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Topic: History of brain imaging

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In the News (Tue 20 Aug 19)

  Human Brain...MedicalGeo.com
Brain stem structures are almost completely enveloped by the cerebellum and telencephalon, with only the medulla oblongata visible as it merges with the spinal cord.
Nerves from the brain stem complex where autonomic functions are modulated join nerves routing messages to and from the cerebrum in a bundle that passes through the spinal column to related parts of a body.
Brain imaging has allowed the function of the living brain to be studied in detail without damaging the brain.
www.medicalgeo.com /humanbrain.html   (1878 words)

 Neuroimaging - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Functional imaging is used to diagnose metabolic diseases and lesions on a finer scale (such as Alzheimer's disease) and also for neurological and cognitive science research and building brain-computer interfaces.
Typically used for quickly viewing brain injuries, CT scanning has a computer program that uses a set of algebraic equations to estimate how much of an x-ray beam is absorbed in a small volume of the brain.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was born, and since the 1990s, fMRI has come to dominate the brain mapping field due to its low invasiveness, lack of radiation exposure, and relatively wide availability.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Brain_imaging   (1764 words)

 NIDA NOTES - Brain Imaging Studies Show Long-Term Damage From Methamphetamine Abuse
Thomas Ernst and Dr. Linda Chang at the Harbor-UCLA Medical Center in Torrance, California, used a noninvasive brain imaging technique called magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to measure levels of brain chemicals that indicate whether brain cells are healthy or are diseased or damaged.
These brain regions were selected because they are areas of high activity of dopamine, a neurotransmitter involved in the "rush" and pleasure associated with addictive drugs.
Neurons in three areas of the brain show changes in levels of brain chemicals that serve as indicators of health of brain cells.
www.nida.nih.gov /NIDA_Notes/NNVol15N3/Brain.html   (726 words)

 Brain Attack
Brain cells die when they no longer receive oxygen and nutrients from the blood or when they are damaged by sudden bleeding into or around the brain.
Some brain damage that results from stroke may be secondary to the initial death of brain cells caused by the lack of blood flow to the brain tissue.
In some stroke patients, pathways for sensation in the brain are damaged, causing the transmission of false signals that result in the sensation of pain in a limb or side of the body that has the sensory deficit.
www.satyamfoundation.org /brain/index1.htm   (15103 words)

 History of Schizophrenia Research   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Thus most of the work done in the past century to investigate brain structural abnormalities in schizophrenia was based on methods that were crude, prone to error, and it therefore did not further our knowledge and understanding of brain abnormalities in schizophrenia.
In fact, early documentation of abnormal brain structures from post-mortem studies of schizophrenia led to the formulation of quite specific hypotheses concerning the relations between brain and behavior.
This one study led to numerous CT studies which confirmed abnormalities in the brains of schizophrenic patients, and this one study led to a renewed interest in investigating such abnormalities in schizophrenia.
splweb.bwh.harvard.edu:8000 /pages/projects/schiz/s_history.html   (514 words)

 The History of Brain SPECT Imaging
The history of SPECT Brain Imaging began with the first SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography) imaging device being developed in the early 1960's by David Edwards and Roy Kuhl.
It was not until advancements in nuclear imaging technology in the 1980's and 1990's that SPECT began to show promise as a diagnostic tool in the clinical environment.
Today, SPECT imaging is recognized as one of the best imaging modalities to measure brain function and is frequently used in the diagnosis of Traumatic Brain Injury, Alzheimer's, Seizure Mapping, and is being increasingly used as a diagnostic tool for ADD/ADHD, Bipolar Disorder, Depression, Anxiety Disorders, OCD - Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, and other psychiatric conditions.
www.brainmattersinc.com /history_of_spect.html   (252 words)

 Clinical Hypotheses in Brain and Immuno-imaging
Scientists, using either conventional brain imaging techniques, newly emerging cellular and molecular imaging technologies, or a combination of both, are supported to undertake pilot tests of novel hypotheses.
In a preliminary investigation using diffusion tensor tractography, a sensitive measure of brain microstructure, to evaluate corticospinal tract development in term newborns with congenital heart disease, we found that newborns with brain injury prior to cardiac surgery had impaired maturation of the corticospinal tracts from the pre- to post-operative periods 1.
We intend to use this state-of-the-art brain imaging technique to examine the maturation of dendritic filopodia and their role in synapse and spine formation during normal development and in fragile X mice.
www.dana.org /grants/health/brainimmunoimaging.cfm   (17547 words)

 SPECT Brain SPECT Imaging Information and Resources   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
When the brain is hurt or damaged (such as when a computer does not have enough RAM, speed, or storage space), we cannot run these software programs efficiently, and end up with a troubled life.
Since the brain is recognized as the organ of behavior, it makes sense that brain problems, such as Alzheimer's disease, attention deficit disorder, schizophrenia or brain trauma is likely to decrease a person's effectiveness in life.
Imaging the brain helps mental health professionals be more effective, decreases stigma and increases compliance for patients.
www.brainplace.com /bp/articles.php?articleID=20   (3816 words)

 Brain Tumors
Tumors that begin in brain tissue are known as primary brain tumors.
Primary brain tumors are classified by the type of tissue in which they begin.
Because brain tumors sometimes occur in several members of the same family, researchers are studying families with a history of brain tumors to see whether heredity is a factor.
www.fhcrc.org /research/diseases/brain_tumors   (835 words)

