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Topic: Holy Roman Empire


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In the News (Mon 11 Feb 19)

  
  Holy Roman Empire - MSN Encarta
Introduction; Background; The Carolingian Empire (800-912); The Ottonian Empire (936-1024); The Salian Emperors and the Investiture Controversy (1024-1125); The Hohenstaufens and the Peak of the Empire (1137-1254); Decline of the Empire and Ascendancy of the Habsburgs (1273-1806); The End of the Empire; Legacy of the Empire
Holy Roman Empire, political entity of lands in western and central Europe, founded by Charlemagne in ad 800 and dissolved by Emperor Francis II in 1806.
The Holy Roman Empire was an attempt to revive the Western Roman Empire, whose legal and political structure had deteriorated during the 5th and 6th centuries and had been replaced by independent kingdoms ruled by Germanic nobles.
encarta.msn.com /encyclopedia_761558731/Holy_Roman_Empire.html   (2365 words)

  
 the Holy Roman Empire
Although the various princes and lords of the Empire were all his vassals and subjects, they possessed a number of privileges that brought them close to de facto sovereignty; in particular, the emperor could not intervene in their particular affairs as long as they ruled according to the law.
The Empire was an elective monarchy since the end of the Carolingian dynasty in the early 10th century, although the principle was not firmly set in writing until the constitution of 1338 and the Golden Bull of 1356 (see a picture here and the text here).
The procedures for electing a king of the Romans were identical, except that the king-elect swore not to intervene in the affairs of the Empire.
www.heraldica.org /topics/national/hre.htm   (11305 words)

  
  Holy Roman Empire. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
The Holy Roman Empire was a successor state to the empire founded in 800 by Charlemagne (see also Carolingians), who revived the title of Roman emperor in the West.
The defense of the empire against foreign attack was made more difficult by the repeated attempts of the emperors to maintain their authority in Italy against the opposition of the city-states (see commune), the papacy, and the petty princes.
In 1804, Holy Roman Emperor Francis II took the title Francis I, emperor of Austria, and after the establishment (1806) of the Confederation of the Rhine under Napoleon I, Francis renounced his title as Holy Roman Emperor.
www.bartleby.com /65/ho/HolyRoma.html   (1820 words)

  
  Holy Roman Empire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Holy Roman Empire and from the 16th century on also The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation was a political conglomeration of lands in Central Europe in the Middle Ages and the early modern period.
The Holy Roman Empire was an attempt to resurrect the Western Roman Empire in western Europe, which was established in 800 when Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne as Roman Emperor on Christmas Day, though the empire and the imperial office did not become formalized for some decades.
The term Roman Empire was used in 1034 to denote the lands under Conrad II, and Holy Empire in 1157.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Holy_Roman_Empire   (5641 words)

  
 Roman Empire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Roman Empire can also be used as translation of the expression, Imperium Romanum, probably the best-known Latin expression where the word imperium is used in the meaning of a territory; the "Roman Empire" denotes that part of the world under Roman rule.
Roman titles of power were adopted by most of the successor states and later entities with imperial pretensions, including the Frankish kingdom, the Holy Roman Empire, the Bulgarian Empires, the Russian/Kiev dynasties, and the German Empire.
The Western Roman Empire was divided among the eldest son Constantine II and the youngest son Constans.
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Roman_Empire   (9873 words)

  
 Holy Roman Empire
The nations of the Holy Roman Empire are sovereign nations in their own right; the office of Holy Roman Emperor, and the Empire itself, is philosophically the overall government of Catholic Christendom, the secular arm of the Catholic Church.
Roman lawyers, or delators, are not advocates for the plaintiff or defendant, but instead serve to advise them with regard to the law and deliver oratory on their behalf; delators are trained in public speaking, whereas each citizen is largely responsible for his own legal counsel.
The Holy Roman Empire is rumoured to be preparing to invite the German states to rejoin the Empire.
mywebpages.comcast.net /rumtigger2/Nations/roman.htm   (2490 words)

