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Topic: High German consonant shift


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In the News (Wed 17 Apr 19)

  
  Germanic
The pre-history of the Germanic language family, and therefore also of Dutch, is the subject of comparative historical linguistics.
Germanic forms one branch in the history of the so-called Indo-European language family.
The sound shift began in the south of the German-speaking areas, and spread north as far as the so-called "Benrather Line.
www.ned.univie.ac.at /Publicaties/taalgeschiedenis/en/germaans.htm   (808 words)

  
  High German consonant shift - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This phenomenon is known as the "High German" consonant shift because it affects the High German dialects (i.e.
It is also known as the "second Germanic" consonant shift to distinguish it from the "(first) Germanic consonant shift" as defined by Grimm's law and the refinement of this known as Verner's law.
Some of the consonant shifts resulting from the second and third phases appear also to be observable in Lombardic, the early mediaeval Germanic language of northern Italy, which is preserved in runic fragments of the late 6th and early 7th centuries.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/High_German_consonant_shift   (2469 words)

  
 Germanic languages - QuickSeek Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
Consisting of a regular shifting of consonants in groups, the sound shift had already occurred by the time adequate records of the various Germanic languages began to be made in the 7th to 9th cent.
All Germanic languages are thought to be descended from a hypothetical Proto-Germanic, united by their having been subjected to the sound shifts of Grimm's law and Verner's law.
During the early Middle Ages, the West Germanic languages were separated by the insular development of Middle English on one hand, and by the High German consonant shift on the continent on the other, resulting in Upper German and Low German, with graded intermediate Central German dialects.
germaniclanguages.quickseek.com   (2189 words)

  
 German language. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
This sound shift affected the southern areas, which are more elevated and hence referred to as the High German region, whereas it left untouched the Low German prevalent in the lowland regions of the North.
German dialects that differ substantially from standard German, not only in pronunciation but also in grammar, are found in regions of Germany, E France, Switzerland, and Liechtenstein; Lëtzeburgesch, an official language of Luxembourg, is a German dialect spoken by about 400,000 people there.
Although dialectal differences within both the High German and Low German regions remain, a trend toward uniformity in the direction of the written standard is expected partly as a result of widespread broadcasting, diminishing isolation, and increased socioeconomic mobility.
www.bartleby.com /65/ge/Germanla.html   (810 words)

  
 (21) History, language and the civilization of the British Isles; and the Germanic languages.
The North Germanic people moved towards Jutland and the North Sea Germanic group crossed the North Sea and settled in England (they were Angles, Saxons and Jutes).
After the great Germanic tribal migration of the 4th century AD the proto-Germanic language took the shape of several Germanic languages.
According to the development of German language it could be divided into four periods: Old period (700 to 1000), Middle period (1000 to 1300), Early Modern period (1300 to 1650) and Modern period (1650 onward).
encyclopediaofauthentichinduism.org /articles/21_history_language.htm   (516 words)

  
 Home > Jericho, NY, New York Yellow Pages, Classifieds, Real Estate, Business, Schools, Library and Jobs   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
German is spoken primarily in Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, in two-thirds of Switzerland, in the South Tyrol province of Italy (in German, Südtirol), in the small East Cantons of Belgium, and in some border villages of the South Jutland County (in German, Nordschleswig, in Danish, Sønderjylland) of Denmark.
The earliest testimonies of Old High German are from scattered Elder Futhark inscriptions, especially in Alemannic, from the 6th century, the earliest glosses (Abrogans) date to the 8th and the oldest coherent texts (the Hildebrandslied, the Muspilli and the Merseburg Incantations) to the 9th century.
German was once the lingua franca of central, eastern and northern Europe and remains one of the most popular foreign languages taught worldwide, and is more popular than French as a foreign language in Europe.
www.jerichonyus.com /profile/German_language   (4513 words)

  
 Germany - Culture
German literature can be traced back to the Middle Ages, in particular to such authors as Walter von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach.
The German language was once the lingua franca of central, eastern and northern Europe, and in Europe it is the second most popular language after English.
Today's standard language is based on High German rather than Low German; the latter has been given the status of a minority language by the European Union, although it is less used today in the traditionally Low German-speaking areas of northern Germany.
www.germany-data.com /Culture-4.html   (527 words)

  
 Grimm's law - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Grimm's law (also known as the First Germanic Sound Shift) is a set of statements describing the inherited Proto-Indo-European (PIE) stops as they developed in Proto-Germanic (PGmc, the common ancestor of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family) sometime in the 1st millennium BC.
It establishes a set of regular correspondences between early Germanic stops and fricatives (see: Consonant) and the stop consonants of certain other Indo-European languages (Grimm used mostly Latin and Greek for illustration).
For example, Germanic (word-initial) *b- corresponds regularly to Latin *f-, Greek pʰ-, Sanskrit bʰ-, Slavic, Baltic or Celtic b-, etc., while Germanic *f- corresponds to Latin, Greek, Sanskrit, Slavic and Baltic p- and to zero (no initial consonant) in Celtic.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Grimm's_Law   (795 words)

