History of the Persian language - Factbites
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Topic: History of the Persian language

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 The Persian Alphabet
The Persian language (or called Farsi by speakers) has a rich history going back many thousands of years and containing many volumes of stories, history, poetry, and scientific works.
After the introduction of Islam, Persian used the Arabic script with a few extra letters.
So, the word "รบ" in Persian meaning he or she, has to be written with an alef.
www.geocities.com /Athens/Academy/9594/farsi.html   (466 words)

His approach to language history was quite novel in that he took into account together historical grammar proper, the entire philological evidence, and the facts of cultural history such as language contacts and sociolinguistic influences.
Being the scion of an old family coming from the historical province of Bourbonnais and the son of a notary, Meillet became one of the leading linguists of his time, particularly in the field of historical-comparative philology of the Indo-European languages.
But the language was not yet integrated by him into the whole of the Iranian languages (this remained to be done by his pupil Benveniste in the revised edition).
www.iranica.com /articles/sup/Meillet.html   (2530 words)

 Third Way
Was it from this point in our history, which accidentally or evidently was accompanied by many great changes and development of Persian language that man came to be used as I? On the other hand, according to Webster English Dictionary, man means Mind.
In Old Persian language, man meant ‘thought’ and from somewhere in the Persian history it became to mean ‘I,’ and not only to mean I but man is ‘I’ in Persian.
In the mystical language of the great Persian poet-mystic Atar, it is the seventh City of Love, when Lover dissolves in Beloved, or when ‘the drop returns to the ocean’ in Molavi’s Mysticism.
www.payvand.com /news/05/feb/1159.html   (1842 words)

 Middle East Fellowships
ARIT/NEH Advanced Fellowships cover all fields of the humanities, including prehistory, history, art, archaeology, literature, and linguistics as well as interdisciplinary aspects of cultural history for applicants who have completed their academic training.
Purpose: To support students pursuing the study of languages, cultures, and world regions which are critical to U.S. national security, but which are less frequently studied by U.S. graduate students
Post-doctoral fellowships up to $11,500 for two to three months periods for research in any field of the social sciences or humanities, to be carried out in Turkey by scholars from the Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, or Slovakia.
www.umich.edu /~iinet/cmenas/student/studentfunding.htm   (1444 words)

In the areas controlled by HVO ("Herzeg-Bosnia"), the curriculum was taken from Croatia, with the emphasis on Croatian as the only official label for the language spoken and used, the use of Latin alphabet, the Croatian nationhood and its history, culture, literature, traditions, and Roman Catholic religion.
Current discussions in certain countries (such as Germany) could only postpone somewhat a massive return because of the winter, but spring and summer 1997 would be the critical periods for the return of refugees.
These problems include their inability to speak the language of their new friends, or not to be able to adjust properly into the postwar Bosnian reality.
www.ginie.org /countries/bosnia/e/analysis.html   (13845 words)

 Persian Literature, an English article
In India, Persian language and poetry became the vogue with the ruling classes, and at the court of the Moghul emperor Akbar Persian was adopted as the official language; spreading thence and fusing later with Hindi, it gave rise to the Urdu tongue.
Though existing fragments of Persian verse are believed to date from as early as the eighth century A.D., the history of Persian literature proper begins with the lesser dynasties of the ninth and tenth centuries that emerged with the decline of the Caliphate.
The Old Persian of the Achaemenian Empire, preserved in a number of cuneiform inscriptions, was an Indo-European tongue with close affinities with Sanskrit and Avestan (the language of the Zoroastrian sacred texts).
www.iranonline.com /literature/Articles/Persian-literature   (2563 words)

 THE IRANIAN: Features: Language, Persian or Farsi
This attempt to replace the word "Persian" with "Farsi" is not only incongruous with the history of the language but also creates confusion and misunderstanding.
We should therefore avoid the use of the word Farsi instead of Persian (or Persan in French) because it not only violates historical fact but also some of the regularities of the language in which we speak.
Persian, the term used for centuries in the West, originated in a region of southern Iran formerly known as Persis.
www.iranian.com /Features/Dec97/Persian   (1032 words)