  
 Holy Roman Empire articles on Encyclopedia.com   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Holy Roman Empire HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE [Holy Roman Empire] designation for the political entity that originated at the coronation as emperor (962) of the German king Otto I and endured until the renunciation (1806) of the imperial title by Francis II.
Charles V CHARLES V [Charles V] 1500-1558, Holy Roman emperor (1519-58) and, as Charles I, king of Spain (1516-56); son of Philip I and Joanna of Castile, grandson of Ferdinand II of Aragón, Isabella of Castile, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, and Mary of Burgundy.
Maximilian I MAXIMILIAN I [Maximilian I] 1459-1519, Holy Roman emperor and German king (1493-1519), son and successor of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III.
www.encyclopedia.com /articles/05990.html   (492 words)

  
 End of Europe's Middle Ages - Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire (HRE) was faced with many difficulties during the later Middle Ages.
A political empire imposed across geographic and ethnic boundaries, at the start of the fourteenth century, the Holy Roman Empire was comprised of present-day Germany and extended across Prussia, Hungary, Bohemia, Switzerland, and parts of southern and northern Italy.
Although he was unable to protect his empire's frontiers from Turkish invaders or to deal with religious dissension from the Hussites within his kingdom, Sigismund was instrumental in resolving the Great Schism in 1414 at the Council of Constance.
www.ucalgary.ca /applied_history/tutor/endmiddle/holy.html   (901 words)

  
 Marche Voyager - History of the Marche
Under the first Roman Emperor, Augustus, the Marche was divided - the northern stretches formed part of the Roman Umbria, while the south was known as Picenum.
Although at the time it was little more than an honorary title, the Holy Roman Empire thus founded was to last on and off for a thousand years and to become the focus of continual strife between the rival claims of successive popes and emperors.
The collapse of the regime with the fall of Napoleon was as rapid as its arrival.
www.le-marche.com /Marche/html/history.htm   (1681 words)

  
 Holy Roman Empire   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The Holy Roman Empire (German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a political conglomeration of lands in western and central Europe in the Middle Ages.
The precise term Holy Roman Empire dates from 1254; the full expression Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation (German Heiliges Römisches Reich deutscher Nation) appears in 1512, after several variations in the late 15th century.
Conrad III came to the throne in 1138, being the first of the Staufen dynasty, which was about to restore the glory of the Empire even under the new conditions of the 1122 Concordat of Worms.
usapedia.com /h/holy-roman-empire.html   (4089 words)

  
 Holy Roman Empire - Cunnan
He did, however, have to reside within the Empire, or hold lands there, and it is for this reason that various noble houses retained appenages within the Empire, when they had no real connection with it, in order to keep their potential candidacy alive.
The title King of the Romans identified an elected successor during the Emperor's lifetime, and this practice predominated in the Empire, with the exception of three hundred years between the mid 13th and 16th centuries (although to that was one exception, Wenceslas (not the saint), elected in 1376).
The Empire formally ended in the Napoleonic Era, with the decision, in 1804, of Francis II to take the title Francis I, emperor of Austria, and two years later to renounce the Holy Roman title.
cunnan.sca.org.au /wiki/Holy_Roman_Empire   (719 words)

  
 Royalty.nu - The History of the Holy Roman Empire and Its Emperors
An Annotated Bibliography of the Holy Roman Empire by Jonathan W. Zophy.
Heinrich the Fowler: Father of the Ottonian Empire by Mirella Patzer.
The Decline of the Holy Roman Empire and the Rise of Prussia
www.royalty.nu /Europe/HolyRomanEmpire.html   (1313 words)

  
 Holy Roman Empire
From 1184 to 1186 the Hohenstaufen empire under Barbarossa reached its peak in the Reichsfest (imperial celebrations) held at Mainz and the marriage of his son Henry in Milan to the Norman princess Constance of Sicily.
The causes were the conflicts between Catholics and Protestants, the efforts by the various states within the Empire to increase their power and the Emperor's attempt to achieve the religious and political unity of the Empire.
The Holy Roman Empire was formally dissolved on 6 August 1806 when the last Holy Roman Emperor Francis II (from 1804, Emperor Francis I of Austria) resigned.
www.germany-travels.com /holy_roman_empire.html   (2184 words)

