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Topic: History of the Ottoman Empire


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  Ottoman Empire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
With the westward territorial expansion of the Mongol Empire, the Kayı became a puppet and vassal of the Il Khanate of the Mongols.
The Ottoman defeat at the naval Battle of Lepanto (1571) weakened the Ottoman grip on the waters of the Mediterranean Sea, and was considered by earlier historians to mark the beginning of Ottoman decline.
Ultimately, the Ottoman Empire's relatively high degree of tolerance for ethnic differences proved to be one of its greatest strengths in integrating the new regions until the rise of nationalism (this non-assimilative policy became a weakness during the dissolution of the empire that neither the first or second parliaments could successfully address).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/History_of_the_Ottoman_Empire   (9103 words)

  
 Economic history of the Ottoman Empire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Prior to the Siege of Vienna, Ottoman Empire was not subjected to regular diplomatic customs, nor was it recognizing the right to existence of the Christian states, which were considered tolerated enemies.
The task of uniting Ottoman Empire to this international trade was achieved through linking millet (Ottoman Empire) that wanted (capable) of communicating with European traders.
The GDP of the empire was tripled between 1890 to WWI.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Economic_history_of_the_Ottoman_Empire   (1523 words)

  
 Royalty.nu - Sultans of the Ottoman Empire - History of Turkey
The Ottoman Empire arose from a Turkish principality founded in Anatolia (Asia Minor) at the end of the 13th century, when the empire of the Seljuk Turks had collapsed and the Byzantine Empire was crumbling.
The modernization of the empire during the 19th and early 20th centuries, the spread of nationalism, the empire's demise, and the rise of the Republic of Turkey.
A Monetary History of the Ottoman Empire by Sevket Pamuk.
www.royalty.nu /history/empires/Ottoman   (2583 words)

  
 History of the Ottoman Empire, an Islamic Nation   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
This brought the empire to the peak of its territorial extent.
Nevertheless, by mid-century it was evident that the Ottoman cause was hopeless.
The Ottomans were forced to sign the harsh Treaty of San Stefano, which would have ended their rule in Europe except that the European states called the Congress of Berlin.
www.sephardiccouncil.org /sages/turkey.html   (2002 words)

  
 History of the Ottoman Empire - Decline and Fall
But in the 17th c., the Ottomans were confronted by an extended arc of opponents, Venice, Austria, Poland, Russia, and Iran, often obliged to confront several at once.
In the 1850s-60s, intellectuals known as the New Ottomans” engaged in a liberal critique of Tanzimat policies with emphasis on fatherland (vatan), freedom (hurriget), and constitutionalism.
With even the heartlands of the Empire partitioned and Istanbul occupied by the victorious allies, the Turks of Anatolia under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) rejected the terms of the dictated Treaty of Sevres.
www.turizm.net /turkey/history/ottoman3.html   (1362 words)

  
 Ottoman Empire History Encyclopedia - Letter A | Learn Ottoman Turkish History | Pictures | Sound files | Voice ...
Ottoman Empire to perform the most menial tasks, while they were in training to become members of the elite Janissary Corps.
Ottoman Turkish troops that fought on the Byzantine frontier.
A unit of Ottoman measurement, one arşun was the modern equivalent of 75.8 cm.
www.learningpracticalturkish.com /encyclopedia-a.html   (3914 words)

  
 Albanian Information - Albanian.com
Owing partly to the weakness of the Byzantine Empire, Albania, beginning in the 9th century, came under the domination, in whole or in part, of a succession of foreign powers: Bulgarians, Norman crusaders, the Angevins of southern Italy, Serbs, and Venetians.
The basis of Ottoman rule in Albania was a feudalmilitary system of landed estates, called timars, which were awarded to military lords for loyalty and service to the empire.
As Ottoman power began to decline in the 18th century, the central authority of the empire in Albania gave way to the local authority of autonomy-minded lords.
www.albanian.com /main/history/ottoman.html   (864 words)

