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# Topic: Histogram

###### In the News (Sun 23 Jun 19)

 Histograms: A Tutorial The histogram clearly portrays information on location, spread, and shape that enables the user to perceive subtleties regarding the functioning of the physical process that is generating the data. For the histogram to be representative of the true process behavior, as a general rule, at least fifty (50) samples should be measured. Histograms are limited in their use due to the random order in which samples are taken and lack of information about the state of control of the process. deming.eng.clemson.edu /pub/tutorials/qctools/histm.htm   (1183 words)

 1.3.3.14. Histogram The purpose of a histogram (Chambers) is to graphically summarize the distribution of a univariate data set. The cumulative histogram is a variation of the histogram in which the vertical axis gives not just the counts for a single bin, but rather gives the counts for that bin plus all bins for smaller values of the response variable. The histogram is demonstrated in the heat flow meter data case study. www.itl.nist.gov /div898/handbook/eda/section3/histogra.htm   (482 words)

 Understanding Histograms As mentioned earlier, with the exception of a histogram that is very heavily bunched up to the right (overexposed) there really isn’t such a thing as a “bad” histogram, or for that matter a “good” one. The histogram of the one at the left is bunched up at the dark end (underexposed) and the one on the right is bunched up at the light end (overexposed). This low key shot's histogram shows that almost all of the data in the image is down in the lowest areas (darkest) with just a small amount of data showing the bright moon. www.luminous-landscape.com /tutorials/understanding-series/understanding-histograms.shtml   (1579 words)

 Histogram: Digital Imaging: Glossary: Learn: Digital Photography Review Unlike the mosaic histograms, the 256 bars are stacked side by side without any space between them, which is why for educational purposes, the vertical bars are shown in alternating shades of gray, allowing you to distinguish the individual bars. The histogram indicates there are a lot of pixels with value 0 or close to 0, which is an indication of "clipped shadows". The histogram indicates there are a lot of pixels with value 255 or close to 255, which is an indication of "clipped highlights". www.dpreview.com /learn/?/Glossary/Digital_Imaging/Histogram_01.htm   (684 words)

 Cp Cpk Histogram in Minitab Cp Cpk Histogram with Cp, Cpk in Minitab Histograms show the spread, or dispersion, of your data. If this is the case use corresponding control charts to measure process capacity and stability in tandem with the histogram to measure capability. www.qualproxl.com /histogram.html   (533 words)

 How to use the Histogram classes For example, TH1F is a class for 1-D histograms where a Float is used to increment the sum of weights for each channel. The TH1C class can be used to create histograms where a maximum sum of weights (or number of entries per bin in case weights are equal to 1) is less than 256. When an histogram is created, a reference to this histogram is added in the list of objects of the current directory in memory. root.cern.ch /root/HowtoHistogram.html   (965 words)

 Histogram The histogram of the frequency distribution can be converted to a probability distribution by dividing the tally in each group by the total number of data points to give the relative frequency. For example, a histogram that shows a higher than normal frequency in bins near one end and then a sharp drop-off may indicate that the observer is "helping" the results by classifying extreme data in the less extreme group. The shape of the histogram sometimes is particularly sensitive to the number of bins. www.netmba.com /statistics/histogram   (474 words)

 Histogram Understanding the histogram of an image is an essential precondition to master digital photography both at the time you shoot your image as well as during post-processing in your imaging application. The left hand side of the histogram shows the dark tonal range usually referred to as "shadows", the center portion is covered by the "mid tones" and the right hand side shows the bright tonal range or "highlights". Therefore you should expose your image with a histogram that is as intact as possible = the curve remains within the limits of the luminosity range. www.photozone.de /7Digital/histogram.htm   (1215 words)

 scantips.com - Brightness/Contrast controls vs. histogram To do this, the histogram data is "stretched" outwards at both ends. The histogram shows at a glance the situation and the possibilities. The Exposure amount was determined by watching the preview, and also the results were verified in the histogram. www.scantips.com /bce.html   (943 words)

 Understanding Histograms As mentioned earlier, with the exception of a histogram that is very heavily bunched up to the right (overexposed) there really isn’t such a thing as a “bad” histogram, or for that matter a “good” one. The histogram of the one at the left is bunched up at the dark end (underexposed) and the one on the right is bunched up at the light end (overexposed). This low key shot's histogram shows that almost all of the data in the image is down in the lowest areas (darkest) with just a small amount of data showing the bright moon. luminous-landscape.com /tutorials/understanding-series/understanding-histograms.shtml   (1596 words)

 Histogram A histogram is used to graphically summarize and display the distribution of a process data set. A histogram can be constructed by segmenting the range of the data into equal sized bins (also called segments, groups or classes). The vertical axis of the histogram is labeled Frequency (the number of counts for each bin), and the horizontal axis of the histogram is labeled with the range of your response variable. www.isixsigma.com /library/content/c010527c.asp   (453 words)

 Image Histogram Tutorial - Tones and Contrast Understanding image histograms is probably the single most important concept to become familiar with when working with pictures from a digital camera. There is no one "ideal histogram" which all images should try to mimic; histograms should merely be representative of the tonal range in the scene and what the photographer wishes to convey. The histogram is a good tool for knowing whether clipping has occurred since you can readily see when the highlights are pushed to the edge of the chart. www.cambridgeincolour.com /tutorials/histograms1.htm   (1105 words)