  
 German Resource Center - german shepherd
German is spoken primarily in Germany, Austria, Liechtenstein, in two-thirds of Switzerland, in two-thirds of the South Tyrol province of Italy (in German, Südtirol), in the small East Cantons of Belgium, and in some border villages of the South Jutland County (Nordschleswig) of Denmark.
German is the third most taught foreign language worldwide, also in the USA (after Spanish and French); it is the second most known foreign language in the EU (after English; see [1]) It is one of the official languages of the European Union.
The dialects of German which are or were primarily german moon german sheperd base spoken in colonies founded by German speaking people resemble the dialects of the regions the founders came from (for example Pennsylvania German resembles dialects of the Palatinate, or Hutterite German resembles dialects of Carinthia).
www.taxgloss.com /Tax-Banks_Cl_-_G-/German.html   (3500 words)

  
 German 101 > German Language > Classification
German is a member of the western branch of the Germanic family of languages, which in turn is part of the Indo-European language family.
German forms together with Dutch, its closest relative, a coherent and well-defined language area that is separated from its neighbors by language borders.
German is also the second language of the Internet, more than 8% of the websites are in German (English 50%, French 6%, Japanese 5%, Spanish 3% and Portuguese 2%).
www.101languages.net /german/classification.html   (578 words)

  
 bericht illmo us   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
in the north of the German speaking area, whereas High German and its dialects is the language spoken in the higher, i.e., the mountainous parts in the centre and the south of that area.
Middle Low German, the Low German used between ca 1200 and ca 1650, was the language of the Hanse, the famous and powerful commercial league of towns in the north of Germany, the west of the Netherlands, and the Baltic areas with settlements and offices in Flanders, England, Scandinavia, and Russia.
Modern Standard German, the variety foreigners learn at school when they choose German as one of their subjects, is originally derived from the so-called Meissen Chancellery Language, strictly speaking a clerks' language, which was rooted in the High German variety of the Meissen region, situated between the cities of Leipzig and Dresden.
www.uni-bielefeld.de /lili/personen/jwirrer/repus.htm   (6701 words)

  
 BACKGROUND   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
German is a West Germanic language, closely related to Dutch and English, with about 100 million native speakers in Germany, Austria and the northern parts of Switzerland, as well as small enclaves in Russia and neighbouring countries, in Romania, and in North and South America.
Standard German, Hochdeutsch (``High German'') should not to be confused with Hochdeutsch as a technical term for the group of Southern German dialects which underwent the High German Consonant Shift in the early middle ages.
Standard German is a superstrate which is associated historically with the formal speech of the educated classes in the Lutheran areas of North Germany.
coral.lili.uni-bielefeld.de /~gibbon/Hirst96/german96/node1.html   (337 words)

  
 Gothic language - QuickSeek Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
Gothic is rich in fricative consonants (although many of them may have been approximants, it's hard to separate the two) derived by the processes described in Grimm's law and Verner's law and characteristic of Germanic languages.
It is present where a nasal consonant is neutralised before a velar stop and is in a complementary distribution with [n] and [m].
One of the most striking characteristics of the East Germanic languages is the division of nouns between those with weak declensions (generally those where the root word ends in an n) and those with strong declensions (those whose roots end in a vowel or an inflexional suffix indicative of a pronoun).
gothiclanguage.quickseek.com   (4858 words)

  
 Top20Germany.com - Your Top20 Guide to Germany!
Jürgen Trittin (from the German Greens) as the Minister of Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, reached an agreement with energy companies on the gradual shut down of the country's nineteen nuclear power plants and a cessation of civil usage of nuclear power by 2020.
The territory of Germany stretches from the high mountains of the Alps (highest point: the Zugspitze at 2,962 m) in the south to the shores of the North Sea in the north-west and the Baltic Sea in the north-east.
9% of the population is not ethnically German.
www.top20germany.com   (4938 words)

  
 GER 4050 - Quiz 3   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
Give the dates between which the Old High German period is generally placed.
Trace the spread of the "high" German sound shift.
Standard modern German is considered to be an offspring of a "high" German dialect.
carbon.cudenver.edu /~tphillip/fonetix/ger4050quiz03.html   (623 words)

  
 THE HIGH GERMAN CONSONANT SHIFT   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
English and the Low German languages-Dutch, Flemish, and Plattdeutsch differ from Modern Standard German partly because Standard German has undergone a second or High German Consonant Shift.
English preserves the older common Germanic sounds which were changed in High German between the sixth and the eighth centuries.
Below are some English and High German cognates that show sound correspondence according to the Second Consonant Shift.
www.tutorpal.com /Our_English/germanic/high_consonant_shift.html   (103 words)

  
 Dutch 101 > Dutch Language > History
The West Germanic dialects can be divided according to tribe (Frisian, Saxon, Franconian, Bavarian and Swabian), and according to the extent of their participation in the High German consonant shift (Low German against High German).
Theodisk in modern German has become deutsch and in Dutch has become the two forms: duits, meaning German, and diets meaning something closer to Dutch but no longer in general use (see the diets article).
To this day, descendants of German settlers in Pennsylvania are known as the "Pennsylvania Dutch".
www.101languages.net /dutch/history.html   (585 words)