  
 Ottoman Empire History Encyclopedia | Learn Ottoman Turkish History | Pictures | Sound files | Voice recordings
1687 that was marked by sultanates dominated by powerful women at the Ottoman Court -- usually the wife or Valide of the 'ruling' male sultan.
The period was ushered in by Hürrem Sultan in the latter years of Süleyman the Magnificent's rule and ended with Turhan Hatice Sultan at the time that Mehmed IV was deposed subsequent to Kara Mustafa Paşa's failure at Vienna in 1683.
History buff: As a sideline to his affairs of state, Rüstem was also an amatuer historian -- whose work entitled Tarih-i Âl-i Osman (Ottoman History) was published in Germany during his lifetime.
www.practicalturkish.com /encyclopedia-r.html   (892 words)

  
 History of THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
The Ottoman army is allowed three days of pillage (a depressing convention of medieval warfare), but Mehmed keeps it under tolerable control.
But in the early years of the 17th century the Ottoman empire stretches from Buda in the west to the Caspian in the east (with the client states of Walachia and Moldavia bringing the Turkish domain up round the Black Sea as far as the Crimea).
The Ottoman governor of Egypt and his unruly Mameluke forces are ill-prepared to cope with such an invasion, though the condition of Napoleon's army does much to level the odds - after being shipped from France and marching south through the desert, from Alexandria to Cairo, in the midsummer heat.
www.historyworld.net /wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=ab37   (1683 words)

  
 History of The Ottoman Empire - Time of Fatih Mehmet the Conquerer
Devotes his energy to reunification of Ottoman lands and reconsolidation of sultan’s authority; European territories kept fairly intact and most Anatolian provinces recovered; avoiding unnecessary foreign conflicts, Mehmet provides a breathing period in which to heal wounds and reintegrate previous conquests.
War with Hungary provokes another crusade against Ottomans; coalition of Hungary, Poland, Bosnia, Wallachia, and Serbia led by the Hungarian, John Hunyadi, wins a victory; Murat signs ten-year truce at Szegedin (1444), voluntarily abdicates in favor of his 14-year-old son, Mehmet, and retires to life of religious study and contemplation.
Ottomans invade Bosnia in 1453; Bosnian nobles refuse to support Catholic king, Stephen, and hand over fortresses to Mehmet, many converting to Islam at the same time, thus beginning the process which ultimately sees most Bosnians become Muslims.
www.turizm.net /turkey/history/ottoman1.html   (666 words)

  
 Ottoman Empire: History
The Ottoman state began as one of many small Turkish states that emerged in Asia Minor during the breakdown of the empire of the Seljuk Turks.
at the expense of the Byzantine Empire, Bulgaria, and Serbia.
The Ottoman siege of Constantinople was lifted at the appearance of
www.infoplease.com /ce6/history/A0860176.html   (979 words)

  
 Ottoman Empire History Encyclopedia | Learn Ottoman Turkish History | Pictures | Sound files | Voice recordings
The chief administrative unit of the Ottoman Empire, governed by a sancak beyi; subdivision of a beylerbeyilik.
The 10th Ottoman Sultan, reached power upon the death of his father, Selim I (The Grim) without the usual need to fight his way to the throne.
He inherited an Empire that was thriving and respected, and he proceeded to improve on it dramatically.
www.practicalturkish.com /encyclopedia-s.html   (6963 words)

  
 Art History Palestine- History of Art Palestine - Art History Palestine in Ottoman Empire - Ottoman Art History
Under the Ottoman Turks (1516-1916), Palestine continued to be linked administratively to Damascus until 1830, when it was placed under Sidon; then under Acre; then once again under Damascus until 1887-88, at which time the administrative divisions of the Ottoman Empire were settled for the last time.
The prosperity of 16th-century Ottoman Palestine was followed by an economic and political decline in the 17th century.
When in 1840 the British, the Austrians, and the Russians came to the aid of the Ottomans, the Egyptians were forced to withdraw and Palestine reverted to the Ottoman Empire.
www.easterncorner.com /Palestine.htm   (957 words)

  
 Art History Macedonia - History of Art Macedonia - Art History Macedonia in Ottoman Empire - Ottoman Art History
The Ottoman Empire originated in a small emirate established in the second half of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia.
During the expansionist phase of the empire, Turkish feudalism consisted principally of the timar system of "tax farming," whereby local officeholders raised revenue or supported troops in the sultan's name but were not landowners.
The çiftlik thus yielded the paradox of a population that was heavily influenced by Ottoman culture yet bound into an increasingly oppressive economic subordination to Turkish landlords.
www.easterncorner.com /Macedonia.htm   (949 words)