 Farsi, the most widely spoken Persian Language, a Farsi Dictionary, Farsi English Dictionary, The spoken language in Iran, History of Farsi Language, Learn Farsi, Farsi Translation
Persian Language, also known as Farsi, is the most widely spoken member of the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian languages, a subfamily of the Indo-European languages.
Avestan, probably spoken in the northeast of ancient Persia, is the language of the Avesta, the sacred scriptures of Zoroastrianism.
Parthian was the language of the Arsacid or Parthian Empire (circa 250 BC-AD 226).
www.farsinet.com /farsi   (1134 words)

 UCLA Language Materials Project Language Profiles Page
Each Language Profile includes information about the historical, cultural, and social roots of the language, a map showing where the language is spoken, basic facts about the grammar, writing systems, and history of the language, and a wealth of other sociolinguistic information.
Each page also includes contains links to the LMP citations for that language and a list of websites of interest to teachers and learners of the language.
The links are located at the top of the Profile page, just under the language name.
www.lmp.ucla.edu /profiles/profp01.htm   (132 words)

 CSUF and Iranian Cultural Center Work to Provide Persian Language Classes
“Both Cal State Fullerton and the Iranian Cultural Center wanted to find a way to introduce the Persian culture to Americans, as well as teach Iranian-American students – many of whom have lived their entire lives in the United States – about the Persian language and culture,” said Touraj Daryaee, professor of history.
But as luck would have it, members of the Iranian Cultural Center, a group that seeks to preserve and advance knowledge of Persian language, literature and culture, approached Daryaee.
This fall, a new language offering was made possible through a collaboration with the Iranian Cultural Center of Orange County.
campusapps.fullerton.edu /news/university/2003/persianlang_classes.html   (554 words)

 Old Persian Language
An introduction to the history of Persian language.
The Old persian language was one of the original Iranian languages.
The aim of the Achaemenid Royal Inscriptions project is to create an electronic study edition of the inscriptions of the Achaemenid Persian kings in all of their versions--Old Persian, Elamite, Akkadian, and, where appropriate, Aramaic and Egyptian.
www.perlit.sailorsite.net /oldper.html   (91 words)

 Farsi, the most widely spoken Persian Language, a Farsi Dictionary, Farsi English Dictionary, The spoken language in Iran, History of Farsi Language, Learn Farsi, Farsi Translation
Old Persian is recorded in the southwest in cuneiform inscriptions of the Persian kings of the Achaemenid dynasty (circa 550-330 BC), notably Darius I and Xerxes I. Old Persian and Avestan have close affinity with Sanskrit, and, like Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin, are highly inflected languages.
Persian Language, also known as Farsi, is the most widely spoken member of the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian languages, a subfamily of the Indo-European languages.
Parthian was the language of the Arsacid or Parthian Empire (circa 250 BC-AD 226).
www.farsinet.com /farsi   (1134 words)

 Ancient History Sourcebook: Accounts of Persian "Despotism" and Law,
If it please the king, let an irrevocable royal decree be issued by him and inscribed among the laws of the Persians and Medes, forbidding Vashti to come into the presence of King Ahasuerus and authorizing the king to give her royal dignity to one more worthy than she.
Now the royal judges are certain picked men among the Persians, who hold their office for life, or until they are found guilty of some misconduct.
The second was the slaying of his sister, who had accompanied him into Egypt, and lived with him as his wife, though she was his full sister, the daughter both of his father and his mother.
www.fordham.edu /halsall/ancient/persianlaw.html   (581 words)

 Iranica.com - HINZ, (A.) WALTHER
Subsequent to his appointment in Göttingen, Hinz devoted more and more of his time to research in the history and languages of ancient Persia.
Hinz took the study of the languages of Persia seriously, and even published lexicographical articles despite the fact that he was an historian, for he was committed to making accessible the original source materials themselves for historical analysis.
Hinz's edition of a 14th-century Persian treatise on public accountancy, known only from a single manuscript in Istanbul (Aya Sofya 2756), is also worth mentioning, for this work (1952) distinguished him for the first time as a successful decipherer, by his breaking the code of the cryptography (sia@q) used by the scribes of that text.
www.iranica.com /articles/v12f3/v12f3032.html   (1574 words)