  
 Holy Roman Empire information - Search.com
The Holy Roman Empire and from the 16th century on also The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation was a political conglomeration of lands in Central Europe in the Middle Ages and the early modern period.
The Holy Roman Empire was an attempt to resurrect the Western Roman Empire in western Europe, which was established in 800 when Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne as Roman Emperor on Christmas Day, though the empire and the imperial office did not become formalized for some decades.
The term Roman Empire was used in 1034 to denote the lands under Conrad II, and Holy Empire in 1157.
www.search.com /reference/Holy_Roman_Empire   (5523 words)

  
 [No title]
Coronation of Emperor Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire, 1521, Sorry this item is sold.
Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III: Stability of the Reign, 1640, Sorry this item is sold.
Coronation of Emperor Joseph I of the Holy Roman Empire, 1690
www.christophereimer.co.uk /archive.html   (4012 words)

  
 Holy Roman Empire 962-1806 (Germany)   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
That means, in the late middle ages it embraced all territory between the Rhone, Saone and Maas (Meuse) in the west to the Oder valley in the East, and from Holstein in the North to Tuscany in the south.
After 1400, the eagle became two-headed; possibly this reflected the practice of the defunct Byzantine Empire, their main competitor to the claim to being the Roman Empire.
Two additional flags associated with the Empire worth mentioning are the Sankt Georg Fahne —a white St. George's cross on a red field frequently with a Schwenkel— (Smith 1975, p.115, labels this the Imperial War Flag) and the Reichsturmfahne.
www.crwflags.com /fotw/flags/de_roman.html   (1278 words)

  
 Holy Roman Empire
The (second) medieval revival of the Western Roman Empire was referred to as The Holy Roman Empire which lasted from 962 AD to 1806.
Francis II ruled thereafter as Francis I of the Austrian Empire (established in 1804).
The on-going struggle between these families and the intervention of the papacy drastically weakened the empire, culminating in the "Age of the Princes" in Germany and the "Great Interregnum" in the Holy Roman Empire.
www.arcaini.com /ITALY/ItalyHistory/HolyRomanEmpire.htm   (387 words)

  
 Bambooweb: Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire (German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a political conglomeration of lands in western and central Europe in the Middle Ages.
These rights were now explicitly rooted in Roman Law, a far-reaching constitutional act; north of the Alps, the system was also now connected to feudal law, a change most visible in the withdrawal of the feuds of Henry the Lion in 1180 which lead to his public banning.
The Empire was formally dissolved on August 6, 1806 when the last Holy Roman Emperor Francis II (from 1804, Emperor Francis I of Austria) resigned.
www.bambooweb.com /articles/H/o/Holy_Roman_Empire.html   (4355 words)

  
 THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The Holy Roman Empire, ended by a decision of the last Emperor, Francis II, on 6 August 1806, had already long ceased to be a major political power, even though the prestige of the Imperial title conferred immense status and influence.
The Holy Roman, or German Empire as it is sometimes described (despite northern Italy being also considered part of the Imperial domain) could nonetheless claim to be the territorial successor of the Western Roman Empire, despite its later foundation.
The Empire of the Germans was founded by Charles the Great (Charlemagne), whose coronation on Christmas Day 800 gave Papal approval to the unification under his rule of France, most of modern Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg, part of modern Switzerland and northern Italy.
www.chivalricorders.org /nobility/holyroman   (2349 words)

  
 Holy Roman Empire
Since he was crowned emperor in Rome by the pope, the name Holy Roman Empire was applied to the realms which he ruled.
Critics have pointed out that this kingdom certainly was not holy, was not Roman (it was essentially a German kingdom), and was not an empire (it was a collection of tribal duchies barely held together by the king and, now, emperor).
While the Holy Roman Empire survived until 1806 when the self-made Emperor Napoleon I of France finally abolishes it, the Empire became a weak confederation of ultimately more than 300 independent little states.
faculty.ucc.edu /egh-damerow/holy_roman_empire.htm   (984 words)

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