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Topic: High energy astronomy

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  High-Energy Astronomy
The first of NASA's three High Energy Astronomy Observatories, HEAO 1 was launched aboard an Atlas Centaur rocket on 12 August 1977 and operated until 9 January 1979.
The High Energy X-ray Timing Experiment is one of 3 common-user instruments on board the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) which was launched on 1995 December 30.
High Energy Astrophysics department at IKI, Moscow, is carrying out research in various fields of X-ray astronomy: physical processes in the vicinity of compact sources of x-ray emission, x-ray observations using Russian space observatories MIR/KVANT and GRANAT, development of scientific instrumentation for the SPECTRUM-X-GAMMA mission and ALPHA space station, participation in the INTEGRAL project.
www.cv.nrao.edu /fits/www/yp_high_energy.html   (4922 words)

 High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO)
The entire family of three HEAO satellites, designed to study high energy radiation in the universe such as X-rays and cosmic rays, returned significant data to scientists over a period of several years.
Through the study of cosmic rays, which are the nuclei of elements and are the highest energy particles known, HEAO-3 measured the relative abundance of elements in the galaxy.
Gamma rays, higher on the energy spectrum than X-rays, are emitted from galactic sources which may be unobservable to conventional telescopes.
www.friends-partners.org /oldfriends/jgreen/heaoobs.html   (926 words)

 A Brief History of High-Energy Astronomy
Einstein's General Theory of Relativity requires that some mechanism must drive this expansion rate either through a new form of energy, such as a new vacuum energy density (cosmological constant), or a yet unknown kind of particle or field fundamental to the creation and formation of the universe.
MESSENGER's science goals during the year-long orbital phase of its mission are to provide the first images of the entire planet and to collect detailed information on the composition and structure of Mercury's crust, its geologic history, the nature of its thin atmosphere and active magnetosphere, and the makeup of its core and polar materials.
This will be celebrated as the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009), "a global celebration of astronomy and its contributions to society and culture", to be coordinated by the International Astronomical Union (IAU).
heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov /docs/heasarc/headates/heahistory.html   (3570 words)

 Active Skim View of: II. The Nature of High-Energy Astronomy and the Scope of the Report
The paucity of new starts on major space projects in high-energy astronomy during the past several years and the delays and reductions in funding of the few ongoing projects have caused a widening gap in observational capabilities.
During the past decade all areas of high-energy astronomy benefited from rapid growth in observational capabilities based on the developing technologies of x-ray optics, radiation detection, solid state electronics, space instrumentation, and data processing.
Among the many important new scientific opportunities that beckon high-energy astronomy in the 1980's, we believe that at present those in x-ray astronomy are the most numerous and exciting.
www.nap.edu /nap-cgi/skimit.cgi?isbn=0309033349&chap=2-8   (618 words)

 HEAO 1, 2, 3 Quicklook
The 3 satellites of the High Energy Astronomical Observatory program surveyed the celestial sphere for X-ray sources and gamma and cosmic ray phenomena.
HEAO-3 was designed to detect cosmic ray particles and gamma-ray photons to further the understanding of the strength and extent of interstellar magnetic fields, the distribution of interstellar matter, and the stellar nucleosynthesis process which has created the heavy elements contained in most ordinary matter.
All three of the High Energy Astronomy Observatories were regarded as highly successful.
msl.jpl.nasa.gov /QuickLooks/heaoQL.html   (342 words)

 The High Energy Astrophysics Workshop for Amateurs
The participants -- who will attend lectures by leading researchers in x-ray and gamma-ray astronomy -- are expected to return to their communities and spread the word about high-energy astrophysics in schools, civic forums and clubs.
High energy astrophysics is the study of the most violent events in the universe.
The most recent instance was in early March when an amateur astronomy group in Buffalo, NY, recorded the fading fireball from a powerful GRB using a modest 14" telescope and a home-built CCD camera.
science.nasa.gov /headlines/y2000/ast12apr_1m.htm   (1384 words)

