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Topic: Hindu-Arabic numerals

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In the News (Tue 22 Apr 14)

 Hindu numeration system - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Hindu Arabic and Roman numeral system has previously stated that the ancient Hindus have been credited with the discovery of the decimal system.
The numeral set known in English as 'Arabic numerals' is a positional base 10 numeral system with ten distinct symbols representing the 10 numerical digits.
The Hindu numeral system is a positional system of numeration on a base of ten using a number zero, which is used most commonly today.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Hindu_numeral   (436 words)

 Roman numerals
Today, Roman numerals are used mainly as an alternative to the Hindu-Arabic numerals in outlines and other instances in which two distinct sets of numerals are useful, for clock faces, for ceremonial and monumental purposes, and by publishers and film distributors who have an interest in making copyright dates difficult to read.
Numerals are written with the largest values to the left: MCI is one thousand plus one hundred plus one, or 1101.
The Roman numerals C and M sometimes did not mean 100 or 1000 (see hundred).
www.sizes.com /numbers/roman_numerals.htm   (958 words)

 Arabic numerals
Arabic numerals, also called Hindu-Arabic numerals, are the most common symbols used to represent numbers.
For example, the Arabic numeral for the number two hundred and thirty-seven is the sequence of digits 237.
In this numeral, the digit 2 has a value of two hundre d, the digit 3 has a value of thirty, and the digit 7 has a value of seven.
www.members.tripod.com /kangwei1a14/arabic1.htm   (271 words)

 Arabic numerals : Hindu numeral
Arabic numerals, in common usage, means representation of the digits of the decimal system by the signs 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9.
In Japan, where the western numerals and alphabet are widely used, the arabic numerals are known as "romanji".
In Arabic usage, the digits (which are called "Indian numerals") have changed less.
www.freearchive.info /hi/hindu-numeral.html   (648 words)

 The mathematical legacy of Islam
Since few European scholar knew Arabic, however, the translation was often done in two stages, with a Jewish scholar living in Spain translating from the Arabic to some common language and the visiting scholar then translating from that language into Latin.
It was largely through translations of the Arabic texts into Latin that western Europe, freshly emerged from the Dark Ages, kick-started its mathematics in the tenth and subsequent centuries.
Arabic mathematicians learned to manipulate polynomials, to solve certain algebraic equations, and more.
www.maa.org /devlin/devlin_0708_02.html   (1670 words)

 Arabic numerals
In fact in the western part of the Arabic world the Indian numerals came to be known as Guba (or Gubar or Ghubar) numerals from the Arabic word meaning "dust".
The numerals had changed their form somewhat 100 years later when this copy of one of al-Biruni's astronomical texts was made.
Abu'l-Wafa, who was himself an expert in the use of Indian numerals, nevertheless wrote a text on how to use finger-reckoning arithmetic since this was the system used by the business community and teaching material aimed at these people had to be written using the appropriate system.
www-history.mcs.st-andrews.ac.uk /history/HistTopics/Arabic_numerals.html   (2191 words)

 Hindu-Arabic numeral system
This translation brought the Hindu-Arabic numerals into Europe.
Hindu mathematicians of the 300's and 200's BC used a system based on 10.
Others preferred Roman numerals because they were accustomed to solving problems on a device called an abacus without writing out the calculations.
members.tripod.com /kangwei1a14/hindu.htm   (282 words)

 Hindu-Arabic Numerals
In the West Arabic numerals one dot indicates tens, 2 dots hundreds so it is not a complete place value system.
Hindu system is a pure place value system, that is why you need a zero.
Hindu counting system was purely decimal and distinct symbols for the numbers 1 - 9 existed already.
www.scit.wlv.ac.uk /university/scit/modules/mm2217/han.htm   (688 words)

 Arithmeticke Project Introduction
On this occasion he outlined detailed research on this topic, the diffusion of hindu-arabic numerals to replace roman, in two areas of England: the small parish of Clee in South Humberside and the City of Bristol, based on evidence from probate inventories.
Investigating the diffusion of hindu-arabic numerals to replace roman in Britain, as evidenced by wills, probate inventories and other recurrent historical sources, during the period 1540 - 1700.
This is summarised in his research paper: 'Dead Reckoning to Count the Change: number and numerical representation in the early modern period'.
www.fachrs.com /artithmeticke   (163 words)

 Hindu-Arabic Numerals in the West
Introduction of the gobar numerals on the Abacus by GERBERT (980)
Since West Arabic gobar figures came into use early in Spain it was only a question of time before they appeared in Latin texts.
Gerbert had the numbers in the columns represented by special counters inscribed with numerals.
www.scit.wlv.ac.uk /university/scit/modules/mm2217/hanw.htm   (318 words)

 Medieval Technology Pages - Arabic Numerals
It should be noted that the Arabic numerals were neither invented by nor used by the Arabs.
[Hassan and Hill 1986 p 24] In the transmission of Arabic numerals to Europe the method of writing numbers became reversed to the present method in the process.
During the 14th century Arabic numerals became widely used by merchants in Italy.
scholar.chem.nyu.edu /tekpages/arabnums.html   (515 words)