  
 Dutch Information Center - von dutch
Since it did not experience the High German consonant shift (apart from þ→d), it is sometimes classed as a Low German language, and indeed it is most closely related to the Low German dialects of Northern Germany.
Germans seem to have an advantage with the Dutch grammar, but suffer the same difficulties as the English when dealing with pronounciation.
Even though few true loanwords are present, German has had a considerable effect upon the lexicon of the language, mainly by the change of German words into words that seem Dutch (so called germanisme), a process probably to be ascribed to the likeness of the two languages.
www.scipeeps.com /Sci-Official_Languages_D_-_G/Dutch.html   (4344 words)

  
 Limburgish language - Wikipedia Light!
Limburgish, or Limburgian or Limburgic (Dutch: Limburgs, German: Limburgisch, French: Limbourgeois) is a group of Franconian varieties, spoken in the Limburg and Rhineland regions, near the common Dutch/Belgian/German border.
This difference is caused by a difference in definition: the linguists of the Low Countries define a Low German dialect as one that has not taken part in the first three phases of the High German consonant shift at all.
It is consensus to class it as belonging to High German varieties.
godseye.com /wiki/index.php?title=Limburgian   (596 words)

  
 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
Blending of several German dialects, primarily Rhenish Palatinate (Pfalzer) German, with syntactic elements of High German and English.
As distinct from Standard German as is Dutch (Stephens 1976), and not inherently intelligible with it.
German is considered to be a foreign language, not to be used with others who speak Luxembourgeois.
www.verbix.com /xml/germanic.xml   (1034 words)

  
 HighBeam Encyclopedia - Grimm's law   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
It shows that a process—the regular shifting of consonants in groups—took place once in the development of English and the other Low German languages and twice in German and the other High German languages.
The first sound shift, affecting both English and German, was from the early phonetic positions documented in the ancient, or classical, Indo-European languages (Sanskrit, Greek, Latin) to those still evident in the Low German languages, including English; the second shift affected only the High German languages, e.g., standard German.
Grimm's law shows that the classical voiceless stops (k,t,p) became voiceless aspirates (h,th,f) in English and mediae (h,d,f) in German, e.g., the initial sounds of Latin pater, English father, German Vater, and in the middle of Latin frater, English brother, German Bruder.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/g/grimmsla.asp   (360 words)

  
 Old High German
(Althochdeutsch) refers to the group of Germanic dialects that exhibited the High German Consonant Shift which originated in the highlands of southern Germany, Switzerland, Austria, and northern Italy.
Some dialects participated in this Shift only partially, so while they’re still "German", the dialects are called "Middle": such as Ripuarian Franconian (around Cologne) and Rhenish Franconian (around Frankfurt).
I've recorded the same prayer in each of the old Germanic languages to make comparison easier.
www.ancientworlds.net /aw/Post/777756   (513 words)

  
 Darwin-L Message Log 5: 141-185 (January 1994)
Darwin-L was not restricted to evolutionary biology nor to the work of Charles Darwin, but instead addressed the entire range of historical sciences from an explicitly comparative perspective, including evolutionary biology, historical linguistics, textual transmission and stemmatics, historical geology, systematics and phylogeny, archeology, paleontology, cosmology, historical geography, historical anthropology, and related “palaetiological” fields.
Still, even if (counterfactually) the French nasalized vowels were the result of the climate in which the language was spoken, I submit that this is not quite the same as saying that the language, as if it were some sort of organism, adapted to the regions it was spoken in.
Catford didn't claim that the effects of altitude would dictate lack of voiced consonants, but rather that there might be a tendency to devoice originally voiced consonants in a language whose speakers moved high up into the mountains.
rjohara.net /darwin/logs/1994/9401d   (7776 words)

  
 History Channel Search Results   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
It describes the pattern of two stages of sound changes, known as the German consonant shift and the High German consonant shift.
The first stage occurred between 2000 bc and ad 200, when certain consonants of the Germanic languages (to which English belongs) evolved from corresponding consonants in the Indo-European parent language.
Grimm’s law is important in that it demonstrates the development from the old Germanic languages of more recent languages such as English, Dutch, and Low German.
www.historychannel.com /thcsearch/thc_resourcedetail.do?encyc_id=210992   (289 words)

  
 Low Saxon (Plattdeutsch) language   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
Formerly a flourishing tongue, spoken in the rich cities of Hansa, it was later subject to strengthening influence of High German.
Its main difference from the High German language is the absence of the '2nd consonant shift' which took place in Old High German.
The nasal consonants were dropped lengthening the preceding vowel (Gous, fif vs. German Gans, fünf).
indoeuro.bizland.com /tree/germ/saxon.html   (346 words)

  
 page3   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-09-10)
1994: Ph.D. in Germanic linguistics, University of Wisconsin-Madison
“On the Germanic Verschärfung.” Berkeley Germanic Linguistics Roundtable.
German Culture and Civilization (general education course, taught in translation)
german.la.psu.edu /facger3/page3.htm   (518 words)

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