part of the protocol [18].
The early development track for an IP exterior routing protocol concentrated on policy-based routing in a spanning-tree topology and was not a scalable meshed routing paradigm.
www.comsoc.org /~ni/private/1997/jul/Bass.html   (4747 words)

  
 26.2 Usage of Hierarchical routing
Hierarchical routing requires some additional features and mechanisms for the simualtion.
At the time of route computation, a call is made to add-hroute instead of the conventional add-route used for flat-routing.
Instead, for hierarchical routing, a given node needs to know about its neighbours in its own cluster, about the all clusters in its domain and about all the domains.
www.isi.edu /nsnam/ns/doc-stable/node311.html   (553 words)

  
 RFC 2008   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Hierarchical routing [Kleinrock 77] is a mechanism that improves the scaling properties of a routing system.
hierarchical routing allows this to be done recursively: multiple advertisements (routes) can be combined into a single advertisement (route).
Observe that the goal of hierarchical routing in the Internet is not to reduce the total amount of routing information in the Internet to the theoretically possible minimum, but just to contain the volume of routing information within the limits of technology,
library.n0i.net /rfc/html/rfc2008.html   (4376 words)

  
 RFC 2008 (rfc2008) - Implications of Various Address Allocation Policies f
Further, hierarchical routing allows this to be done recursively: multiple advertisements (routes) can be combined into a single advertisement (route).
Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) [RFC1518, RFC1519] has been deployed since late 1992 in the Public Internet as the primary mechanism to contain the growth rate of the routing information - without CIDR the Internet routing system would have already collapsed.
This reduces the routing information that needs to be carried by the Internet routing system (for more information, see Section 5.3.1 of RFC1518).
www.faqs.org /rfcs/rfc2008.html   (4541 words)

  
 Hierarchical Routing   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Routers within the same AS all run the same routing algorithm (for example, an LS or DV algorithm) and have information about each other--exactly as was the case in our idealized model in the previous section.
In order for gateway routers to route packets from one AS to another (possibly passing through multiple other ASs before reaching the destination AS), the gateways must know how to route (that is, determine routing paths) among themselves.
Assuming that A.d's routing table indicates that router A.c is responsible for routing its (A.d's) packets outside the AS, the packet is first routed from A.d to A.c using A's intra-AS routing protocol.
www.tele.sunyit.edu /hierarchical_routing.htm   (804 words)

  
 Optimization Of Hierarchical Routing Protocols - Rougier, Kofman, Gravey (ResearchIndex)
In a Hierarchical Routing protocol the network is divided into independent routing areas so that a node has complete routing information on its partition but only reduced routing information of the "outside world" (i.e.
Such routing protocols have been introduced in the early 80's in order to decrease the overhead of dynamic routing protocols in large networks.
In this paper, we concentrate on the negative impact of this hierarchical organization, namely the increase it induces on the call...
citeseer.ist.psu.edu /484583.html   (556 words)

  
 Zvon - RFC 1787 [Routing in a Multi-provider Internet] - Hierarchical Routing
One of the fundamental consequences of using hierarchical routing is that in order to preserve topological significance of network addresses, changes in the network topology may need to be accompanied by the corresponding changes in the addresses.
Multi-level hierarchical routing allows for recapturing additional routing information (routing entropy) due to the mismatch between addresses and topology at a particular level in the routing hierarchy at some higher level in the hierarchy (e.g., at an exchange point among providers).
The volume of routing information that a large organization would inject into the Internet routing system would be comparable to the (aggregated) routing information associated with a large number of small organizations.
www.zvon.org /tmRFC/RFC1787/Output/chapter6.html   (611 words)

  
 NetWare Link-Services Protocol (NLSP)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Routing information is transmitted only when the topology has changed, not every 60 seconds as RIP-based routers do, regardless of whether the topology has changed.
Hierarchical routing simplifies the process of enlarging a network by reducing the amount of information that every router must store and process to route packets within a domain.
A router sends hello packets when the circuit is first established, when a timer expires, or when the contents of the next hello to be transmitted are different than the contents of the previous hello transmitted by this system (and one or more seconds have elapsed since the previous hello).
www.pannick.com /univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/ito_doc/nlsp.htm   (2249 words)

  
 Hierarchical Routing Overhead in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Hierarchical techniques have long been known to afford scalability in networks.
Extensive analysis of the memory requirements of hierarchical routing was undertaken in the 1970s.
To derive an expression for \phi, the components of hierarchical routing that incur overhead as a result of hierarchical cluster formation and location management are identified.
csdl2.computer.org /persagen/DLAbsToc.jsp?resourcePath=/dl/trans/tm/&toc=comp/trans/tm/2004/01/h1toc.xml&DOI=10.1109/TMC.2004.1261816   (539 words)

  
 Internetworking   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Integrated Routing: Routing algorithms in MARA extend the techniques developed for link-vector algorithms and other types of algorithms to manage routing objects corresponding to links, nodes, distances to nodes, flows between nodes, or ATM virtual-path and virtual-channel layouts.
HIPR is based on the incremental exchange of hierarchical routing trees, and can be viewed as the first distributed version of Dijkstra's SPF algorithm running over a hierarchical graph.
Hierarchical labeling of each node makes implicit routing of acknowledgments simple and preserves loop-free routing of such acknowledgments over the ACK tree at all times.
www.cse.ucsc.edu /research/ccrg/projects/nice.html   (1712 words)