 Indian numerals: Definition and Links by Encyclopedian.com - All about Indian numerals
India is known as the motherland for the Hindu-Arabic numerals.
Indian numerals: Definition and Links by Encyclopedian.com - All about Indian numerals
The positional system[?] of numerical notation, and the use of the digit 0 as a part of it, originated in India around the 5th century A.D. India has a large number of languages, broadly divided into the Dravidian and Sanskritic groups.
www.encyclopedian.com /in/Indian-numerals.html   (152 words)

 Nature's Numbers
In gravity-B numerals we use a line with a tail or "hook." Gravity-C numerals are the same as gravity-B except we make a loop of the tail to indicate that we already have moved once around the circle already.
It was not until after I had invented gravity-generated numerals that I began to investigate ancient number systems.
Thus, assuming there is intelligent life beyond earth, six-core, twelve-core, twenty-four-core, forty-eight-core, or sixty-core numerals may exist in some other part of the Galaxy.
www.earth360.com /math-naturesnumbers.html   (9994 words)

 Roman Numerals
Writing a smaller numeral to the left of a larger numeral represents subtraction.
To represent larger numbers, a bar over a numeral means to multiply the number by 1000.
To write a number that otherwise would take repeating of a numeral four or more times, there is a subtraction rule.
www.math.nmsu.edu /~pmorandi/math111f01/RomanNumerals.html   (250 words)

 New Page 1
The Roman conquest of Spain did not last as long as the Arabic conquest, but when one considers that Spain is a Catholic country and that its language is essentially of Roman origin, it is hard to argue that the Islamic influence on Spain and its people is as great as that of Rome's.
The Arabic countries and India later modified some of the numerals; but they are, for the most part, recognizable.
The Moors spoke Arabic, Berber and Bantu; learned Arabic scholars adorned their mosques with florid prose and poetry in Arabic script; but the people of Aragon, Seville, and Navarre spoke Romance languages; the official language of the Church of Rome was Latin.
daphne.palomar.edu /marguello_students/Fall_2003/003991722/Essay_8.htm   (834 words)

Hindu mathematics is of very uneven quality, good and poor mathematics often appearing side by side; the Greeks seemed to have an instinct that led them to distinguish good from poor quality.
The Hindus have special symbols for the individual numbers from one to nine, whose rank are indicated by their positions.
Hindu mathematics is largely empirical, with proofs or derivations seldom offered; an outstanding characteristic of Greek mathematics is its insistence on rigorous demonstration.
home.c2i.net /greaker/comenius/9899/indiannumerals/india.html   (1096 words)

 Arabic Numerals
The symbols for all the numerals except zero were probably created by the Hindu's as early as 200 B.C. The zero was also developed by the Hindu's but not until 600 A.D. Before the zero was developed the Hindu system used a word for each power of ten.
The most advanced system which the Arabic is classified under uses the symbols 0-9 where the place of a symbol within a number determines its value.
The way that the Hindu's eliminated the words was by inventing the numeral sunya (meaning empty) that we now call zero.
web.vtc.edu /Training/stccamp2000/aaaarabic.htm   (362 words)

The logic of Arabic arithmetic is largely the logic of the Arabic vector space —including conversions between proper decimal forms (the Arabic numerals) and their improper equivalents.
Most of the conceptual difficulties with Arabic arithmetic are with elements that are not intrinsic to inventory-algebra — but whose common-sensibility is obscured by the slickness of traditional “shortcuts” of Arabic arithmetic — but whose common-sensibility becomes obvious within the algebra of measurements.
In effect, the phonics analyze that Arabic numeral into a combination of four quantities — whose coefficients are digits (3, 9, 4, and 5), and whose respective denominations mostly are spoken.
arapaho.nsuok.edu /~diamantj/okarproceedings/CLGreeno-Part1.html   (4273 words)

 The Hindu-Arabic Numerals - Mathematics and the Liberal Arts
Patel suggests that the Hindu-Arabic numerals 4, 6, 7, 8, and 9 were derived from shapes made with the fingers (perhaps some kind of finger numerals?).
The Hindu-Arabic Numerals - Mathematics and the Liberal Arts
Then discusses adoption of the Hindu-Arabic numerals, the development of computation, and more abstract mathematics.
math.truman.edu /~thammond/history/HinduArabicNumerals.html   (409 words)

One of the greatest advances was the introduction of "Arabic" numerals.
The "Arabic" numerals were influenced by India's mathematics.
With Arabic numerals, simple fractions and decimal fractions were also possible.
www.sfusd.k12.ca.us /schwww/sch618/ScienceMath/Math.html   (1347 words)