  
 The Ottomans   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
The empire they built was the largest and most influential of the Muslim empires of the modern period, and their culture and military expansion crossed over into Europe.
Like that earlier expansion, the Ottomans established an empire over European territory and established Islamic traditions and culture that last to the current day (the Muslims in Bosnia are the last descendants of the Ottoman presence in Europe).
While historians like to talk about empires in terms of growth and decline, the Ottomans were a force to be reckoned with, militarily and culturally, right up until the break-up of the empire in the first decades of this century.
www.wsu.edu:8080 /~dee/OTTOMAN/OTTOMAN1.HTM   (417 words)

  
 Amazon.com: Lords of the Horizons: A History of the Ottoman Empire: Books: Jason Goodwin   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey by Stanford J. Shaw
The history is confined mostly to its beginning and end; the core of the book is a lengthy, wide-ranging meditation on Ottoman culture at its peak, based largely on travel accounts and primary sources.
Goodwin writes, in essence, that, well, there was a lot of confusion in the final days of the Ottoman Empire, a lot of people died, and the muslims, being confused and fearful over the fall of their empire, lashed out against the Armenians.
www.amazon.com /Lords-Horizons-History-Ottoman-Empire/dp/0312420668   (1749 words)

  
 History of THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
And the sultan in Istanbul is free to turn his attention to the perennial problems on his western flank, in the Balkans.
During the 17th and 18th centuries there are frequent adjustments in the Balkan frontiers between the Turks and the neighbouring Austrian empire to the west.
The Crimean War does not greatly affect the Ottoman territories in the Balkans (a Russian army reaches but does not cross the Danube), and the years after the war are relatively quiet as the administration in Istanbul attempts to introduce measures of reform - and wins international approval for its efforts.
www.historyworld.net /wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?groupid=283&HistoryID=ab37   (2772 words)

  
 Amazon.ca: Osman's Dream: The History of the Ottoman Empire: Books: Caroline Finkel   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
The Fall of the Roman Empire: A New History of Rome and the Barbarians by Peter Heather
What Finkel calls the "old" narrative of the Ottoman Empire is simple to relate: "it rose, declined, and fell." An exotic parade of salacious sultans, grand viziers and duplicitous eunuchs inhabit the sultry harems and domed palaces of Istanbul—at least in our imaginations.
By presiding over their multiethnic empire for so long, and ushering it from medievalism to modernity, the Ottomans should be ranked alongside the Hapsburgs and the Romanovs, she argues.
www.amazon.ca /Osmans-Dream-History-Ottoman-Empire/dp/0465023967   (529 words)

  
 Amazon.co.uk: Lords of the Horizons : A History of the Ottoman Empire: Books: Jason Goodwin   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
The Ottoman Centuries: The Rise and Fall of the Turkish Empire by Patrick Balfour Kinross
The book charts its history from the first campaigns to the Charge of the Light Brigade, from the Crusades to the Dardanelles, and aims to bring to life details of Ottoman life.
The chapters on the "cage", the harem and the early expansion of the Empire are excellent.
www.amazon.co.uk /Lords-Horizons-History-Ottoman-Empire/dp/0099994003   (1069 words)

  
 Brief history of The Ottoman Empire
One family reigned over the Ottoman Empire for seven centuries, and, unlike most dynasties, they ruled in an unbroken line, thirty-six of them altogether, from the 13th century until the 20th century.
The Western world called them Ottoman, but their Turkish name is Osmanli, taken from the first ruler of the Ottoman state, Osman.
Upon Süleyman’s demise, the gradual decline of the Ottoman Empire began, finally disintegrating completely three hundred years later in 1924 when Kemal Ataturk abolished the Muslim caliphate and founded the Republic of Turkey.
www.wan-press.org /article2998.html   (320 words)