 Using Histograms A histogram is a graph that shows how the 256 possible levels of brightness are distributed in the image. Here are some histograms from good images along with a brief summary of what the histogram reveals. The histogram for the corrected image (right) now shows that the dynamic range has been "stretched" so there are pixels at all levels of brightness. www.shortcourses.com /how/histograms/histograms.htm   (994 words)

 Histogram Applet (12-Dec-1996)   (Site not responding. Last check: ) This applet is designed to teach students how bin widths (or the number of bins) affect a histogram. The histogram below is for the Old Faithful data set. The observations are the duration (in minutes) for eruptions of the Old Faithful geyser in Yellowstone National Park. www.stat.sc.edu /~west/javahtml/Histogram.html   (158 words)

 Understanding Your Digital Camera's Histogram -- A Nikonians Guide The gray rectangular area is a representation of an in-camera histogram. The top of the histogram (top of mountain peak) represents the number of different colors, a value you cannot control, so it is for your information only. So, basically, the histogram's left to right directions are related to the darkness and lightness of the image, while the up and down directions of the histogram (valleys and peaks) have to do with color information. www.nikonians.org /html/resources/guides/digital/histogram_101/index.html   (609 words)

 Java Advanced Imaging: Class Histogram The histogram entropy is defined to be the negation of the sum of the products of the probability associated with each bin with the base-2 log of the probability. Each band of the histogram is smoothed by averaging over a moving window of a size specified by the method parameter: if the value of the parameter is k then the width of the window is 2*k + 1. For each band the histogram is modeled as the sum of two Gaussian distributions and the threshold which minimizes the misclassification error is computed. java.sun.com /products/java-media/jai/forDevelopers/jai-apidocs/javax/media/jai/Histogram.html   (2017 words)

 QuickStart Excel Histograms   (Site not responding. Last check: ) Histograms should not have spaces between the bars unless there are categories that have no observations. I want to construct a histogram with 5 bars, each corresponding to an interval of length two. It's not officially a histogram unless the bars are scrunched together, with no spaces in between them. www.geocities.com /calculatorhelp/excel_histograms.htm   (507 words)

 Stata help for histogram histogram draws histograms of varname, which is assumed to be the name of a continuous variable unless the discrete option is specified. kdensity specifies that the histogram be overlaid with an appropriately scaled kernel density estimate of the density. Histograms of continuous variables Overlaying normal and kernel-density estimates Histograms of discrete variables Use with by() www.stata.com /help.cgi?histogram   (1719 words)

 Workflow Technique #041 @Digital Outback Photo The overall shape of the histogram does not matter at all as it merely reflects the tonal distribution of the scene you photographed. Note 2: Also the histogram in your raw converter may be different as different raw converters may have a different interpretation of the EV 0 point. This overexposure in the blue channel was not shown by the camera histogram as it uses an average of all the three channels (most often they use a so called luminance histogram, where green gets valued higher than red/blue). www.outbackphoto.com /workflow/wf_41/essay.html   (997 words)

 The Elsmar Cove - Histogram Visual A Histogram is used to display in bar graph format measurement data distributed by categories. If the histogram shows a long tail of data on the left side of the histogram, the data is termed left or negatively skew. Data may be clustered on opposite ends of the scale or display two or more peaks indicating serious inconsistencies in the process or procedure or the measurement of a mixture of two or more distinct groups or processes that behave very differently. elsmar.com /Histogram.html   (744 words)

 WDVL: Histogram The Histogram Window doesn't do anything in and of itself, but rather is a a tool designed to help you decide what you need to do to improve your image. The histogram window displays a graph of the color values of the active window in RGB and luminance. The spectrum for a color is on the horizontal axis while the portion of the image's color that matches that spectrum is displayed on the vertical axis. www.wdvl.com /Authoring/Graphics/Tools/PSP/histogram.html   (529 words)

 Histogram Histograms are commonly used in statistics to demonstrate how many of a certain type of variable occurs within a specific range. MACD histograms are a popular tool used in technical analysis to gauge the strength of an asset's momentum. An increasing MACD histogram signals an increase in upward momentum while a decreasing histogram is used to signal downward momentum. www.investopedia.com /terms/h/histogram.asp   (489 words)

 Cheat Sheet: Histogram Cracker - - PopPhotoJune 2004 Digital gurus always emphasize the importance of using the histogram to gauge proper exposure when shooting, and advise going to the histogram first to make corrections. A histogram is a chart, a visual representation, of the commonness of each tone in an image. Add exposure (plus compensation) if the histogram is scrunches up on the left; subtract exposure (minus compensation) if the graph is scrunched on the right. www.popphoto.com /article.asp?section_id=4&article_id=982   (349 words)

 Building histogram, curve fit, multivariate regression, data modeling software. Building histogram, curve fit, multivariate regression, data modeling software. Building histograms of variable distributions comparing them with Student, Erlang and Poisson probability densities. There is an option to calculate distributions conditioned to other parameters as well a probability that conditionally selected data is not random. www.leokrut.com /leostatistic.html   (704 words)

 Shodor Interactivate: Histogram This activity allows the user to view and make their own histograms. A histogram is defined as a bar graph that shows frequency data. This activity would work well in same ability groups of two to four for about twenty minutes if you use the exploration questions and five to ten minutes otherwise. www.shodor.org /interactivate/activities/histogram/index.html   (145 words)

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