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# Topic: Hindu-Arabic numeral system

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 Untitled Document The Hindu Arabic numeral system is the basis of the numbers used today in the English culture. This numeral system fascinated Fibonacci so much that he published a book in 1202 called the Liber abaci in which he introduced the Hindu Arabic numeral system into Europe. Raise questions about which is better and would it be easier or harder to do mathematical calculations with the Roman numerals as compared with the Hindu Arabic numerals (10 minutes). jwilson.coe.uga.edu /EMAT4500/AssignmentPages/MaryBethWiggins/4650lesson2.html   (784 words)

 Hindu numeration system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Hindu Arabic and Roman numeral system has previously stated that the ancient Hindus have been credited with the discovery of the decimal system. The numeral set known in English as 'Arabic numerals' is a positional base 10 numeral system with ten distinct symbols representing the 10 numerical digits. The Hindu numeral system is a positional system of numeration on a base of ten using a number zero, which is used most commonly today. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Hindu_numeral   (436 words)

 numeral The Arabic numeral system (also called the Hindu numeral system or Hindu-Arabic numeral system) is considered one of the most significant developments in mathematics. Both the Arabic and the Roman symbols are believed to be related to this method: 1 or I is one finger, 2 or II is two fingers, and 3 or III is three fingers. The earliest numerals were undoubtedly marks used to make a tally of a count of a number of acts or objects, one mark per object. www.infoplease.com /ce6/sci/A0836175.html   (981 words)

 Hindu-Arabic numerals --  Britannica Concise Encyclopedia - The online encyclopedia you can trust! Biography of this mathematician and astronomer whose major works introduced Hindu-Arabic numerals and the concepts of algebra into European mathematics. It was stated previously that the ancient Hindus are credited with discovering the decimal system of numeration we use today. Thus the idea of “oneness” can be represented by the Roman numeral I, by the Greek letter alpha (the first letter) used as a numeral, by the Hebrew letter aleph (the first letter) used as a numeral, or by the modern numeral 1,... www.britannica.com /ebc/article-9367121?tocId=9367121   (906 words)

 Hindu-Arabic Numerals At about the same time a place value system appeared in which the numbers were represented by the so called East Arabic numerals with a special symbol for zero. Hindu system is a pure place value system, that is why you need a zero. Knowledge of the Hindu decimal system was early in reaching the West (AD662). www.scit.wlv.ac.uk /university/scit/modules/mm2217/han.htm   (688 words)

 New Math: The ‘Countinghouse Theory’ and the Medieval Revival of Arithmetic There has been some question as to whether Boethius was aware of the Hindu-Arabic numeral system; even if he had been, he did not make great use of it, and Gerbert (who did write of the numerals, although without the crucial zero) discussed at length the “iron process” of long division in Roman numerals. Two developments of this period deserve special mention: the abacus and the Hindu-Arabic numeral system, neither of which were known in the West until the tenth century. [11] Gerbert’s time witnessed a detectable growth in the familiarity of numbers, and new mathematical instruments and techniques began to emerge: the abacus, an improved computus for fixing feast-days, the astrolabe, and the Hindu-Arabic numerals all appeared in the West after the millennium. www.stevesachs.com /papers/paper_90a.html   (3349 words)

 FIBONACCI McClenon [13] states that the Liber Abbaci was the "greatest arithmetic of the middle ages and the first one to show by examples from every field the great superiority of the Hindu-Arabic numeral system over the Roman system exemplified by Boethius" (the arithmetic most generally taught throughout Europe before the thirteenth century). Hindu-Arabic numerals were obviously relevant to the expanding commerce-oriented society of his day. With regard to the symbol 0 "which in Arabic is called zephirum" (quod arabice zephirum appellatur [2]), we note that the words cipher and zero come from the Arabic. faculty.evansville.edu /ck6/bstud/fibo.html   (4484 words)

 Uri's page-Arabic Numeral System The important innovation in the Arabic system was the use of positional notation, in which individual number symbols assume different values according to their position in the written numeral. The Hindu numeral system was probably introduced into the Arab world about the 7th or 8th century AD. This system was first developed by the Hindus and was in use in India in the 3rd century BC. www.geocities.com /uripi/arabic_numbers.html   (354 words)