The energy that makes the Sun shine is generated in a huge nuclear fusion power plant buried deep in the core of the star.
Since the energy is carried upward by mass motions or convection, the region in which this occurs is called the convection zone.
The temperatures are so high that strong magnetic fields, presumably near the starspot, are required to prevent the corona from evaporating.
history.nasa.gov /SP-466/ch12.htm   (2195 words)

 Yale Astronomy: Research - High-Energy Astrophysics
The High Energy Astrophysics group at Yale is studying a wide variety of astronomical sources (such as quasars, fl holes, and gamma ray bursts) which emit x-rays and gamma-rays.
These objects produce high energy photons by several processes generated under extreme conditions not obtainable on Earth, and are therefore of interest both as astronomical objects, and as "laboratories" for the study of very extreme physical conditions.
Theoretical work in High Energy Astrophysics at Yale focuses on understanding the physical mechanisms responsible for the intense X-ray and gamma-ray emission seen from compact objects including active galactic nuclei (such as quasars), X-ray emitting binary stars, and gamma-ray bursters.
www.astro.yale.edu /cgi-bin/dept/research/research.cgi?heng   (293 words)

 [No title]
The primary goal of the HEA SR&T program is to obtain a better understanding of astrophysical objects (excluding the Sun) and phenomena as revealed through their high energy radiation characteristics.
This HEA program comprises the fields of x-ray and g amma-ray astronomy, which correspond operationally to photon energies in the approximate range of 0.1 keV to 50 GeV.
The HEA SR&T program provides support for basic research relevant to the de sign and development of instrumental concepts for future NASA HEA missions and the conduct of scientific investigations via exposure of instrumentation carried on sounding rockets and high-altitude balloons.
research.hq.nasa.gov /code_s/nra/current/NRA-98-OSS-03/A21.rtf   (492 words)

 Citebase - Neutrino Astronomy: Physics Goals, Detector Parameters
The emphasis is on diffuse neutrinos of extragalactic origin and their relation to possible sources of the highest energy cosmic rays, such as active galaxies, cosmological gamma-ray burst sources and topological defects.
We elucidate the physical basis for the upper bound on high energy neutrino fluxes implied by the observed cosmic ray flux.
We stress that the bound is valid for neutrinos produced either by p,gamma reactions or by p-p(n) reactions in sources which are optically thin for high energy protons to pho...
citebase.eprints.org /cgi-bin/citations?id=oai:arXiv.org:astro-ph/9707283   (1224 words)

 High Energy Astronomy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
The second High Energy Astronomy Observatory (HEAO-B) was launched into an approximate 100-min low Earth orbit on 13 November 1978.
This produces a database of uniformly high resolution in both energy and time, permitting non-triggered, unbiased detection of transient and pulsed events.
The HEGRA detector is sensitive in the energy range from 0.5-10.000 TeV and was designed with special emphasis on the detection of Gamma Rays.
www.astroweb.com.ar /astroweb/yp_high_energy.html   (2510 words)

 Position-Sensitive CZT Detectors for High Energy X-Ray Astronomy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
We have developed an advanced CZT detector that uses two innovations to improve spectral response, give it 3-D localization of energy loss events, and reduce background at high altitudes and in space.
They improve the anode charge collection and energy resolution, and tailing due to hole trapping is nearly totally eliminated.
The energy resolution at 60 keV is 4 keV and the peak to valley ratio is 50.
www.aas.org /publications/baas/v30n2/aas192/abs/S043008.html   (423 words)

 Telescopes   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
The satellite and payloads were funded by the Department of Energy and built by Los Alamos National Laboratory in collaboration with Sandia National Laboratory and the University of California-Space Sciences Lab.
The original low frequency telescope was superseded in 1976 by a 14-m diameter radome-enclosed antenna for use at high radio frequencies (mm wavelengths), built primarily to study the physics and chemistry of interstellar clouds, circumstellar envelopes, planetary atmospheres, and comets.
STJ detectors have previously been considered mainly for X-ray astronomy applications, but recent theoretical and laboratory research in the division has led to a dramatic breakthrough in extending the technique to visible and UV wavelengths where energy discrimination up until now has had to rely on filters or low efficiency dispersive optics.
oldsci.eiu.edu /physics/Astronomy/telescope.html   (8796 words)

