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Topic: History of Antarctica

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The two areas of Antarctica are separated by the Transantarctic Mts., an uplift zone of mountains that extends across the entire continent, although portions are buried under the ice cover.
Antarctica can be classified as a true desert; in the interior the average annual precipitation (in water) is only about 50 mm (about 2 in).
Antarctica was not discovered until the early 19th century, largely because of its remoteness from the other continents.
www.history.com /encyclopedia.do?articleId=201163   (3131 words)

 Snapshot of the Globe: Antarctica
Nearly all of Antarctica is covered by an ice sheet that is, on average, 2.5 kilometers thick.
The continent of Antarctica is located mostly south of the Antarctic Circle, surrounded by the Southern Ocean.
The portion of the continent west of the Weddell Sea and east of the Ross Sea is called Western Antarctica and the remainder Eastern Antarctica, since they correspond roughly to the eastern and western hemispheres relative to the Greenwich meridian.
www.sheppardsoftware.com /globeweb/snapshot/Snapshot-globe-2.htm   (463 words)

 Antarctica - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia
Antarctica, also known as Anartica, is a large mass of snow and ice found at the bottom of the Earth.
Above this rock is a vast glacier made up mostly of ice, but containing significant amounts of emperor penguin skeletons, unholy fossils, ground-up bits of sailing vessels from the age of exploration, and frozen alien space-ships.
Lovecraft documented the harrowing story of the Arkham Expidition to Antarctica in his article, "At the Mountains of Madness." In it, he chronicles the discovery of an ancient city founded millenia ago by a race of elder things, who were exterminated by hideous blobs called shoggoths.
uncyclopedia.org /wiki/Antarctica   (2354 words)

 Antarctica Tours -
Antarctica is the highest of all continents with a mean of approximately 2,050 meters above sea level.
If all the ice that conceals Antarctica were removed, the continent would be revealed as two different structures, separating by a basin extending from the Weddell to the Ross Seas, over which the ice has built a solid bridge.
The territory on the eastern side is called East Antarctica and is formed by a single continental plate, which represents the nucleus of the original continent.
www.antarcticatours.com /aboutantarctica.shtml   (712 words)

 Antarctica - Crystalinks
West Antarctica was partially in the northern hemisphere, and during this period large amounts of sandstones, limestones and shales were deposited.
East Antarctica was at the equator, where sea-floor invertebrates and trilobites flourished in the tropical seas.
The geological study of Antarctica has been greatly hindered by the fact that nearly all of the continent is permanently covered with a thick layer of ice.
www.crystalinks.com /antarctica.html   (3799 words)

 Antarctica Fact File - history of the land, a geological timeline of Antarctica
Antarctica Geological Timeline - A history of the land of Antarctica
Antarctica had been a part of "Gondwanaland" (an ancient super continent that was breaking up and doesn't exist any more) for about 200 million years.
Antarctica accepts the fact that it's a loner and becomes a rugged individualist being the coldest and windiest place on earth.
www.coolantarctica.com /Antarctica%20fact%20file/History/history_of_the_land_geological-timeline_of_antarctica.htm   (628 words)

 Antarctic History
In their three seasons in Antarctica, Charcot had surpassed everyone by a wide margin, even Bruce, in the volume and quality of his charts and scientific observations.
This history of occupancy forms a key element of the Argentinean claim to the Peninsula, but the first formal claim over Antarctic territory was made by Britain in 1908.
Before leaving Antarctica in February of 1948 (after its ship was freed by the icebreakers of Operation Windmill), the Ronne Expedition had achieved its major objectives, and it bore the distinction of being the first expedition in history to have women as winter-over members.
www.antarcticaonline.com /antarctica/history/history.htm   (14180 words)