 The Iranian: News & Views
She guessed that the mummy might belong to the period of Cyrus-I (G-640-590) and his brother Ariaramnes whose gold tablet is discovered by chance find made at Hamadan on which is engraved in cuneiform signs and in the old Persian language.
The mummy seems to be of a princess or have lineage of royal family, was wearing a golden crown, golden plate on her chest on which Old Persian cuneiform script is written.
The coffin is of old wood and with the carving of supreme deity of Zoraostians/Persians called Aura Mazda with two sacred altars.
www.iranian.com /News/2000/October/princess.html   (624 words)

Rebuilding the Tower of Babel: Language, History, and Ideology
Historical Overview - of the Persian Period (538 - 332 B.C.E.)
A Map of the Origins of Semitic Languages
members.tripod.com /~edpa/history/midnear.htm   (572 words)

 "FARSI" or "PERSIAN"? What Is the English Name of Our Language? (Linguistics)
In 1992 following the efforts of a few Persian cultural figures in Australia (especially Dr. Kazem Abhary), a strong announcement was made in European languages by the Persian Language Academy ("Frhangestaan" in Tehran) in strong opposition to the usage of Farsi instead of Persian in the correspondences of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
The Language of the nation of Iran [Persia] in English is called "Persian" [or in other European languages: Persane, Persisch, Persa, Persiska, etc.] and is known worldwide as PERSIAN.
The English name of this language is PERSIAN and FARSI is its internal equivlent.
www.proz.com /post/109159?&print=1   (3125 words)

 French language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For the history of the French language, the most important of these groups are the Franks in northern France, the Alemanni in the German/French border, the Burgundians in the Rhone valley and the Visigoths in the Aquitaine region and Spain.
French is an official language of New Brunswick, the Yukon Territory, the Northwest Territories, and Nunavut.
About 12% of the world's Francophones are Canadian, and French is one of Canada 's two official languages, with English; various provisions of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms deal with the right of Canadians to access services in English and French all across Canada.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/French_language   (3125 words)

The mission of the Academy was to refine and preserve the Persian language and literature.
In the 1970s, two academies were founded in Iran: the Academy of Iran’s Language (1970) and The Academy of Literature and Arts (1974).
The literary movement developed in academic circles throughout 1934 resulted in the establishment of the Academy of Iran, as the pioneering institution of its kind in the country, in 1935.
www.ias.ac.ir /About/history.htm   (3125 words)

 Posthuman Blues: 02/01/2005 - 02/28/2005
The United States, while lambasting the use of fictional weapons of mass destruction in the Persian Gulf, stealthily upgrades its bioweapons arsenal with a genetically altered smallpox virus.
A study of people with language difficulties suggests that mathematical skill evolved independently.
The reality is that the UFO phenomenon is the most complex event in history, and a cursory examination of its surface by a few overworked and ill-informed television producers is not going to succeed in any way whatsoever to come to any truth about it."
posthumanblues.blogspot.com /2005_02_01_posthumanblues_archive.html   (8003 words)

 TBS: Reflections on the Politics of the Global 'Rolling-News' TV Genre
One of the more well-known cases on his list is when John Holliman, one of the three CNN men reporting "live" from Baghdad during the early hours of the Persian Gulf War, asked Atlanta for news from the Pentagon and Saudi Arabia.
In the language of a film theorist, if photography operates in the "that-has-been" mode, television's mode of operation is that of "this-is-going-on" mode, a perpetual "presentness" (Doane, 1990, p.
In this context, talk/speculation and real-time technologies, as two significant characteristics of global rolling-news television, are the main ingredients of instant history.
www.tbsjournal.com /Archives/Spring01/Semati2.html   (2173 words)

 TV/Video Preservation Study: Washington, D.C. Public Hearing, March 1996 - National Film Preservation Board (Library of Congress)
Unlike virtually any other subject one can teach in which ready access to illustrative material and landmark text is a given, the television coded and propelled history of America is maddeningly intangible and un-chronicled.
For television, let us say from 1950 on, scholars are not making use of video materials in their writing, or if they do, they are relying on print summaries, which all-too-often are by persons writing for style sections offering impressions of these programs.
To attempt the same task in the age of television is to incur a research debt that would be unavoidably dependent on research and travel grants that would be prohibitive to graduate students and undergraduates alike.
www.loc.gov /film/hrng96dc.html   (20256 words)