 Arabic numerals : Hindu numeral Arabic numerals, in common usage, means representation of the digits of the decimal system by the signs 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9. In 1202, Fibonacci introduced the decimal system and Arabic numerals to Europe and promoted them with his book Liber Abaci. In Japan, where the western numerals and alphabet are widely used, the arabic numerals are known as "romanji". www.freearchive.info /hi/hindu-numeral.html   (648 words)

 Arabic Numerals The symbols for all the numerals except zero were probably created by the Hindu's as early as 200 B.C. The zero was also developed by the Hindu's but not until 600 A.D. Before the zero was developed the Hindu system used a word for each power of ten. The most advanced system which the Arabic is classified under uses the symbols 0-9 where the place of a symbol within a number determines its value. The way that the Hindu's eliminated the words was by inventing the numeral sunya (meaning empty) that we now call zero. web.vtc.edu /Training/stccamp2000/aaaarabic.htm   (362 words)

 Islamic History in Arabia and Middle East The system of numeration employed throughout the greater part of the world today was probably developed in India, but because it was the Arabs who transmitted this system to the West the numerals it uses have come to be called Arabic. The new mathematical principle on which the Arabic numerals were based greatly simplified arithmetic. Their adoption in Europe began in the tenth century after an Arabic mathematical treatise was translated by a scholar in Spain and spread throughout the West. www.islamicity.com /mosque/ihame/Ref6.htm   (527 words)

 USATODAY.com - Foiling flats, Arabic numbers are Indian By about 1500 years ago, the Arabs had a translation into Arabic of a Hindu text describing the nine-number system. University of St Andrews, Scotland: The Arabic numeral system by J J O'Connor and E F Robertson University of Wolverhampton, UK: Hindu-Arabic numerals by D. Wilkinson www.usatoday.com /tech/columnist/aprilholladay/2005-08-11-holladay-tires-numbers_x.htm   (777 words)

 FLEETING FOOTSTEPS The Hindu—Arabic numeral system (1, 2, 3,...) is one of mankind's greatest achievements and one of its most commonly used inventions. Those who have written about the numeral system have hypothesized that it originated in India; however, there is little evidence to support this claim. This system was widely used in China from antiquity till the 16th century. www.worldscibooks.com /mathematics/5425.html   (382 words)

 The 800th birthday of the book that brought numbers to the west In it Fibonacci described the Hindu-Arabic numerals and the place-valued decimal system for expressing numbers that we use today, and gave detailed instructions on how to compute with them (a process that became known as algorism, which subsequently led to the modern word algorithm). In technical language, the Roman numeral system was not positional. Roman numerals are fine for recording numbers, and for doing simple additions and subtractions, which meant they were adequate, if somewhat cumbersome, for commerce and trade. www.maa.org /devlin/devlin_10_02.html   (2842 words)

 group math Students will become aware of the similarities and differences between the Roman numeral system and the Hindu Arabic numeral system. the teacher will ask the students what the numeral system is called and where they have seen Roman numerals. This web page is designed for teachers wanting to incorporate Roman numerals in their mathematics curriculum. www.educ.uvic.ca /faculty/mroth/438/ROME/group_math.html   (340 words)

 Hindu-Arabic numeral system This translation brought the Hindu-Arabic numerals into Europe. Hindu mathematicians of the 300's and 200's BC used a system based on 10. Others preferred Roman numerals because they were accustomed to solving problems on a device called an abacus without writing out the calculations. members.tripod.com /kangwei1a14/hindu.htm   (282 words)

 Math Forum - Ask Dr. Math Because the printing press came into existence in the mid-1400s and the Hindu- Arabic numerals were used in printing. The transition happened after the printing press standardized the way the Hindu-Arabic numerals looked, but basically it was an issue of making good use of individuals' time. Why use Hindu-Arabic numerals instead of the Roman numerals? mathforum.org /library/drmath/view/52545.html   (526 words)

 Indian numerals - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia The Indian numeral system is commonly referred to in the West as Hindu-Arabic numeral system, since it reached Europe through the Arabs. Main articles: History of the Hindu-Arabic numeral system, and [[]], and [[]], and [[]], and [[]] As it was from the Arabs that the Europeans learnt this system, the Europeans called them Arabic numerals; ironically, to this day the Arabs refer to their numerals as Indian numerals. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Indian_numerals   (470 words)