 History of Antarctica - Biocrawler   (Site not responding. Last check: )
It is certain that on January 28, 1820 (New Style) the expedition led by Fabian von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Petrovich Lazarev on two ships reached a point within 20 miles (40 km) of the Antarctic mainland and saw ice-fields there.
Only slightly more than a year later, the first American landing on Antarctica was arguably by Captain John Davis, a sealer, who claimed to have set foot there on February 7, 1821[5] (http://www-old.aad.gov.au/environment/cultural_heritage/mawsons_hut_man_plan/03maws.pdf)[6] (http://www.wws.princeton.edu/cgi-bin/byteserv.prl/~ota/disk1/1989/8926/892604.PDF)[7] (http://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/resources/infosheets/19.html).
In 1898, they became the first men to spend winter on Antarctica, when their ship BELGICA became trapped in the ice.
www.biocrawler.com /encyclopedia/History_of_Antarctica   (1163 words)

 Importance of Antarctica
It is in Antarctica that the marine ecosystems dominate, the extreme seasonality of which causes many animals to migrate long distances for feeding and breeding especially noteworthy are the penguins, seals, and whales described in this presentation.
Antarctica is now hailed by many as a World Park, a continent of environmental protection and for science.
Expedition leaders in Antarctica generally talk by radio nightly during the busy summer season to exchange information about weather and animals as well as to negotiate their routes so that only one tour operator will be in each of the popular areas.
www.biosbcc.net /ocean/AAimportance.htm   (954 words)

 South-Pole.com: Arctic & Antarctic History on the Net
While the history of Arctic adventure essentially begins with the nineteenth century quest for the Northwest Passage and North Pole, the early explorers to Antarctic seas made sojourns solely for commercial reasons, some of which, incidentally, made new discoveries.
The first American casualties in Antarctica came in a tragic PBM Mariner "flying boat" crash on Thurston Island, southwest of Peter I Island, during this expedition.
In Antarctica, the Ross Sea, McMurdo Sound and Mt. Erebus are all famous landmarks named by their discoverer, Sir James Clark Ross.
www.south-pole.com /homepage.html   (1335 words)

 History - Wikinfo
History is often used as a generic term for information about the past, e.g., as in "geologic history of the Earth".
A form of historical speculation known commonly as virtual history (also called "counterfactual history") been adopted by some historians as a means of assessing and exploring the possible outcomes if certain events had not occurred or had occurred in a different way to that which they did.
You may also want to see dubious historical resources and historical myths for a list of false beliefs and histories which were once or are now popular and widespread, but which are proven to be false or dubious.
www.wikinfo.org /wiki.php?title=History   (1222 words)

 Antarctic History
Near the end of February, 1775, Cook crossed his track of 1772, completing the first circumnavigation of Antarctica and proving once and for all that the southern continent, if one existed, was neither as large nor as habitable as once thought.
While 3,730 tourists visited Antarctica on cruise ships in 1989-1990, during the 1995-1996 summer season there were 113 cruises carrying 9,212 passengers, a nearly 300% increase in traffic in only six years.
The first negative effect visited on Antarctica by human presence was pollution; early expeditions simply tossed all of their garbage and sewage overboard.
www.mastromedia.com /antarctica/history/history.htm   (14180 words)

 Lecturing and supervising
1995: Lecture on the Late Quaternary glacial history of Antarctica, Department of Physical Geography, University of Göteborg, Sweden.
1995: Lecture on the Late Quaternary history of the Barents Sea Ice Sheet at the University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
1997: Lecture on Late Quaternary glacial and climatic history of Antarctica, at Geological institute, Århus University, Denmark.
www.hi.is /~oi/lecturing_and_supervising.htm   (747 words)

 Antarctica - Its People, Cities, History and Culture.
This was the age when the great Antarctican cities began, from Delphia and Ipsolon along the southern shore, Suh on the western banks and Dell on the eastern, to the great glacier and quartz city of Urdz in the northern lands.
Here we can only repeat what the history has recorded, adding of course that the discovery of gunpowder is generally believed to not have been invented until much later.
As the Mimosans were slowly beaten back across the sands to their village, Antarcticans from nearby towns along the cove arrived, answering the alarms that had been sounded from the village's tower, and the birds that had been quickly dispatched with notes attached to their claws.
www.ralphrobertmoore.com /arc-history.html   (1989 words)