 Bibliography Page 42
Tehran: Iranian Academy of Persian Language and Literature, 2002, 182 p.
Greek, Semitic and Persian cultural influences contributed to a unique culture that could be called neither 'eastern' nor 'western' in its primary orientation.
Abstract: Full title: Outlines of ancient and modern history on a new plan : embracing biographical notices of illustrious persons, and general views of the geography, population, politics, religion, military and naval affairs, arts, literature, manners, customs, and society, of ancient and modern nations.
www.parthia.com /webreport_42.htm   (20256 words)

 software.ca - Farsi Language
Farsi, the most widely spoken Persian Language, a Farsi Dictionary, Farsi English Dictionary, The spoken language in Iran, History of Farsi Language,
The announcement of the Academy of Persian Language and Literature
Farsi, the most widely spoken Persian Language, a Farsi Dictionary,...
software.ca /Farsi-Language/reference/search   (20256 words)

 Category:Persian literature - Art History Online Reference and Guide
Category:Persian literature - Art History Online Reference and Guide
Category:Persian literature - Your Art History Reference Guide!
www.arthistoryclub.com /art_history/Category:Persian_literature   (20256 words)

 Faculty of the Harriman Institute
She presented a paper on Shakespearean motifs in the poetry of Wislawa Szymborska at the 2004 AAASEEL convention, where she also participated in a panel discussion on models of instruction in teaching Polish language and gave a reading of her own poetry.
Polish literature and language, the literature of exile
Nineteenth through twenty-first centure literature and intellectual history, post-World War II and contemporary poetry and culture, interdisciplinary and philosophical approaches to literature, literary theory, theory and practice of translation
www.columbia.edu /cu/sipa/REGIONAL/hi/faculty.html   (2143 words)

 A Brief History of Urdu Poetry
Affected by the dialects of the South, the language became known as Deccani (after Hyderabad Deccan), having adopted the Persian script and replaced Persian in offices as the official language.
Urdu poetry, as it is derived from Persian, Turkish and Arabic, acquired many conventions in its poetry that came from these languages.
Since Ghalib, undoubtedly the greatest poet of Urdu language, expressed himself mainly through his writings of love sonnets, it is imperative that we examine the art of love sonnets, the language they are written in, and the environs that prompted these writings to understand how Ghalib became a master of this genre.
niazi.com /Neurons/a_brief_history_of_urdu_poetry.htm   (2817 words)

 GUYANESE MUSLIMS: History, Traditions Conflict and Change
Urdu, a common language developed in the Indian subcontinent as a result of a cultural and linguistic synthesis, was brought to Guyana by South Asian Muslims from the subcontinent where its history goes further.
Once Urdu was adopted as the medium of literary expression by the writers in these metropolises, its development was rapid, and it soon replaced Persian as the court language and principal language of Muslim India.(n9) However, in the 1930s Urdu suffered reverses with the resurgence of Hindu nationalism in India.
Urdu, distinguished from Hindi by its Persian script and vocabulary, is today the national language of Pakistan and one of the official languages of India.
www.guyana.org /features/guyanese_muslim.html   (8050 words)

 South Asia Sessions
Sayyid Ahmad’s concept of Urdu arises from a linear concept of history and ideological assumptions rooted in Mughal culture and Persian literature.
This paper examines Sayyid Ahmad’s attitude to language and history before the 1857 rebellion and the rise in the 1860s of the Hindi-Urdu controversy.
Fisher examines how Indian scholars, trained in high Persianate culture, educated Britons both in India and in England, even as Britons attempted to control Persian as their language of imperial command.
www.aasianst.org /absts/2005abst/South/s-46.htm   (1019 words)

Persian is the vehicle of a rich and varied culture which, in the course of its long history, has often extended beyond the borders of modern Iran into Anatolia, the Caucasus, Central Asia and India.
The study of Persian language and culture is occupied with modern language, modern literature, as well as with historical and religious issues.
The Persian language is one of the major languages of the Middle East that is known in Iran as Farsi, and is slightly varying forms as Dari in Afghanistan and Tajik in Tajikistan.
www.ili.ir /e.farsicenter.htm   (1019 words)

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