  
 History of the Ottoman Empire, an Islamic Nation where Jews Lived
Although Islamic, Ottoman sultans were not averse to using whatever talent they could attract or sometimes, capture.
The Ottomans were forced to sign the Treaty of San Stefano, which would have ended their rule in Europe except that the European states called the Congress of Berlin.
Abdulhamid II (ruled 1876-1909) developed strong ties with Germany, and the Ottomans fought on Germany's side in World War I. Russia hoped to use the war as an excuse to gain access to the Mediterranean and perhaps capture Constantinople.
www.sephardicstudies.org /ottoemp.html   (1946 words)

  
 A Monetary History of the Ottoman Empire
Furthermore, I also believe that a proper knowledge of economic history must be informed by a command of monetary history (and monetary economics, of course), one of the most difficult forms of history to produce well.
But monetary and more general economic history of these Turkish-ruled lands are not discussed in isolation, they are admirably integrated into the mainstream themes of European and Asian economic history, particularly in analyses of commercial relationships, specie flows, and monetary changes within and among these various areas in the Mediterranean basin especially.
This chapter is of particular interest in utilizing the author's own extensive and invaluable research on Ottoman prices, allowing him to critique and modify, though substantially support, the earlier and renowned work of O. Barkan, segregating the impact of debasements from the other monetary forces examined.
eh.net /bookreviews/library/0555.shtml   (952 words)

  
 Amazon.com: History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey: Books: Stanford J. Shaw   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-10-31)
Empire of the Gazis: The Rise and Decline of the Ottoman Empire, 1280-1808 is the first book of the two-volume History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey.
The rise of the Ottoman dynasty to rule much of Europe and Asia is one of the most remarkable stories in history.
This, the second of a two-volume work, ought to have been a standard history of the Ottoman Empire; it falls far short of expectations, however, due to the very large number of simple factual errors it contains, as well as the authors' bias toward nationalist Turkish interpreations of the recent past.
www.amazon.com /History-Ottoman-Empire-Modern-Turkey/dp/0521291631   (1897 words)

  
 Ottoman Empire: History
1402: The Ottomans are heavily defeated by Timur Lenk near Ankara, leading to a weakening that should last for a few decades.
But the Ottoman empire would return to its old strength.
1920: The Ottoman empire is forced to sign the Treaty of Sèvres, leading to the loss of Arab territories and a partition of Anatolia.
i-cias.com /e.o/ottomans_4.htm   (467 words)

  
 An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire - Cambridge University Press
An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire
This major contribution to Ottoman history is now published in paperback in two volumes: the original single hardback volume (1994) has been widely acclaimed as a landmark in the study of one of the most enduring and influential empires of modern times.
The authors provide a richly detailed account of the social and economic history of the Ottoman region, from the origins of the Empire around 1300 to the eve of its destruction during World War One.
www.cambridge.org /catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=0521574552   (369 words)

  
 WHKMLA : History of the Ottoman Empire, ToC
Jason Goodwin, Lords of the Horizons : A History of the Ottoman Empire, Henry Holt 1999, KMLA Lib.Sign.
Halil Inalcik, An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire, Vol.I : 1300-1600, Cambridge : UP 1994, KMLA Lib.Sign.
The Ethnic Cleansing of Ottoman Muslims, 1821-1922, Princeton, NJ : Darwin Press 1995 [G] Peter Mansfield, The Ottoman Empire and its Successors, London : MacMillan (1973) 1976 [G] Norman Itzkowitz, Ottoman Empire and Islamic Tradition, Chicago UP 1972 [G] John Freely, Istanbul, the Imperial City.
www.zum.de /whkmla/region/asmin/xottoman.html   (419 words)

  
 Bibliography on Ottoman History
, A History of the Ottoman Empire to 1730, Cambridge, 1976, chapters from the Cambridge History of Islam and the New Cambridge Modern History by V. Parry, R. Inalcik, A. Kurat, and J. Bromley.
*Tardy, Lajos, Beyond the Ottoman Empire: 14th-16th Century Hungarian Diplomacy in the East, trans.
*Howard, Douglas, "Ottoman Historiography and the Literature of 'Decline' of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries," Journal of Asian History, XXII (1988), 52-77
www.ata.boun.edu.tr /Student_Resources/B_Ottoman.html   (8089 words)

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