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Topic: History of Afghanistan since 1992

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  History of Afghanistan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Afghanistan's history, internal political development, foreign relations, and very existence as an independent state have largely been determined by its geographic location at the crossroads of Central, West, and South Asia.
Invariably, most of Afghanistan's history was spent as part of the larger events that took place upon the Iranian plateau as a whole.
An often unacknowledged event that nevertheless played an important role in Afghanistan's history (and in the politics of Afghanistan's neighbors and the entire region up to the present) was the rise in the tenth century of a strong Sunni dynasty--the Ghaznavids.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/History_of_Afghanistan   (2809 words)

 History of Afghanistan since 1992 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In 2001, as part of a drive against relics of Afghanistan's pre-Islamic past, the Taliban destroyed two large statues of the Buddha outside of the city of Bamiyan and announced destruction of all pre-Islamic statues in Afghanistan, including the remaining holdings of the Kabul Museum.
The US required the assistance of countries around Afghanistan to provide a route for the attack, but criticism increased as various mosques, aid agencies, hospitals, and other civilian buildings were damaged by US bombs.
Current problems that exist for the administration include controlling bands of bandits roaming Afghanistan's rural sector, removing the debris (and in particular, unmapped buried landmines) from decades of civil war from the countryside, and rebuilding the Afghan economy.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/History_of_Afghanistan_since_1992   (1444 words)

 Afghanistan: A Changed Landscape
Afghanistan, British and later Pakistan used a mix of subsidies and punitive expeditions to prevent the disturbance in settled areas.
Their knowledge of Afghanistan was limited to the Pakistani history book rhetoric of sixteenth century invasions of India and rough image of a fiercely independent minded group of people.
Shattering of the social structures inside Afghanistan, effects of local environment on a new generation of Afghan refugees in their host countries, role of Afghan Diaspora, power of local warlords and host of other factors will have to be taken into consideration for a viable solution for the country.
www.defencejournal.com /2002/january/landscape.htm   (4508 words)

 Afghanistan (12/05)
Afghanistan is endowed with natural resources, including extensive deposits of natural gas, petroleum, coal, copper, chromite, talc, barites, sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt, and precious and semiprecious stones.
Afghanistan is one of the most heavily mined countries in the world; mine-related injuries number up to 100 per month, and an estimated 200,000 Afghans have been disabled by landmine/unexploded ordinances (UXO) accidents.
Since the fall of the Taliban, the Karzai government has improved relations with Russia, but Afghanistan’s outstanding foreign debt to Russia still continues to be a source of contention.
www.state.gov /r/pa/ei/bgn/5380.htm   (6915 words)

 INTRODUCTION Afghanistan Intelligence Agencies
Afghanistan is an impoverished, landlocked Asian country that has experienced two decades of constant warfare.
Afghanistan is still largely a tribal society, divided into many tribes, clans and smaller groups.
Although informal negotiations for a Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan had been underway since 1982, it was not until 1988 that the Governments of Pakistan and Afghanistan, with the United States and Soviet Union serving as guarantors, signed an agreement settling the major differences between them.
www.fas.org /irp/world/afghan/intro.htm   (2439 words)

 history of afghanistan
Afghanistan is one of the most impoverished nations of the world.
Islam was brought to Afghanistan during the eight and ninth century by the Arabs.
It wasn’t until 1992 that Mujahadeen fighters were able to topple the remnants of the PDPA government — ending the Stalinists attempts to bring revolution to the people of Afghanistan at the point of a gun.
www.geocities.com /youth4sa/s11-afghanistan.html   (3115 words)

 Afghanistan -> History on Encyclopedia.com 2002   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Mahmud of Ghazna, who conquered the lands from Khorasan in Iran to the Punjab in India early in the 11th cent., was the greatest of Afghanistan's rulers.
The country was devastated by the Afghanistan War (1979-89), which took an enormous human and economic toll.
In early 1992, Kabul was captured, and the guerrilla alliance set up a new government consisting of a 50-member ruling council.
www.encyclopedia.com /html/section/afghanis_history.asp   (2720 words)

 History of Afghanistan - Definition up Erdmond.Com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Despite the Mongol invasion of Afghanistan in the early thirteenth century which has been described as resembling "more some brute cataclysm of the blind forces of nature than a phenomenon of human history," even a warrior as formidable as Genghis_Khan did not uproot Islamic civilization, and within two generations his heirs had become Muslims.
An often unacknowledged event that nevertheless played an important role in Afghan history (and in the politics of Afghanistan's neighbors and the entire region up to the present) was the rise in the tenth century of a strong Sunni dynasty--the Ghaznavids.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Najibullah government was overthrown on April_18, 1992 when Abdul_Rashid_Dostum mutinied, and allied himself with Ahmed_Shah_Massoud, to take control of Kabul and declare the Islamic State of Afghanistan.
www.erdmond.com /History_of_Afghanistan.html   (1904 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The United States, with support from the United Kingdom and the Northern Alliance invaded Afghanistan in October, 2001 as part of its "War on Terrorism".
It is estimated that in Afghanistan there are 1.5 million suffering from immediate starvation, as well as 7.5 million suffering as a result of the country's dire situation - the combination of civil war, drought-related famine, and, to a large extent, the Taliban's oppressive regime.
Many protesters felt that the attack on Afghanistan was unjustified aggression and would lead to the deaths of many innocent people by preventing humanitarian aid workers from bringing food into the country.
www.askmytutor.co.uk /u/u_/u_s__invasion_of_afghanistan.html   (4231 words)