 Brain Imaging & Human Psychophysiology
We are especially pleased to announce that in the late Fall of 1999, students will also have the opportunity of working in the Waisman Laboratory for Brain Imaging and Behavior.
They have recently begun using functional magnetic brain imaging as a tool to identify these general cognitive processes and mechanisms.
Topics motivating recent and current research include: the organization of working memory function in prefrontal cortex; the differential contributions of prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia to visual working memory; nonmnemonic control processes that contribute to working memory performance; the mechanisms underlying repetition priming phenomena; and a novel mechanism that may support spatial working memory performance.
psych.wisc.edu /gradstudies/NewImaging.html   (828 words)

 People - Neuroethics Imaging Group - Stanford Center for Biomedical Ethics (SCBE) - Stanford University School of ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
He was a Postdoctoral Fellow at the Neuroethics Imaging Group from 2004 to 2006.
The Neuroethics Imaging Group and the Neuroethics Research Unit collaborate on a number of projects on cognitive enhancement, public understanding of neuroscience and the clinical application of neurological sciences.
Her focus is on the history of brain imaging technologies and cerebral localization theory in the neurosciences.
neuroethics.stanford.edu /people.html   (1136 words)

 Shared Vision and Brain Imaging Center
The scope of vision research at UH is broad, ranging from studies of the molecular mechanisms of signal transduction in individual neurons, to investigations of the relationship between brain structure and function, to quantitative modeling of higher-order brain processing.
It is also significant that NIH, in recognition of the critical role that imaging will play in future biomedical research, has recently established an institute to develop and maintain extramural centers dedicated to molecular/functional imaging research.
In addition, Vision Core participants primarily in the Departments of Electrical Engineering and Biology and Biochemistry have five additional NIH grants that include a strong vision component, and established investigators in Cognitive Psychology are involved in federally supported brain imaging projects.
www.uhsa.uh.edu /gov/federal/2005/4c_brainimaging.html   (473 words)

 Arch Neurol -- Abstract: The Natural History of the Syndrome of Primary Progressive Freezing Gait, November 2002, ...
Arch Neurol -- Abstract: The Natural History of the Syndrome of Primary Progressive Freezing Gait, November 2002, Factor et al.
brain and results of neurological evaluations, including the
imaging scans, results were normal in 9 and included minor nonspecific
archneur.ama-assn.org /cgi/content/abstract/59/11/1778   (307 words)

 Principles and Use of Computer Assisted Tomography -- CAT Scans --
Newer machines with faster computer systems and newer software strategies can process not only individual cross sections but continuously changing cross sections as the gantry, with the object to be imaged, is slowly and smoothly slid through the X-ray circle.
With the advent of subsecond rotation combined with multi-slice CT (up to 64 slices), high resolution and high speed can be obtained at the same time, allowing excellent imaging of the coronary arteries.
iodinated contrast than barium due to the tendency of barium to cause imaging artifacts that limit evaluation of abdominal structures).
www.edinformatics.com /inventions_inventors/cat_scans.htm   (889 words)

 Office of NIH History
Claudia Wassmann, " Imaging the Brain, Finding Emotion: A History of Brain Imaging and Research in Emotion at the NIH," January 24, 2006.
Valerie Williams, "From Bedside-to-Bench and Back: A History of the First Effective Treatment for Sickle Cell Disease," November 4, 2003.
Jessie Saul, "Blood Safety at NIH: The history of blood safety practices, policies, and property at NIH, 1945-2003." June 17, 2003.
history.nih.gov /01docs/historical/2025b.htm   (595 words)

 HISTNEUR-L (The History of Neuroscience Internet Forum) Archives 2006 Index
Lecture: "Imaging the Brain, Finding Emotion: A History of Brain Imaging and Research in Emotion at the NIH" by Claudia Wassmann (NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, 24 January 2006)
Seminar: "The Brain from a Biophysicochemist's and Systemicist's point-of-view" by Christian Haan (Goldsmiths College, University of London: 4-5 April 2006)
Conference: International Society for the History of the Neurosciences - ISHN (Pavia, Italy, 21-25 June 2006)
www.bri.ucla.edu /nha/hnl/msg06hnl.htm   (595 words)

 History of neuroimaging - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Edward J. Hoffman and Michael Phelps developed the first human PET scanner in 1973.
Brain atlases are simply maps of what normal functioning brains look like (Thompson, Bioinformatics).
This page was last modified 12:54, 17 October 2006.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/History_of_brain_imaging   (3300 words)

 Brain Imaging   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Scanning the Brain - What is a Brain Scan, Anyway?
Brainwaves and EEG - The Language of the Brain
Foundations of FMRI - History and Principles of MRI from J.Shorey at Duke University
www.ihcworld.com /neuroscience/brain_imaging.htm   (183 words)

 1998 Annual Meeting - Williamsburg   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-05)
Review Basic Anatomy and Physiology of the Brain, Joseph M. Jenerette, III, MD
Evolutionary History of Brain Imaging, Lawrence Rothenberg, PhD
Diseases or Conditions Treated with Radiation Therapy of the Brain, Joseph M. Jenerette, III, MD
www.acmp.org /meetings/williamsburg_1998/brainworkshop.html   (116 words)

 Brain Imaging
Division of Nuclear Pharmacy • 575 Stadium Mall Drive, Room 308 • West Lafayette, IN 47907-2091
Highly lipophilic molecules (such as exametazime) will penetrate the protective blood brain barrier and be taken up in the brain tissues.
Since uptake will be proportional to regional blood flow, the amount of tracer deposited will be indicative of how much blood flow reaches a particular area.
nuclear.pharmacy.purdue.edu /what_brain.php   (140 words)

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