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Topic: Holy Roman Empire elector

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  Holy Roman Empire - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The term Roman Empire was used in 1034 to denote the lands under Conrad II, and Holy Empire in 1157.
The "constitution" of the Empire was still largely unsettled at the beginning of the 15th century.
The Empire was formally dissolved on August 6, 1806 when the last Holy Roman Emperor Francis II (from 1804, Emperor Francis I of Austria) abdicated, following a military defeat by the French Army under Napoleon (see Treaty of Lunéville).
en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Holy_Roman_Empire   (4913 words)

 Holy Roman Empire. The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05
The Holy Roman Empire was a successor state to the empire founded in 800 by Charlemagne (see also Carolingians), who revived the title of Roman emperor in the West.
While the elector of Bavaria was chosen (1742) emperor as Charles VII, Maria Theresa, daughter of Charles VI, defended her Hapsburg inheritance against the claims of Bavaria, Prussia, and Saxony.
In 1804, Holy Roman Emperor Francis II took the title Francis I, emperor of Austria, and after the establishment (1806) of the Confederation of the Rhine under Napoleon I, Francis renounced his title as Holy Roman Emperor.
www.bartleby.com /65/ho/HolyRoma.html   (1820 words)

 Holy Roman Empire   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The Holy Roman Empire (German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a political conglomeration of lands in western and central Europe in the Middle Ages.
These rights were now explicitly rooted in Roman Law, a far-reaching constitutional act; north of the Alps, the system was also now connected to feudal law, a change most visible in the withdrawal of the feuds of Henry the Lion in 1180 which lead to his public banning.
The Empire was formally dissolved on August 6, 1806 when the last Holy Roman Emperor Francis II (from 1804, Emperor Francis I of Austria) resigned.
www.1-free-software.com /en/wikipedia/h/ho/holy_roman_empire.html   (4349 words)

 Holy Roman Empire elector   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
In the Holy Roman Empire, the electors or electoral princes (the German term is "Kurfürst", the plural: "Kurfürsten") had the function of electing the king of Germany preparatory to his accession as the next emperor, though until the 12th century they often merely formalized what was in fact a dynastic succession.
The Margrave of Brandenburg, Archchamberlain of the Empire
In 1623, the Elector Palatine Frederick V was banned for his involvement with the revolt of Bohemia, and his electorate was given to the Duke of Bavaria (Maximilian I), who became known as the Elector of Bavaria.
usapedia.com /h/holy-roman-empire-elector.html   (983 words)

 Holy Roman Empire -> History on Encyclopedia.com 2002   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The defense of the empire against foreign attack was made more difficult by the repeated attempts of the emperors to maintain their authority in Italy against the opposition of the city-states (see commune), the papacy, and the petty princes.
During the reign of Maximilian I (1493-1519) the conflict between the dynastic policy of the Hapsburg emperors and the interests of the German empire (then known as the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation) became pronounced.
Renaissance Italy, 1350-1600 -- Kingdom of France, Duchy of Savoy, Holy Roman Empire, Duchy of Milan, Marquisate of Saluzzo, Republic of Genoa, Genoa, Milan, Republic of Lucca, Pisa, Florence, Republi
www.encyclopedia.com /html/section/holyroma_history.asp   (1432 words)

 Holy Roman Empire
Currently, the Electors hold the most influential positions in the Holy Roman Empire, despite the fact that Franz Josef is a young Emperor who has much time left in his reign, for it is through them that the disparate nation states of the Empire are bonded together, albeit loosely.
The nations of the Holy Roman Empire are sovereign nations in their own right; the office of Holy Roman Emperor, and the Empire itself, is philosophically the overall government of Catholic Christendom, the secular arm of the Catholic Church.
Roman lawyers, or delators, are not advocates for the plaintiff or defendant, but instead serve to advise them with regard to the law and deliver oratory on their behalf; delators are trained in public speaking, whereas each citizen is largely responsible for his own legal counsel.
mywebpages.comcast.net /rumtigger2/Nations/roman.htm   (2490 words)

 roman empire
The Roman Empire controlled all of the Hellenized states that bordered the Mediterranean sea, as well as the Celtic regions of Northern Europe.
Successor states in the west (the Frankish kingdom and the Holy Roman Empire) and the east (the Russian czars) used titles adopted from Roman practices well into the modern period.
As Emperor, Augustus organized the affairs of his empire with aplomb; it is largely due to his genius that the Roman Empire lasted for as long as it did.
www.fact-library.com /roman_empire.html   (2137 words)