 1992 Republican National Convention Speech - by Pat Buchanan - Articles, Essays and Speeches - T H E   I ...
And the only people who don't know it are the carping critics who sat on the sidelines of history, jeering at ine of the great statesmen of modern time.
When the Irish-Catholic governor of Pennsylvania, Robert Casey, asked to say a few words on behalf of the 25 million unborn children destroyed since Roe v Wade, he was told there was no place for him at the podium of Bill Clinton's convention, no room at the inn.
And there were the brave people of Koreatown who took the worst of the LA riots, but still live the family values we treasure, and who still believe deeply in the American dream.
www.buchanan.org /pa-92-0817-rnc.html   (1950 words)

 Afghanistan: History
The location of Afghanistan astride the land routes between the Indian subcontinent, Iran, and central Asia has enticed conquerors throughout history.
In great-power relations, Afghanistan was neutral until the late 1970s, receiving aid from both the United States and the Soviet Union.
In November, the United Nations imposed economic sanctions on Afghanistan; this action and the 1998 U.S. missile attacks were related to the Afghani refusal to turn over bin Laden.
www.infoplease.com /ce6/world/A0856490.html   (2205 words)

 Afghanistan's Web Site -@ Afghanistan History
The outline of the Afghanistan History In modern times, as well as in antiquity, will focus on vast armies of the world passing through Afghanistan, temporarily establishing local control.
Plant remains at the foothill of the Hindu Kush mountains indicate, that North Afghanistan was one of the earliest places to domestic plants and animals.
He was well on the road toward reunifying the whole of Afghanistan when the British, in collaboration with an ex-king (Shah Shuja), invade Afghanistan to curtail the growing Russian and Persian influence.
www.afghanistans.com /Information/History   (2369 words)

 Terrorism - Afghanistan and U.S. Foreign Policy
Still, with military action in Afghanistan expected soon, it is necessary to look hard at Afghanistan's past two decades of turmoil and seek to learn lessons from that past.
U.S. policy toward Afghanistan, Russia and the region during the 1980s helped, at least indirectly, nurture the growth of anti-American and fundamentalist forces now controlling Kabul, and indeed, even some of the terrorists now being sought by the United States for the Sept. 11 attacks against New York and Washington.
Keeping the lessons from recent Afghanistan history, Bush and his team need to aim not only for justice in the immediate aftermath of the attacks, but also for a wider solution to the question of Afghanistan as a failed state.
www.cdi.org /terrorism/afghanistan-history-pr.cfm   (1663 words)

 *Ø*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Ahmed Shah Massoud | Lion of Panjshir Ahmad Massoud Masoud Afghanistan
As we all know now, freedom-loving George W Bush had more important things to do at the country club and had never heard of any of these entities that his government was either supporting or turning a blind eye to.
However, in the real situation of the defence of a country that has been repeatedly invaded, from Genghiz Khan to the British (three times) the mighty Communist empire to the north (and of course more recently the 'Coalition of the Willing'), at least Ahmed Shah Massoud was incorruptible, merciful, and almost worshipped by his people.
And unlike the generals of the invaders, he fought on the battlefield with his men, resting in dirty caves and tents in boiling hot and sub-freezing temperatures in Afghanistan's parched desert valleys and deep-snow mountains, sleeping in a different bed most nights and eating the meagre rations of the guerrilla fighter.
www.wilsonsalmanac.com /ahmed_shah_massoud.html   (1629 words)

Afghanistan, approximately the size of Texas, is bordered on the north by Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan, on the extreme northeast by China, on the east and south by Pakistan, and by Iran on the west.
In the 19th century, Afghanistan became a battleground in the rivalry between imperial Britain and czarist Russia for control of Central Asia.
By mid-April 1992 Najibullah was ousted as Islamic rebels advanced on the capital.
www.factmonster.com /ipka/A0107264.html   (1503 words)

 Encyclopedia: History of Afghanistan since 1992   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
// History of Afghanistan Afghanistans history, internal political development, foreign relations, and very existence as an independent state have largely been determined by its geographic location at the crossroads of Central, West, and South Asia.
With material help from the Soviets, Mohammad Najibullah 's government survived, but after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, it was overthrown on April 18, 1992 the forces of Ahmed Shah Massoud and Abdul Rashid Dostum captured Kabul.
Afghanistan 's history, internal political development, foreign relations, and very existence as an independent state have largely been determined by its geographic location at the crossroads of Central, West, and South Asia.
www.nationmaster.com /encyclopedia/History-of-Afghanistan-since-1992   (523 words)