 Antarctica - The History of Antarctica
In 150 AD a Greek geographer, described a large mass to the south that he depicted as a place of evil, how he came to discover this is a complete mystery.
With all that ice and Antarctica locking away ¾'s of the earth's fresh water supply, it might surprise you to know that Antarctica is the driest continent on earth.
The East of Antarctica is higher in elevation owing to the formation mentioned earlier, thus the coldest section of the continent.
www.knet.co.za /antarctica/history.htm   (891 words)

 Antarctica facts, Antarctica travel videos, flags, photos - National Geographic   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Although the continent is still largely a mystery, what is known is that Antarctica's delicate ecosystem is in danger.
Scientists are studying environmental changes that have resulted in a vast decline in numbers of krill—tiny, shrimplike creatures that are the backbone of the food chain in the surrounding seas.
As Antarctica becomes less isolated, the challenge will be to protect these ecosystems and the seals, penguins, and whales that rely on them.
www3.nationalgeographic.com /places/continents/continent_antarctica.html   (276 words)

 Antarctica - Mountaineering and Polar Collections - National Library of Scotland   (Site not responding. Last check: )
At roughly the same time as Shackleton was failing narrowly to reach the Pole, the French explorer Jean Charcot was completing the second of his exploratory Antarctic voyages which surveyed a vast tract of coastline and amassed a wealth of scientific research.
Shackleton's expedition failed in its aim of crossing Antarctica via the Pole – indeed the main party on the 'Endurance' didn't even succeed in landing on the continent – but it survived an extraordinary series of adventures to provide one of the most famous of all Antarctic stories.
The National Library of Scotland has continued to collect materials relating to the scientific exploration of Antarctica, on the legal system that has evolved to regulate this activity and on the environmental issues resulting from the growing number of visitors to the continent.
www.nls.uk /collections/foreign/mountains/antarctica-2.html   (966 words)

 Piecing together Earth's tectonic past in Antarctica | SpaceRef - Your Space Reference
Antarctica currently consists of one plate, which is how scientists approached it when trying to put together models of the past.
Antarctica actually used to be two plates that pulled away from each other in the northern Ross Sea between 28 and 40 million years ago.
Antarctica's plate is bordered all the way around by spreading centers, which are places where two plates have moved apart, as opposed to areas of subduction, where two plates smashed together and one has been pushed under the other.
www.spaceref.com /news/viewpr.html?pid=18493   (1552 words)

 Antarctica Tours - History of Antarctica
Although Captain James Cook was the first recorded explorer to cross the Antarctic Circle in 1773, he was not the first to see Antarctica's landmass.
The treaty recognizes Antarctica's unique position on the planet as a shared environment to be used for peaceful purposes, and international cooperative scientific research.
Together, Antarctica would be used in the interests of all human progress and to better humankind.
www.adventure-life.com /antarctica/history.php   (776 words)

 Antarctic heritage and conservation - Natural History Museum
Antarctica's harsh environment has preserved these huts so far, but they are now in urgent need of care.
In a world-first for conservation, three conservators are spending the Antarctic winter in 24-hour darkness working on the restoration of the hut built by Ernest Shackleton for his 1908 expedition.
Read about the conservators' daily life in Antarctica and discover more about the huts and the conservation they are doing.
www.nhm.ac.uk /antarctica-blog   (335 words)

 Antarctica - History of the Australian nation
Antarctica encompasses the history of European discovery and Australian exploration of the Antarctic continent, subantarctic islands and the Southern Ocean, particularly the Australian Antarctic Territory.
Material is collected extensively documenting the activities and experiences of Australians in Antarctica, particularly expeditions, scientific and technological work relating to Australian government initiatives in the Antarctic region and the impact of discoveries and developments in the region on the lives and expectations of Australians.
Collecting reflects the changing patterns of Australian engagement with Antarctica, such as the growth of tourism from the late twentieth century.
www.sl.nsw.gov.au /doclifensw/history/antarctica.cfm   (526 words)