 Brandenburg - FreeEncyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Berlin and the Holy Roman Empire Elector was the engine that drove the rise of that state.
In 1134, in the wake of a German crusade against the Wends, the German magnate Albert the Bear was granted the Northern March by the Holy Roman Emperor Lothar II.
As the lands that had been acquired in Prussia were outside the formal boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire, Frederick assumed (as Frederick I[?]) the title of "King in Prussia" (1701), basing this promotion from margrave on his title to what were, in actuality, vast but less agriculturally valuable stretches of sandy ground.
openproxy.ath.cx /br/Brandenburg.html   (895 words)

 THE IRANIAN: What is Electoral College?, Abtin Assadi
The Electoral College system was devised by the founders of the United States as part of their plan to share power between the States and the national government.
An elector was one of a number of princes of the various German states within the Holy Roman Empire who had a right to participate in the election of the German king, who generally was crowned as emperor (how ironic).
Electors are often selected to recognize their service and dedication to their political party.
www.iranian.com /Opinion/2004/September/Elections   (743 words)

 THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The Holy Roman Empire, ended by a decision of the last Emperor, Francis II, on 6 August 1806, had already long ceased to be a major political power, even though the prestige of the Imperial title conferred immense status and influence.
The Holy Roman, or German Empire as it is sometimes described (despite northern Italy being also considered part of the Imperial domain) could nonetheless claim to be the territorial successor of the Western Roman Empire, despite its later foundation.
The Empire of the Germans was founded by Charles the Great (Charlemagne), whose coronation on Christmas Day 800 gave Papal approval to the unification under his rule of France, most of modern Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg, part of modern Switzerland and northern Italy.
www.chivalricorders.org /nobility/holyroman   (2298 words)

 Holy Roman Empire   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The glory of the Empire almost collapsed in the Investiture Controversy, in which Pope Gregory VII declared a ban on King Henry IV (king 1056, emperor 1084-1106).
Conrad III came to the throne in 1138, being the first of the Staufen dynasty, which was about to restore the glory of the Empire even under the new conditions of the 1122 Concordat of Worms.
Also, under Barbarossa, the idea of the "Romanness" of the Empire culminated again, which seemed to be a attempt to justify the emperor's power independently of the (now strenghened) pope.
usapedia.com /h/holy-roman-empire.html   (4089 words)

 THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
The Holy Roman Empire was the medieval state that embraced most of central Europe and Italy under the rule of the German kings from 962 to 1806.
The emperors were unable to restrain the German nobles or to resist French encroachments on the western frontiers of the empire, and the Slavic rulers in the east rejected all imperial overlordship.
The Holy Roman, or German Empire as it should better be described, could justly claim to be the successor of the Western Roman Empire despite its later foundation.
www.sdnl.nl /shimura/holyroman.html   (3501 words)

 Holy Roman Empire   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
It was considered to have started with Alexander the Great, having been turned over to the Romans, then to the Franks, and finally to the Holy Roman Empire (and this explains the Roman component of the Empire's name).
It was Frederick I "Barbarossa" (king 1152, emperor 1155-1190) who first called the Empire "holy", with which he intended to address mainly law and legislation.
The Empire was formally dissolved in 1806 when the last Holy Roman Emperor II of the Holy Roman Empire">Francis II (from 1804, Emperor Francis I of Austria) resigned.
www.city-search.org /ho/holy-roman-empire.html   (4183 words)

 Timeline Holy Roman Empire
1036-1056 Henry III ruled the Holy Roman Empire, which extended from Hamburg and Bremen in the north to the instep of Italy to the south, Burgundy in the west, and Hungary and Poland to the east.
The Catholic heir to the Hapsburg dynasty, Charles V, was elected Holy Roman Emperor, combining the crowns of Spain, Burgundy (with the Netherlands), Austria and Germany.
1640 Jun 9, Leopold I, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (1658-1705), was born.
www.timelines.ws /countries/HOLY_ROMAN_EMP.HTML   (2895 words)

 Constitution of the Holy Roman Empire   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
"Margrave of Brandenburg, the Holy Roman Empire Prince-Elector,..",
"Duke of Saxony, the Holy Roman Empire Prince-Elector,..."
"the Holy Roman Empire Prince of Auersperg" or "the Holy Roman Empire Prince of Colloredo".
www.geocities.com /vrozn/Constit.html   (7918 words)

This position was one of the four original secular electors of the Holy Roman Empire.
However, the arch-Catholic elector for himself in constant conflict with the strong Protestant faction of Heidelberg.
The major project of this project was the construction and decoration of the electoral palace.
www.mannheimeditions.com /html/mannheim.html   (547 words)

 The Holy Roman Empire
This “History of the Holy Roman Empire” is set out chronologically, and most of it is a narrative of the reigns of the emperors, but the effect is almost of a cycle of prose poems.
The empire was dissolved, under pressure from Napoleon, by the Emperor Francis I in 1806.
The empire's center of gravity was generally in Germany, or Austria, but sometimes the emperors identified more with their possessions in Burgundy or the Netherlands, or in Bohemia.
pages.prodigy.net /aesir/thre.htm   (1554 words)