 History (from Afghanistan) --  Britannica Student Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
in the history of Afghanistan, the internal conflict (1978–92) between anticommunist Muslim guerrillas and the Afghan communist government (aided in 1979–89 by Soviet troops).
Afghanistan is a landlocked Islamic state in central Asia.
History is a science—a branch of knowledge that uses specific methods and tools to achieve its goals.
www.britannica.com /ebi/article-129452   (1317 words)

By mid-1998, the war in Afghanistan was well into its twentieth year.
Following the withdrawal of the last Soviet troops in 1988, the fall of the government of Dr. Najibullah in 1992 by resistance forces marked the beginning of a bloody civil war among shifting alignments of the resistance forces.
The history of bloodshed among all of these parties dates from before the fall of Dr. Najibullah’s government in 1992.
www.hrw.org /reports98/afghan/Afrepor0-01.htm   (917 words)

 The New Yorker: Fact   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The turmoil in Afghanistan has become a political issue for the Bush Administration, whose general conduct of the war on terrorism is being publicly challenged by Richard A. Clarke, the former National Security Council terrorism adviser, in a memoir, “Against All Enemies,” and in contentious hearings before the September 11th Commission.
Since the fall of 2002, a number of active-duty and retired military and C.I.A. officials have told me about increasing reports of heroin use by American military personnel in Afghanistan, many of whom have been there for months, with few distractions.
Afghanistan is regaining the Bush Administration’s attention, in part because the worsening situation in Iraq has increased the need for a foreign-policy success.
www.newyorker.com /fact/content?040412fa_fact   (5032 words)

 [No title]   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
It argues that `post-conflict' peace and reconstruction in Afghanistan may depend on a dramatic expansion of institutionalized economic interdependence: this will not necessarily require obeisance to standard international policy paradigms and it will have to draw on existing patterns of interdependence, even though many of these are rooted in brutally exploitative war economy conditions.
Afghanistan after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks in the U.S.; Establishment of a workable government; Election of the Loya Jirga, the country's legislative body.
Traces the history of Afghanistan from the late nineteenth century until prior to the arrival of the Taliban.
www.au.af.mil /au/aul/bibs/afgha03/afgha03.htm   (3898 words)

 53.AFGHANISTAN 1979-1992 America's Jihad   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
During this period, at least one president of the Afghanistan Students Association (ASA), Zia H. Noorzay, was working with the CIA in the United States and later became president of the Afghanistan state treasury.
Afghanistan was a cold-warrior's dream: The CIA and the Pentagon, finally, had one of their proxy armies in direct confrontation with the forces of the Evil Empire.
CIA-supplied trucks and mules, which had carried arms into Afghanistan, were used to transport some of the opium to the numerous laboratories along the Afghan-Pakistan border, whence many tons of heroin were processed with the cooperation of the Pakistani military.
members.aol.com /bblum6/afghan.htm   (7150 words)

 Ahmed Shah Massoud   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Following the collapse of Rabbani's government the rise of the Taliban Massoud became the military leader of Northern Alliance a coalition of various Afghani opposition in a prolonged civil war.
As the established control over most of Afghanistan Massoud's were increasingly forced into the mountainous areas the north where they controlled some 10% Afghanistan's territory and perhaps 30% of its
Massoud was the victim of a suicide which occurred at Khvajeh Ba Odin on September 9 2001 two days before the September 11 2001 Terrorist Attack in the United States a timing considered significant by some The attackers were two Arabs who claimed to be Belgians originally from Morocco.
www.freeglossary.com /Massoud   (592 words)

 Afghanistan (Country Profiles from National Geographic MapMachine)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Since Alexander the Great, invading armies and peaceful migrations have brought in diverse peoples to this Central Asian crossroads.
As a result, Afghanistan is a country of ethnic minorities: Pashtun (38 percent), Tajik (25 percent), Hazara (19 percent), and Uzbek (6 percent).
After decades of war, Afghanistan is rebuilding its economy and government.
plasma.nationalgeographic.com /mapmachine/profiles/af.html   (245 words)

 OpinionJournal - Extra
According to Afghanistan's laws on parties, one of the main conditions for establishing a party is to dissolve military sections; therefore, it seems that Afghanistan's active political parties have done an about-face in their policy by accepting this law.
Unlike in some conservative tribal areas of Afghanistan, women were actively encouraged to enroll to vote by the local Hazara religious and community leaders, and they have done so in numbers equal to their men.
Created in 1992 by France and Germany, it was later put at the service of the European Union and is certified as a NATO rapid reaction force.
www.opinionjournal.com /extra?id=110005512   (4754 words)

 Al-Zawahiri: Tapes and Intentions   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Following the collapse of Rabbani's government and the rise of the Taliban, Massoud became the military leader of the Northern Alliance, a coalition of various Afghani opposition groups in a prolonged civil war.
As the Taliban established control over most of Afghanistan, Massoud's forces were increasingly forced into the mountainous areas of the north, where they controlled some 10% of Afghanistan's territory and perhaps 30% of its population.
The French secret serve and the FBI then began working on tracing the route that the camera took between the time it was taken from Vincendet and the Massoud assassination.
www.freerepublic.com /focus/f-news/1211482/posts   (1156 words)

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