 Astronomy experiment opens new window on high-energy gamma rays
Gamma rays contain vastly more energy than visible light rays, which have the energy of one electron volt.
The project contributes to the growing field of high-energy astronomy, which applies techniques used in particle physics experiments to the study of celestial phenomena.
Covault and Ong built STACEE in collaboration with a team of 20 scientists at Chicago and at McGill University in Canada; the University of California, Santa Cruz; the University of California, Riverside; and Barnard College and Columbia University.
www-news.uchicago.edu /releases/99/990531.STACEE.shtml   (705 words)

 Space Astronomy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Scientific activity at IASF concerns the various fields of astrophysics, such as: high energy galactic and extragalactic astrophysics, cosmic ray physics and solar astrophysics, cosmic background studies and cosmology, planetology.
It will study all aspects of planets: from their formation and development in disks of dust and gas around newly forming stars to the presence and features of those planets orbiting the nearest stars; from the numbers at various sizes, and places to their suitability as an abode for life.
By combining the high sensitivity of space telescopes with the sharply detailed pictures from an interferometer, TPF will be able to reduce the glare of parent stars by a factor of more than one hundred-thousand to see planetary systems as far away as 50 light years.
fits.cv.nrao.edu /www/yp_space.html   (9330 words)

 Department of Physics and Astronomy: High Energy Physics
The goal of High Energy Physics is to understand the fundamental forces of nature.
The detector sits at the IR2 interaction region of the PEPII electron/positron storage ring, an asymmetric B factory (that is, it produces B mesons copiously at a high relativistic boost by colliding beams of electrons and positrons of unequal energy).
We are working on the hadron calorimeter, which will measure the energy released in the violent collisions, and provide a trigger for rare phenomena.
www.olemiss.edu /depts/physics_and_astronomy/research/hep.html   (1126 words)

 HEASARC: Observatories
The links to the left are dedicated to the most notable past and present X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy missions.
High energy astrophysics is a young discipline, whose history is only a few decades old, and requires space-borne instruments to observe the
The mysterious gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) discovered in the late 1960s by the Vela satellite, were shown to be the most powerful explosions in the Universe and isotropically distributed, thanks to the rapid response capability of BeppoSAX and the all-sky monitoring of CGRO.
heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov /docs/observatories.html   (419 words)

 UCSC astronomer awarded top high-energy astronomy prize for work on supernovae and gamma-ray bursts
Stan Woosley, professor of astronomy and astrophysics at the University of California, Santa Cruz, has won this year's Bruno Rossi Prize for his pioneering work on supernovae and gamma-ray bursts, the most violent explosions in the universe.
The prize is awarded each year by the High Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomical Society.
The prize is in honor of Bruno Rossi, an authority on cosmic-ray physics and a pioneer in the field of X-ray astronomy.
www.physorg.com /news2812.html   (502 words)

 Upcoming Dates & Deadlines
Potential proposers and proposing organizations are urged to access the system(s) well in advance of the proposal due date(s) of interest to familiarize themselves with its structure and enter the requested information.
This understanding is a key to solving the mysteries of the formation of jets, the extraction of rotational energy from spinning neutron stars, and the dynamics of shocks in SNRs.
Swift is a three-telescope space observatory for studying gamma-ray bursts which has the unique ability to repoint its UV/optical, and X-ray telescopes to the position in the sky of a gamma-ray burst within about one minute of its occurrence.
heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov /docs/heasarc/headates/headates.html   (3899 words)