 Hindu-Arabic Numerals The so called West Arabic numerals are contemporary with the East Arabic numerals and likewise stem from Hindu figures and are forerunners of our Western figures. In the West Arabic numerals one dot indicates tens, 2 dots hundreds so it is not a complete place value system. Al-Khouarizmi was the first Arab to explain the Hindu system of numerals. www.scit.wlv.ac.uk /university/scit/modules/mm2217/han.htm   (688 words)

 Amazing Science Nor was it developed by the Arabs, despite the fact that this numeral system is commonly called the Arabic numerals in Europe, where this system was first introduced by the Arabs in the thirteenth century. The British used this numerical system and credited the Arabs - mislabelling it 'Arabic numerals'. The Indian numeral system and its place value, decimal system of enumeration came to the attention of the Arabs in the seventh or eighth century, and served as the basis for the well known advancement in Arab mathematics, represented by figures such as al-Khwarizmi. www.hinduism.co.za /amazing.htm   (14239 words)

 group math Students will become aware of the similarities and differences between the Roman numeral system and the Hindu Arabic numeral system. One partner will give the other partner Roman numerals and ask them to write them using Hindu Arabic numerals. the teacher will ask the students what the numeral system is called and where they have seen Roman numerals. www.educ.uvic.ca /faculty/mroth/438/ROME/group_math.html   (340 words)

 Arabic Numerals The symbols for all the numerals except zero were probably created by the Hindu's as early as 200 B.C. The zero was also developed by the Hindu's but not until 600 A.D. Before the zero was developed the Hindu system used a word for each power of ten. The most advanced system which the Arabic is classified under uses the symbols 0-9 where the place of a symbol within a number determines its value. This is unlike most older systems that use numerals for each number and a numeral that follows this to represent it's value. web.vtc.edu /Training/stccamp2000/aaaarabic.htm   (362 words)

 Arabic numerals - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Arabic numerals, also known as Hindu-Arabic numerals, Indian numerals, Hindu numerals, European numerals, and Western numerals, are the most common symbolic representation of numbers around the world. Brahmi numerals in India in the first century CE The system was adopted by the Arabs in the 8th century. The numeral system employed, known as Algorism, is positional decimal notation. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Arabic_numerals   (1022 words)

 NUMBERS: THEIR HISTORY AND MEANING We also know that several different ways of writing numbers evolved in India before it became possible for existing decimal numerals to be marred with the place-value principle of the Babylonians to give birth to the system which eventually became the one which we use today. For them, a change in numeral system meant not merely learning an entire new principle for writing numbers but also becoming familiar with strange new symbols, which were unlike all others before. Towards the end of the eighth century an Indian astronomical textbook making use of the decimal place-value system, the Siddhanta of Brahmagupta, was brought to Baghdad and translated into Arabic. home.c2i.net /greaker/comenius/9899/indiannumerals/india.html   (1096 words)

 Thaana - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (See Hindu-Arabic numerals.) The remaining letters for loanwords (z–ch) and Arabic transliteration are derived from phonetically similar native consonants by means of diacritics, with the exception of y, which is of unknown origin. The origins of Thaana are unique among the world's alphabets: The first nine letters (h–v) are derived from the Arabic numerals, whereas the next nine (m–d) were the local Indic numerals. It is also easily mapped from the romanization system used for Dhivehi. www.vacilando.org /_cliextra/baghdadmuseumorg/includepage.php?title=Thaana&action=history   (317 words)

 Talk:Arabic numerals - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Otoh, judging from Hindu-Arabic numeral system, the term can be used to refer to the whole set of related numerals, including Devanagari, Bangla, Tamil ones etc.; looking for a term to refer to the symbols used in the Latin alphabet since the 15th century, "Arabic numerals" may still be handy. What I am saying is that "Arabic numerals" is by a rather large factor far more common even among other fields of academics (who are not versed in the history of mathematics) and constitutes a strong "common usage" argument, in reference to the debate on common name vs precision. Academics other than those expert in history of mathematics using "arabic numerals" suggests that the term "arabic numerals" is common accepted usage. en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Talk:Arabic_numerals   (11162 words)

 II-12. What Is Behind the Numbers? Existence of special terms and symbols for the numeral 0 to 9 was a typical and important characteristic of these systems. Symbols for the numerals in Nagari as well in Arabic follow from these earlier scripts. Further importance of the place system is that when zero is placed after a numeral, the value of the numeral is enhanced 10-fold. www.hira-pub.org /anugam/vol2/vol2ii12.html   (2760 words)

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