  
 R. Li - A simulation system for hierarchical routing using Ant Based Control
This algorithm is developed from the principles that ants use to find food in the nature, and it is especially suited to find solutions to difficult discrete optimization problems where the dynamic data changes very fast.
The hierarchical routing is mainly devised to reduce memory requirements of simulations over very large topologies.
The hierarchical routing system therefore consists of some distributed routing systems where each of them is responsible for one network of the hierarchical network.
www.kbs.twi.tudelft.nl /Publications/MSc/2004-Li-MSc.html   (374 words)

  
 BCP7   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
RFC 2008 October 1996 hierarchical routing allows this to be done recursively: multiple advertisements (routes) can be combined into a single advertisement (route).
RFC 2008 October 1996 4 Scaling the Internet routing system The enormous growth of the Public Internet places a heavy load on the Internet routing system.
RFC 2008 October 1996 "address ownership" policy, the organization would be able to use these addresses to gain access to the Internet routing services, regardless of where the organization connects to the Internet.
rfc.net /bcp0007.html   (4649 words)

  
 [No title]
For the organizations that could provide reachability to a sufficiently large Rekhter & Li Best Current Practice [Page 1] RFC 2008 October 1996 fraction of the total destinations in the Internet, and could express such reachability through a single IP address prefix the document suggests to use the "address ownership" policy.
Further, Rekhter & Li Best Current Practice [Page 2] RFC 2008 October 1996 hierarchical routing allows this to be done recursively: multiple advertisements (routes) can be combined into a single advertisement (route).
The process of changing an entity's address is known as "renumbering." Rekhter & Li Best Current Practice [Page 3] RFC 2008 October 1996 4 Scaling the Internet routing system The enormous growth of the Public Internet places a heavy load on the Internet routing system.
www.ietf.org /rfc/rfc2008.txt   (4594 words)

  
 Hierarchical Routing Algorithms   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
This is the start of a demonstration of effect of incidents on the choices made by the routing algorithms.
The routing algorithm routes around the incident to suggest the blue path as the new smallest travel time path.
The old optimal path prior to the incident is shown in red for comparison.
www.cs.umn.edu /research/shashi-group/slide/routing.html   (319 words)

  
 Loop-Free Internet Routing Using Hierarchical Routing Trees - Murthy, Garcia-Luna-Aceves (ResearchIndex)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Abstract: We present a new hierarchical routing algorithm that combines the loop-free path-finding algorithm (LPA) with the area-based hierarchical routing scheme first proposed by McQuillan for distance-vector algorithms.
The new algorithm, which we call the Hierarchical Information Path-based Routing (HIPR) algorithm, accommodates an arbitrary number of aggregation levels and can be viewed as a distributed version of Dijkstra's algorithm running over a hierarchical graph.
proposed an area based hierarchical routing algorithm called HIPR that is based on McQuillian s clustering scheme and the loop free...
citeseer.ist.psu.edu /65693.html   (599 words)

  
 26. Hierarchical Routing   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
This chapter describes the internals of hierarchical routing implemented in.
In the first section we give an overview of hierarchical routing.
In the second section we walk through the API's used for setting hierarchical routing and describe the architecture, internals and code path for hier rtg in the process.
www.isi.edu /nsnam/ns/doc-stable/node309.html   (66 words)

  
 Hierarchical routing in traffic networks
Hierarchical routing system therefore consists of several distributed Routing
The route optimization is done with an adapted version of the
agents that explore the network and find the shortest routes in time.
proceedings.eldoc.ub.rug.nl /HOME/bnaic/2004/pt1/hierarchical?pPrint=ON   (85 words)

  
 Stars: A Simulator For Performance Study Of Aggregation Based Hierarchical Routing - Awerbuch, Du, Shavitt ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Abstract: In this paper we describe STARS, the Scalable Topology Aggregation Routing Simulator, for performance study of aggregation based hierarchical routing that is proposed as a scalable routing solution for future large size networks.
Adopted by ATM PNNI standards, aggregation based hierarchical routing approach maintains summary (or aggregation) information of lower level topologies at hierarchy nodes.
Stars: A simulator for performance study of aggregation based hierarchical routing.
citeseer.ist.psu.edu /awerbuch98stars.html   (365 words)

  
 ipv6/def/H/hierarchical_routing.html   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
The complex problem of routing on large networks can be simplified by reducing the size of the networks.
This is accomplished by breaking a network into a hierarchy of networks, where each level is responsible for its own routing.
The backbones know how to route between the mid-levels, the mid-levels know how to route between the sites, and each site (being an autonomous system) knows how to route internally.
www.cs.utk.edu /~deane/ipv6/def/H/hierarchical_routing.html   (97 words)

  
 Hierarchical Routing for Multi-Layer Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks with UAVs - Gu, Pei, Ly, Gerla, Hong (ResearchIndex)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
A recent theoretical study shows that the throughput furnished to each user is rapidly reduced as network size is increased.
In order to solve this problem, we extended the Hierarchical State Routing scheme to a hierarchical multilayer environment.
Daniel Lihui Gu, Guangyu Pei, Henry Ly, Mario Gerla and Xiaoyan Hong, "Hierarchical Routing for MultiLayer Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks with UAVs", To appear in Proceedings of IEEE Milcom 2000.
citeseer.ist.psu.edu /gu00hierarchical.html   (523 words)

  
 IPv6 Hierarchical Routing (Cont.)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-08)
Hierarchical routing requires that the address assignment reflects the network topology.
Consequently, as the network topology changes, address may need to be changed.
The adoption of hierarchical routing to scale the Internet routing system requires simple, low cost renumbering technology.
www.unm.edu /~network/presentations/course/appendix/appendix_b/tsld005.htm   (40 words)

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