 History of Antarctica Details, Meaning History of Antarctica Article and Explanation Guide
In 1897, an expedition lead by Belgian Adrian de Gerlache left Antwerp, Belgium for Antarctica.
The ice shelf was 200 metres thick and had a surface area of 3,250 square kilometers.
This is an Article on History of Antarctica.
www.e-paranoids.com /h/hi/history_of_antarctica.html   (1008 words)

 Antarctica: History of Exploration — FactMonster.com
Antarctica's frigid nature was revealed by the second voyage (1772–75) of the English explorer Capt. James
The 1930s were a period of international rivalry in Antarctica, and the map was cut into wedgelike territorial claims that in some places overlapped.
The Russians concentrated on E Antarctica, building Mirnyy, a station on the Queen Mary Coast, and three bases inland: Komsomolskaya, Vostok (at the South Magnetic Pole), and Sovetskaya.
www.factmonster.com /ce6/world/A0856635.html   (2278 words)

 Call Antarctica - Cheap Calls to Antarctica
Antarctica from North America dial 1 + (area code) + (the local phone number).
This is a very popular way to make cheap calls to Antarctica because it offers very high quality connections and can be used from any kind of phone (home, business, cell or VoIP) without changing companies.
This is a good option if you stay in one location and want to make international calls to Antarctica and other locations.
www.smartglobalcall.com /call-antarctica.html   (388 words)

 Oceanic Society - Natural History Expeditions: Antarctica
Antarctica, the “White continent” is one of the last truly pristine regions on Earth.
A remarkable land of massive glaciers and ethereal icescapes, this region is also home to an enormous abundance of unique wildlife.
Throughout the voyage our team of lecturers and guides will share their knowledge of the regions remarkable natural history and stories from its earliest and most notable expeditions.
www.oceanic-society.org /pages/alltrips/trip1.html   (235 words)

 Antarctica travel and cruises to South Georgia, Falkland Islands, and Antarctica Peninsula.
Antarctica’s glaciers, massive rivers of ice, crunch, grind and calve their way into the sea.
Although there are no vertebrate animals on Antarctica’s interior (in fact, the land fauna consists of only a few invertebrate species, of which the largest is the dime-sized wingless midge), several kinds of birds populate the shorelines.
The early Greeks arrived at the idea of a southern continent not by observation of any phenomena, but by virtue of their ideals of symmetry: land to the north must be balanced by land to the south, otherwise the Earth would lose its equilibrium.
www.expeditiontrips.com /antarctica-travel.asp   (2736 words)

 Education World® - *History : By Region : Antarctica   (Site not responding. Last check: )
Antarctic Philatelic dedicated to the stamps and postal history of Antarctica and the subAntarctic islands.
Gateway to Antarctica History Offers photos of the two ships involved in the Race for the Pole.
Virtual Antarctica History Antarctic Treaty Discusses the treaty signed in 1959 limiting use of Antarctica strictly for scientific research.
db.education-world.com /perl/browse?cat_id=7998   (147 words)

 Antarctica Exploration: History of Antarctica Expeditions
Icebreakers and helicopters were used for the first time in Antarctica.
During this expedition, Ronne showed that the Antarctic Peninsula was connected to the rest of Antarctica, solving one of the last great mysteries of the continent.
Antarctica Notes: The glaciers of the Antarctic Peninsula are in rapid retreat
www.argentinianexplorer.com /english/antarctica-exploration.asp   (1090 words)

 ThinkQuest : Library Search
Our focus is to teach about the explorers, climate, land, ice formations, animals, and history of Antarctica.
"Antarctica" is a site that covers land we do not know.
Located at the South Pole, not only is it the coldest place on Earth, it is also the windiest, iciest, and the driest place in the world.
www.thinkquest.org /library/search.html?search_text=antarctica   (491 words)

Try your search on: Qwika (all wikis)

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