 Neutrino Astrophysics
The reason for high-energy neutrino astronomy is to open up all wavelengths for astronomy and to peer into sources that would be opaque to photons and protons.
Higher energies are blocked by the cosmic microwave background and then the radio background.
Neutrinos have the penetrating power to pass through the Earth but ultra-high energy neutrinos have a sufficiently high cross-section to be used to "x-ray" the internal structure of the Earth.
aether.lbl.gov /www/projects/neutrino   (989 words)

 High Energy Astronomy Glossary
in gamma-ray astronomy, a plate of material constructed of tiles with a random half-open, half-closed pattern; this plate causes a shadow-pattern on the detector which can be used to determine the position of the source in the telescope's field-of-view
in astronomy, a standard candle is an object with a known amount of energy output.
By knowing the actual energy output, astronomers can use the observed output to calculate the distance to that object.
www.airynothing.com /high_energy_tutorial/glossary.html   (1993 words)

 High Energy Astronomy Group - Publications -   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Peterson, L.E. The High Energy Astronomical Observatory", Sci.
Levine, A. 1979, "High Energy X-Ray Results from HEAO-1: X-Ray Pulsars and the All Sky Survey", HEAO-1 Science Symposium, Huntsville, AL, NASA CP-2113, 140.
Lea, S.M., Reichert, G.A., Mushotzky, R.F., Baity, W.A., Gruber, D.E., Rothschild, R.E., and Primini, F.A. HEAO-1 High Energy X-Ray Observations of the Virgo Cluster and A2142", Ap.
www.joefreelance.com /CZT/HEAG_publications.htm   (2591 words)

 PowerPoint Presentation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
nThis is the high energy end of the EM spectrum and is the most recent to be explored.
This radiation does not penetrate the earth’s atmosphere and thus requires high altitude balloon, rocket or space-based observing platforms.
The high energy regime can be broken down into spectral regions as follows:
www.physics.mq.edu.au /~qap/PHYS278/PHYS278AA_LEC9_files/slide0029.htm   (50 words)

 High Energy   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
CASA has been operating since 1992 in coincidence with a second array, the Michigan Anti (MIA), is made of 2500 square meters of buried muon detectors.
Research topics on data from this experiment cover a wide variety of physics issues, including the search for gamma-rays from extragalactic sources (quasars and gamma-ray bursts), the study of diffuse gamma-ray emission from the Galactic plane, and a measurement of the cosmic ray composition in the poorly understood region from 100 to 100,000 TeV.
REACT is a consortium of optical telescopes that have agreed to work together toward a common goal of comprehensive, multiwavelength study of gamma-ray burst afterglows.
www.vilspa.esa.es /astroweb/yp_high_energy.html   (3450 words)

 Meeting Announcements
The goal of this workshop is to bring together an international group of scientists interested in the future of gamma-ray astronomy to define the direction of future instruments and discuss R&D projects for the next generation observatories such as CTA, HAWC and AGIS.
While predicting the precise areas in astronomy and astrophysics that will be most important in 15 to 25 years is difficult at best, the research topics that will be ripe for investigation will most likely be those that require sensitivities, discovery efficiencies, and/or spatial resolutions that significantly exceed what the above facilities will routinely provide.
Direct detection of massive stars (via their UV continua and spectral lines) and of the products of their nucleosynthesis provides some of the most stringent constraints on the physical properties of galaxies at high redshifts, whether identified via their emission at a variety of wavelengths or by the absorption they produce in quasar spectra.
heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov /docs/heasarc/meetings.html   (1416 words)

 Sub-TeV Gamma-Ray Astrophysics using Large Air Cerenkov Telescopes (ResearchIndex)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-17)
Increase of the number of known celestial sources during recent 40 years in X-ray, medium energy gamma-ray, and TeV gammaray astronomy.
High energy astronomy is a new field of astronomy grew in the latter half of 20th century by the advent of new astronomical probes of high energy photons, namely, X-rays and Gamma rays.
Figure 1 shows the increase of the number of known celestial sources during recent 40 years in X-ray, gamma-ray(GeV region), and very high energy...
citeseer.ist.psu.edu /449639.html   (409 words)

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