 Elector Information - TextSheet.com
In the Holy Roman Empire, the collegiate of Electors (Kurfürsten) consisted of those lay or clerical princes who had the right to vote in the election of the Emperor; see Holy Roman Empire elector.
Specifically in the United States, electors are delegates who have the right to vote in the U.S. Electoral College for the President of the United States.
Generally, any voter can be called an elector; collectively such electors may comprise an electorate.
www.medbuster.com /encyclopedia/e/el/elector.html   (113 words)

 Merriam-Webster Online
It is on this date—that is, on the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December—that electors of the fifty states (plus the District of Columbia) meet to cast their votes for President and Vice-President.
We have nothing to say about how the members of the electoral college cast their votes, but we do have something to say about how these appointed folks came to be termed electors.
Elector means "one who chooses" in Latin; the early electors were the German princes entitled to participate in the choosing of their sovereign head, the Holy Roman Emperor.
www.m-w.com /cgi-bin/wftwarch.pl?121304   (231 words)

 Holy Roman Empire Association
The Empire of the Germans was founded by Charles the Great (Charlemagne), whose coronation on Christmas Day 800 gave Papal approval to the unification of France, most of modern Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg, and northern Italy under his rule.
The only modern survivors of the Empire are the ecclesiastical Princes - the German Archbishops and Bishops - and the Sovereign Princes of Liechtenstein.
The Empire included not only the territories of the nine Electors, but also more than three hundred small lay and ecclesiastical states whose numbers fluctuated when male lines died out and families merged or divided.
www.biblebelievers.org.au /hrea.htm   (3501 words)

 Pomerania History
Sweden received Western Pomerania by the Peace of Westphalia (1648); part of it was returned to Brandenburg-Prussia in 1720, and the remainder (Stralsund and Rügen) was recovered by Prussia in 1815.
Pomerania continued as a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire until the death (1637) of Bogislav XIV, when the region was granted to the elector of Brandenburg.
In the rest of Swedish Pomerania, the kings of Sweden remained princes of the Holy Roman Empire until the dissolution of the empire in 1806.
www.richware.net /rohde/pomerania_history.htm   (1286 words)

 WHKMLA : List of Wars of the Holy Roman Empire
Introductory Notes : The Holy Roman Empire, in the 17th and 18th centuries, much as the UN today, had no armed forces of her own, but depended on states within the Empire to contribute military forces.
The Holy Roman Empire did, however, designate certain fortresses as Imperial; in the 18th century they were usually garrisoned by Austrian or Prussian troops.
In 1690 the unity of the princes of the Empire, created by the French threat, permitted Emperor Leopold I. to have his son and successor Joseph I. elected Emperor.
www.zum.de /whkmla/military/germany/milxhrempire.html   (1499 words)

 The Holy Roman Empire and the Habsburgs, 1400-1600 | Special Topics Page | Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan ...   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
From the time of Otto's coronation until the official dissolution of the empire in 1806, the imperial title was held almost exclusively by German monarchs and, for nearly four centuries, by members of a single family.
A body of princes, called electors, selected by majority vote both the German king and emperor; the crown, however, was only officially conferred by the pope, who occasionally claimed ultimate authority in the election.
Over time, tensions mounted between the emperors and electors who, as one of the three representative groups in the imperial diet (or parliamentary body), kept the power of the monarch in check.
www.metmuseum.org /toah/hd/habs/hd_habs.htm   (891 words)

 The Titles of the European Rulers
Elector Joachim II obtained the joint investiture (Mitbelehnung) of the Duchy of Prussia from Sigismundus II Augustus, King of Poland, and was assured of the succession of the Electoral branch of the House of Brandenburg if the Prussian branch became extinct (1569).
The peace of Westphalia assigned Rügen to the Kings of Sweden and the house of Brandenburg ceased to be an eventual heir to Rügen (1648).
3) Prussia annexed the Kingdom of Hanover, the Electorate of Hesse-Kassel, the
www.geocities.com /eurprin/brandenburg.html   (6640 words)

 Holy Roman Empire - Open Encyclopedia   (Site not responding. Last check: 2007-11-07)
Contemporaries did not quite know how to describe this figure either.
The Reich can thus best be described as a crossbreed between a state and a confederation on religious grounds – except for the latter, not being unlike the European Union of today.
919–936), a Saxon whose German name was Heinrich, achieved the acceptance of a separate Eastern Empire by the West Frankish (still ruled by the Carolingians) in 921, calling himself rex Francorum orientalum (king of the East Franks).
open-encyclopedia.com /Holy_Roman_Empire   (4407 words)

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