 Islamic History in Arabia and Middle East
The system of numeration employed throughout the greater part of the world today was probably developed in India, but because it was the Arabs who transmitted this system to the West the numerals it uses have come to be called Arabic.
The new mathematical principle on which the Arabic numerals were based greatly simplified arithmetic.
Their adoption in Europe began in the tenth century after an Arabic mathematical treatise was translated by a scholar in Spain and spread throughout the West.
www.islamicity.com /mosque/ihame/Ref6.htm   (527 words)

 The Propagation of the Zero
Although the Moorish invasion of Spain introduced Hindu-Arabic numerals and algebra for the first time to Europe around 700 A.D., preceding al-Khowarizmi about a century, it was the Latin translation of his "Treatise on Cipher" around 1200 A.D. that awakened Europe from its computational darkness to an evolution of mathematical knowledge.
The western Crusade against Muslims in Spain resulted in the fall of Toledo (a Christian archbishopric in Spain) in 1085, and it was from this time that the Arabic versions of Greek science as well as Hindu numerals were translated into Latin, the most active period being 1125-1280.
Although Aristotle's works were earnestly studied and translated into Arabic, so were the works of Plato.
www.neo-tech.com /zero/part7.html   (1952 words)

The Hindu-Arabic numerals currently used today also originated with the Indians somewhat earlier, and they reached Ar abia with this translation, to be passed on to the Europeans, who were far less receptive to this system, only from the 10th century onwards.
These contributions, by helping introduce and explain the use of Hindu-Arabic numerals and computation, and incorporating Greek geometry (as in the line segments), in a context in which they were little known, helped lead to a later mathematical flourishing - a mathematical renaissance - in Europe.
Al-Khwarizmi's book concerns use of Hindu numerals, and was translated into Latin in the twelfth century by Adelard of Bath, Robert of Chester, and John of Seville, from the latter of which the term "algorism" is derived [4, p.
www.math.rutgers.edu /~cherlin/History/Papers2002/medieval.html   (3396 words)

 Hindu-Arabic numerals --¬† Britannica Concise Encyclopedia¬†- The online encyclopedia you can trust!
Biography of this mathematician and astronomer whose major works introduced Hindu-Arabic numerals and the concepts of algebra into European mathematics.
Thus the idea of “oneness” can be represented by the Roman numeral I, by the Greek letter alpha (the first letter) used as a numeral, by the Hebrew letter aleph (the first letter) used as a numeral, or by the modern numeral 1,...
Roman numerals are hard to manipulate, however, and mathematical calculations generally were done on an abacus (see Abacus).
www.britannica.com /ebc/article-9367121?tocId=9367121   (906 words)

Both the Arabic and the Roman symbols are believed to be related to this method: 1 or I is one finger, 2 or II is two fingers, and 3 or III is three fingers.
The Arabic numeral system (also called the Hindu numeral system or Hindu-Arabic numeral system) is considered one of the most significant developments in mathematics.
The earliest numerals were undoubtedly marks used to make a tally of a count of a number of acts or objects, one mark per object.
www.infoplease.com /ce6/sci/A0836175.html   (981 words)

 Units: Roman and "Arabic" Numerals
The numerals actually used in Arabic script, the true Arabic numerals, are of different forms; see Islamicity.com for a more complete discussion.
The modern numerals 1, 2, 3,..., are sometimes called "Arabic" numerals in the West because they were introduced to Europeans by Arab scholars.
Place value notation was used long ago in Babylonian cuneiform numerals, but our modern decimal place value system was invented by Hindu mathematicians in India, probably by the sixth century and perhaps even earlier.
www.unc.edu /~rowlett/units/roman.html   (1003 words)

 JCCC::MATH 210 - Math for Elementary Teachers I
Numeration Systems A. Convert Roman numerals to Hindu-Arabic numerals and vice versa.
The focus of this course is an in-depth investigation of the mathematical principles and concepts encountered in grades K-8.
The use of appropriate techniques and tools, such as calculators, computers and manipulatives, will be integrated throughout the course in order to enhance the depth of understanding.
www.johnco.cc.ks.us /home/course_outline/spring-2004/MATH210   (957 words)

His book On the Calculation with Hindu Numerals, written about 825, was principally responsible for the diffusion of the Indian system of numeration (Arabic numerals) in the Islamic lands and the West.
Traditional systems had used different letters of the alphabet to represent numbers or cumbersome Roman numerals, and the new system was far superior, for it allowed people to multiply and divide easily and check their work.
By the fourteenth century, Italian merchants and bankers had abandoned the abacus and were doing their calculations using pen and paper, in much the same way we do today.
www.freerepublic.com /focus/news/694720/posts   (3815 words)

 Numbersystem, some clarification: Interact Inn All India Mailing List
>From : The HINDU-ARABIC NUMERALS by DAVID EUGENE SMITH and LOUIS CHARLES KARPINSKI boston and london ginn and company,publishers 1911.
The sunya of Hindus was passed over to the Arabic as al-sifr or sifr.
The dot, which the Hindus used to fill up lacunae in their manuscripts was the was the natural symbol.
www.manaskriti.com /InteractInn/10119801.html   (1748 words)

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